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c     yP(^  cT.  :s<r 


Reproduced  from  the  painting  by  James  Sharpies. 



In  such  a  work  as  the  one  to  whicli  the  reader  is  introduced  through 
these  pages,  one  traverses  over  many  countries  and  down  the  centuries  to 
the  present  time,  following  along  the  way  marked  by  woman's  course,  her 
paths  of  thought  and  activities,  her  genius,  skill  and  achievements,  modi- 
tied  or  enlarged  and  increased  by  conditions,  circumstances  and  environ- 
ments, such  as  birth,  inheritance,  education  and  opportunities  incident  to 
the  period  of  time  in  which  she  lived,  and  other  possibilities  or  hindrances  ; 
but  always  the  ''eternal  womanly '  *  is  apparent,  making  the  distinct  difference 
in  sex  as  given  by  the  divine  Creator  when  He  made  them  male  and  female, 
and  in  thfa  the  beauty  and  harmony  of  life  lias  its  highest  culmination  and 
brings  to  pass  the  full  fruition  of  the  hopes  and  aspirations  of  mankind. 

This  book  shows  what  woman's  power  for  good  has  been  in  the  past  and 
in  the  present,  and,  looking  forward  and  judging  from  the  spirit  of  the  times 
and  the  civilization  and  enlightenment  of  future  periods  compared  to  the 
past  and  even  to  our  own  day  and  time,  the  women  of  the  future  will  he  so 
far  advanced  in  all  things  beautiful  and  glorious  that  the  past  will  sink  into 
insignificance  by  contrast.  And  yet,  however  grand  the  structure  woman 
may  build  for  herself  hereafter,  she  must  remember,  with  some  degree  of 
reverence,  that  she  has  only  reached  a  hii^her  pinnacle  because  her  prede- 
cessors laid  so  deep,  so  strong  and  so  endurable  a  foundation  for  her  to 
climb  upward  upon  to  a  higher  attainment  of  excellence. 

The  devotion  and  consecration  of  the  lives  of  such  women,  as  some 
whose  biogniphies  are  herein  written  (and  many  more  whose  record  is  as 
noble  and  worthy  to  be  handed  down  to  j)osterity),  provtr  they  have  been 
in-^trumental  in  paving  the  wav  through  difficulties  and  overcoming  obstacles 
that  sfeme<l  ff>rmidable  ;  and  they  are  therefore  worthy  the  honor  of  future 
generations  h(»wever  great  may  Ixr  the  success  of  their  achievements. 

The  value  of  the  lessons  to  Ix*  learned  from  reading  such  a  hook  as  the 
publishers  of  "  Woman  "  offer  to  thtr  |)ubli<:  cannot  he  estimated.  To  know 
what  has  been  done  by  women,  or  to  judge  of  their  inner  life  by  outward 


acts  (even  only  by  the  few  representatives  of  their  time),  combines  a  goodly 
part  of  the  world's  progress,  for  woman  is  essentially  a  character  builder. 

As  a  whole,  the  work  is  unsurpassed  in  its  general  character  by  any 
of  its  kind  known  to  the  writer ;  as  it  deals  with  no  one  question,  no  one 
country,  but  with  woman  in  a  universal  sense  as  a  part  of  the  world's  history 
in  the  great  drama  of  life. 

Every  library,  public  or  private,  will  be  more  complete  by  adding  to  its 
list  a  copy  of  this  valuable  work,  and  every  home  in  city,  town  or  village 
would  be  enriched  by  its  possession  and  perusal. 

The  typographical  work  and  illustrations  commend  it  at  a  glance,  and 
the  first  impression  one  has  in  looking  at  the  book  is  favorable,  because  of 
the  excellence  of  material  used  and  durability  of  its  workmanship  generally; 
aside  from  the  subject  and  general  tone  of  its  contents. 

r^^^i^ii^  .^^^^ife^^ife-:^  j 


4  I 

I  t  I      Her 

^  s^fe  -  I           Position, 

\  Designed  !           Influence, 

^  and  I                                                      ' 

^  Arranged  i      And 

%  vviuiam'c.  King.  !          Achievement 

^  z     —                      Throughout  the 

^  -^^^  Civilized  World. 

^    «  Her  Biography  m  Her  History.  # 

,;  FROM    THK 

.  I                              PRKPAREI)    BY 

1  Garden  of  Eden              ^       r  n      o  1          1 

t  Careiuiiy   oelected 

-!  TO     THE                                                                                       TT7^* 

;  Writers. 

<  I'wentieth    Century.    ,                     .0^. 

-f>^v         ILLUSTRATED. 

J  Springfield,    Mass. 

^  The    King-Richardson   Co. 

<  San  Jose.        Chicago.        Indianapolis. 

-^  IQ02. 

JUL    1  1914 






Henry  AVoldmar  Ruoff,  D.C.L.  Marcus  Benjamin,  Ph.D. 

A  utkar  of  » *  Home  and  State ^  *  *  *  *  Ongin  Superintendent  of  U,  S.  National  Museum . 

of  the  Family  ^^^  Etc.  Co-editor  of  the  Universal  Cyclopedia. 

Thomas  Wentworth  Higginson,  LL.D. 

Historian  J  Essayist,  Lecturer. 

May  Wright  Sewall,  Rev.  James  W.  Cole, 

Author^  Educator y  Lecturer.  Author  of  * '  Our  Noblest  Birthright, ' '  ^^ Dignity 

President  of  the  Women  *s  international  Council.  of  Labor, '  *  Etc. 

W.  H.  P.  Faunce,  D.D.,  LL.D. 

President  of  Brown   University . 

Anna  A.  Gordon,  Rev.  Willard  E.  Waterbury, 

I'lcePres.  Woman  s  Christian  Temperance  Author  of  "■  Religion  in  the 

Union.  Home,'"  Etc. 

David  Starr  Jordan,  LL.D. 

President  Lcland  Stanford  fr.    University. 

Edward  W.  Bok,  Anna  Le  Porte  Diggs, 

Author  and  four  ttalist.  fournalist;  Author  of  ^^  Liberalism  in  the 

Editor  Ladies'   Home  fournal.  West,'"  Etc. 

Helen^i  Modjeska, 

Shakesperian  Actress  and  Scholar. 

William  C.  King,  Bishop  John  H.  Vincent,  LL.D. 

Pretidtnl  of  The  King- Richardson  Company.  Author,  Preacher,  Educator. 


i     )K     ¥ 

IV  [O  one  fact  in  the  progress  of  civilization  has  been  more 
J  prominent  than  the  advancement  of   woman.     This  is 

especially  true  since  the  discovery  of  the  New  World ; 
but  at  no  period  of  the  world's  history,  when  great  movements 
were  taking  place,  was  it  inconspicuous.  The  level  of  civilized 
life  has  rarely  been  above  the  condition  of  woman  ;  the  one  iS, 
in  a  sense,  the  measure  of  the  other. 

If  to-day  we  boast  of  a  higher  civilization  than  the  past 
vouchsafed  to  our  ancestors,  it  is  because  the  potent  influences 
of  womanly  life  and  grace  have  been  extended  to  almost  every 
phase  of  modern  activity,  refining  it,  modulating  it,  and  uplift- 
ing it.  Not  only  the  home,  but  literature,  art,  and  the  multi- 
fold enterprises  of  the  workaday  world  have  felt  the  impress 
of  this  higher  personality,  and  have  been  ennobled  and  bet- 
tered by  it. 

Such  being  true,  can  any  story  exceed  in  interest  and  inspi- 
ration this  drama  of  woman's  development, —  a  drama  whose 
prologue  is  set  in  the  midst  of  beautiful  legends,  whose  charac- 
ters embrace  the  most  renowned  female  actors  in  history  — 
queens  and  peasants,  the  bond  and  the  free  —  and  whose 
epilogue  lies  in  the  far  distant  future,  approachable  by  prophecy 
only  ?  Woman  has  been  the  theme  of  poets,  the  ideal  of  artists 
and  sculptors,  the  regent  of  the  home,  a  creator  and  patroness 



of  literature,  a  powerful  leader  of  men,  and  the  record  of  her 
achievements  deserves  to  be  perpetuated  as  an  important  part 
of  the  heritage  of  the  race. 

Under, such  convictions  the  following  pages  have  resulted 
from  long  maturing  plans.  It  has  been  designed  to  give  a 
complete  and  succinct  narrative  of  the  development  of  woman 
from  the  earliest,  almost  prehistoric,  times  down  to  the  begin- 
ning of  the  twentieth  century,  with  so  much  of  its  detail  as 
may  be  properly  included  in  a  work  of  this  scope.  A  very 
important  part  of  the  plan  is  the  selection  of  a  large  number 
of  biographies  of  the  celebrated  women  of  the  various  periods 
to  both  vividly  picture  the  social  conditions  of  the  times  and 
to  afford  illustrations  of  the  power  for  good  or  evil  of  these 
extraordinary  personages. 

To  aid  in  the  consummation  of  this  plan,  specially  equipped 
writers  have  been  enlisted  and  assigned  to  various  tasks  in 
connection  with  the  work. 

This  joint  authorship  is  in  itself,  we  hope,  a  feature  of 
strength  and  gives  a  variety  of  treatment  that  could  not  well 
be  gained  in  any  other  way. 

The  illustrations  have  been  drawn  from  the  best  sources, 
and  the  pictures  of  the  most  eminent  artists  are  thus  made  to 
supplement  and  embellish  the  work  of  the  biographer  and 
the  historian. 





From  Bden  to  Christ 




To  Fall  of  the  Roman  Empire 




From  the  Fall  of  Rome  to  the  Crusades 




To  Discovery  of  America 

( I  lcx>  to   1500) 



THE     DAWN    OF    WOMAN'S     POWER 

Period  of  Intellectual  Awakening 

( 1500  to  1800) 



A  Century  of  Unparalleled  Progress. 

(1800  to  1900) 

'   .|.       - 




-»— m— ^- 

Prepared  by  REV.  JAMES  W.  COLE. 


Eve,  Ancestress  of  the  Human  Race, 

Sarah,  the  Princess, 

Hagar.  Mother  of  Ishniael, 

Rebekah,  Mother  of  Jacob  and  Esau, 

Miriam,  the  Prophetess, 

Deborah,  Deliverer  of  Israel  at  Mt.  Tabor, 

Rachel,  the  Beloved 

The  Witch  of  Endor,       .... 

Nofritari,  Wife  of  Ahmosis  Pharaoh, 

Hatasu,  Egyptian  Queen  and  Explorer, 

Out^n  Tii.  Mother  of  Amenothes  IV., 

Thermuthis,  Foster  Mother  of  Moses, 

Helen  of  Troy,        .... 

Semiramis,  (^)u(en  of  Assyria, 

Jephthahs  Daughter, 

Delilah,  Betrayer  of  Samson, 








Ruth,  the  Gleaner, 

Hannah,  Mother  of  Samuel  the  Prophet, 
Queen  of  Sheba,     .... 
Abigail,  the  Beautiful  Peacemaker, 
Jezebel,  the  Tyrannical  Queen, 
Princess  Dido,  Founder  of  Carthage, 
Judith,  Slayer  of  Holofernes, 
Sappho,  Greatest  Greek  Poetess,     . 
Queen  Esther,  the  '*  Lily  of  Shushan,'* 
Lucretia,  Victim  of  the  Tarquins, 
Aspasia,  Athenian  Courtesan, 
Xantippe,  Wife  of  Socrates,    . 
Artemisia,  Queen  of  Caria, 
Cornelia,  Mother  of  the  Gracchi, 
Octavia,  Wife  of  Marc  Antony, 
Mariamne,  W^ife  of  Herod, 
Cleopatra,  Egyptian  Queen,    . 


The  Bible —  First  Woman  —  Primeval  Civilization  —  The  Ancient  World  —  Aque- 
ous Belt —  The  Deluge  —  Euphrates  Valley  —  Story  of  the  Tablets — Cities 
and  pbuses  —  Position  of  the  Wife  —  Children  —  Slaves —  The  Priesthood  — 
The  Temple —  Planetary  Worship  —  Egypt —  Husband  and  Wife  —  Palestine 
—  Moloch  —  Priests  of  Jezebel  —  Europe —  India  and  China  —  The  Suttee  — 
Caste  in  India  —  Transmigration — China — Teachings  of  Confucius — Re- 












Prepared  by  REV.  WILLARD  E.  WATERBURY. 



Elizabeth,  Mother  of  John  the  Baptist, 105 

Mary,  Mother  of  Christ, 106 

Mary  Magdalene,    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  /         .        108 

Herodias  and  Salome,     ........        109 

Agrippina,  Mother  of  Nero,    .  .  .  .         .  .  .         .110 

Martha  and  Mary,  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .113 

D<  'rcas,  Oiieen  of  the  Needle,  .  .  .  .  .  .  .        1 14 

L<»is  and  Eunice,     ..........        115 

Lydia.  Christian  Convert,  .  .         .         .  .  .116 

Kf>>nina,  Heroine  of  Conjugal  Affection,  .  .  .  .         .117 

Priscilla.  Missionary  Tent-maker,     .  .  .  .  .  .  118 

Phcebe.  Deaconess  of  Cenchrea,  .  .  .  .  .  .119 

B'viidicea,  British  Queen,  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .120 

Bcrnice,  Daughter  of  Herod  Agrippa,  .         .  .         .         .123 

Blandin.i.  Slave  (jirl,       .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .124 

IVrjKt\ia  and  Kelicitas,   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .125 

Julia  Mainmaa,  Mother  of  Severus,  .  .  .  .  .  .126 

H»'l«n.i.  Mother  of  Constantine  the  Great,         .  .  .  .  .        127 

Zenohia.  r)ueen  of  Palmyra,    ....  ...        128 

Alines  and  .Anastasia,  Martyrs,  .  .  .  .  .129 

N'»na,  M«»thtT  of  (iregory,       ........        130 

M*»nica,  Mother  of  Augustine,  .......        133 

I'aula.  Friend  of  Kducation,     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .134 

Olympian,  Christian  Philanthropist,  .  .  .  .  .135 

Hvf.-itia.  Philosopher  of  Alexandria,         ......        136 

pill*  heria  and  Fudocia,  ....  ...        137 

r,f'nf\ieve,  Patrf»n  Saint  of  Paris,    .  .  .  .139 

Fabiola,  Founder  of  Roman  Hospital,  .  .  .  .  .140 


Koman  Empire  —  Emperors  —  Claudius—  Ser*)  —  Causes  of  1  )fcay  —  Teutonic  ][\- 
\  asion'<  — Social  Conditions  —  Infanticide  -  -  Public  Ciames  —  Christian  Legis- 
lation —  Human  Equality 14;?   1 54 





A.  D.  500  TO  1 100. 

Prepared  by  HENRY  WOLDMAR  RUOFF. 



Brunehaut,  Queen  of  the  Franks,  . 
Amalasontha,  Victim  of  Intrigue,   . 
Radegonde,  Courageous  and  Pious  Queen, 
Queen  Bertha,  Founder  of  Church  in  Canterbury, 
Chrodielde,  Nun,   ...... 

Theodora,  Wife  of  Justinian,  .... 

Fredegonda,  Rival  of  Brunehaut,  . 
Ayeshah,  Second  Wife  of  Mahomet, 
Fatima,  Daughter  of  Mahomet,     ^. 
Theodelinda,  Zealous  Christian, 
Ermengarde,  Queen  of  Charlemagne, 
Irene,  Empress  of  Constantinople, 
Abassa,  Sister  of  Haroun  al  Raschid, 
Judith,  Queen  of  Louis  I.,     . 
Angelberga,  Queen  of  Louis  II.  of  Italy, 
Ethelfleda,  Wife  of  Etheldred, 
Gerberge,  Wife  of  Louis  IV.  of  France, 








Social  and  Political   Changes  —  Feudal  System  —  Feudal  Institutions  —  Feudal 
Castle  —  Castle  Life —  Children  —  Advance  of  Woman  —  Rise  of  Chivalry 

—  Morals  and  Amusements  —  Elevation  of  the  Wife — I^gal  Restraints  — 
Position  of  the  Church  —  Chu/ch  and  Everyday  Life  —  Conventual  System 

—  Influence  of  Monasticism  —  Divorce 181-190 




A.  D.  iioo  TO  1500. 
-•H-X-h-* — 

Prepared  by  HENRY  WOLDMAR  RUOFF. 


Anna  Comnena,  Greek  Scholar, 
Heloise,  Pupil  and  Mistress  of  Abelard,  . 
Countess  of  Tripoli,         .... 
Eleanor,  Queen  of  Louis  VI L  of  France, 
Berengaria,  Wife  of  Richard  the  Lion  Hearted 
Blanche  of  Castile,  .... 

Philippa,  Founder  of  Queen's  College,  Oxford 
Mary,  Anglo-Saxon  Poetess,  . 
Elizabeth  of  Hungary,  Saindy  Princess,  . 
Beatrice,  Inspiration  of  Dante, 
Laura,  Immortalized  by  Petrarch,  . 
Jane  of  Flanders,     ..... 
Catharine  of  Siena,  .... 

Juliana  Berners,  Founder  of  Sopewell  Nunnery, 
Catharine  of  Valois,  Queen  of  France, 
Joan  of  Arc,  French  Heroine, 
J<^n  Beaufort,  Mother  of  James  II.  of  Scotland 
Aj^nes  Sorel,  '*  Fairest  of  the  Fair," 
Mari^aret  of  Anjou,  Queen  of  Henry  VII., 
Mar>iaret  Beaufort,  Mother  of  Henry  VII., 
Isal>ella.  Queen  of  Spain, 
.•Xnne,  Daughter  of  Louis  XI.  of  France, 
Anne  of  Bretagne,  Patroness  of  Learning, 
LucTc/ia  Borgia,  Daughter  of  Alexander  VI., 







Hereditan'  Rights  —  Woman's  Marital  Position  —  Religion  and  Love  —  Trouba- 
dours—  Kffects  of  Chivalry  —  The  Feminine  Sphere  —  Castle  Education  — 
Decline  of  Chivalry  —  Teachings  of  True  Chivalry  —  Among  the  Masses  — 
The  Tavern  —  A  Medieval  Picture  —  Public  Baths  —  Town  Life  —  Morals 
—  Superstitious  Devotion  —  Convents  —  Learning  —  Dress —  National  Pecul- 
iarities in  Dress — Fashions 231-242 




A.  D.  1500  TO  1800. 

Prepared  by  HENRY  WOLDMAR  RUOFF. 



Catharine,  First  Wife  of  Henry  VIII., 245 

Margaret,  Queen  of  Navaire,  .......       246 

Anne  Boleyn,  Second  Wife  of  Henry  VIII., 247 

Anne  Askew,  Martyr,     .........       248 

Margaret  Roper,  Daughter  of  Sir  Thomas  More,     ....        249 

Mary  I.,  Queen  of  England,  ........       250 

Lady  Jane  Grey,     .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .251 

Catharine  de* Medici,       .........       252 

Elizabeth,  Queen  of  England,         .......       255 

Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  .........       257 

Eleonora  D'Este,  Beloved  by  Tasso,        .         .         .         .         .         .261 

Gabrielle  D'Estrees,        .........        262 

Beatrice  of  Cenci,  **  Beautiful  Parricide,"        .....       263 

Margaret  of  Valois,  Profligate  Queen,     ......       264 

Pocahontas,  Indian  Heroine,   ........        265 

Anne  of  Austria,    ..........       266 

Anne  Hutchinson,  Religious  Reformer,  ......        267 

Lady  Fanshavve,     .  .  .  .  .  .         .         .         .        268 

Catharine  Philips,  Early  English  Writer, 269 

Christina  of  Sweden,       .........        270 

Lady  Pakington,  Authoress  and  Moralist,        .         .         .         .         .271 

Madame  de  Maintenon,  .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         ,272 

Tarquinia  Molsa,  Beauty  and  Wit,  .         .         .         .         .         .273 

Louise  de  la  Valliere, 274 



Anne  Dacier,  Scholar  and  Linguist, 

Anne  Killigrew,  Artist  and  Poetess, 

Queen  Anne,  English  Sovereign,    . 

Mar>'  Astell,  English  Authoress  and  Linguist, 

Abigail  Masham,  Favorite  of  Queen  Anne, 

Mar>'  IL,  Queen  of  England, 

Catharine  L  of  Russia, 

Lady  Montagu,  Social  Leader, 

Marie  Deffand, 

Marquise  du  Chatelet,     . 

I^dy  Huntingdon,  Religious  Philanthropist, 

Maria  Theresa,  Empress  of  Germany, 

Catharine  IL,  Empress  of  Russia,  . 

Madame  de  la  Roche,  German  Authoress, 

Martha  Washington,       .... 

Charlotte  Corday,  French  Heroine, 

Madame  de  Stael,  .... 

Abigail  Adams,      ..... 

Marie  Antoinette,  Queen  of  France, 

NLidame  Roland,  Martyr  of  the  French  Revolution, 

Louise,  Queen  of  Prussia,        .  .  .  .  . 

Elizal>eth  Hamilton,  Irish  Authoress, 

Josephine,  Wife  of  Napoleon,  .... 








sixteenth  Century  —  Renaissance — Study  of  Languages — Spread  of  Learning 
—  Revival  in  England  —  Notable  Personages  —  Seventeenth  Century  —  Lng- 
land  in  the  Eighteenth  Century  —  Germany — Spain — America  —  (icneral 
Social  Conditions  in  Europe  —  Imitation  of  French  Manners  —  Example  of 
rerversion  —  Courts  of  Turin  and  Milan — Forms  of  Pleasure  and  P^lniploy- 
ment  —  (lerman  Court — Vienna — Maria  Theresa — Court  of  Frederick 
William  —  Saxon  Women  —  French  Influence  in  (iermany  —  P^ffects  of  the 
Seven  Years*  War — French  Revolution  —  Causes  -  Society  Under  Louis 
XVL— Grand  Opera  —  Beginning  of  the  Carnage  —  A  Vital  (Question  — 
Woman's  Patriotism  —  Madame  I^  Hon  —  Public  Executions  -  -  Chariotte 
Corday  and  Marie  Antoinette —  Scenes  at  Execution  —  Diffusion  of  French 
Manners  —  Th«  English  Woman  —  Inequality  of  Woman's  Rights  —  (Ger- 
man Law  Touching  Woman  —  Later  Property  Rights 315  340 




A.  D.  1800  TO  1900. 


Prepared  by  REV.  WILLARD  E.  WATERBURY. 

<>-  ►^— <>^ 



Hannah  More,        ..........  343 

Caroline  Herschel,           .........  344 

Hannah  Adams, 345 

Joanna  Baillie, 346 

Madame  D'Arblay, 347 

Elizabeth  Inchbald, 348 

Sarah  Siddons, 349 

Maria  Edgeworth, 350 

Jane  Austen,           .          ,         .         . 353 

Madame  R6camier,         .........  354 

Frances  Trollope,  .         ,         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         -355 

Jane  and  Anna  Porter, 356 

Mary  F.  Somerville,                 . 357 

Mary  Russell  Mitford, 358 

Emma  Willard, 359 

Ann  Hasseltine  Judson,            . 360 

Catherine  M.  Sedgwick,           . 361 

Felicia  Hemans,     .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .  362 

Lydia  H.  Sigourney, 365 

Lucretia  Mott,        ..........  366 



Agnes  Strickland, 
Mary  Lyon,   . 
Anna  Jameson. 
Fredrika  Bremer, 
Harriet  L.  Martineau, 
Dorothea  L.  Dix, 
Henriette  Sontag, 
Lydia  Maria  Child, 
Madame  Diidevant, 
Elizabeth  B.  Browning, 
Margaret  Fuller  Ossoli, 
Elizabeth  C.  Gaskell, 
**  Fanny  Fern,** 
Harriet  Beecher  Stowe, 
I.uise  Muhlbach,     . 
Charlotte  Cushman, 
Charlotte  Bront^,    . 
Lucy  Stone,  . 
Maria  Mitchell, 
Alice  and  Fhcebe  Cary, 
"  (»eorge  Eliot," 
Jenny  Lind,   . 
Madam  Hlavatsky, 
Lucy  Larcom, 
Dinah  NLiria  Mulock, 
kosii  Bonheur, 
Christina  i>.  Rossetti, 
Catherine  Booth,     . 
Helen  Hunt  Jackson, 
Jean  Ingclow, 








Amelia  B.  Edwardsj 
Lucy  Webb  Hayes, 
Louisa  May  Alcott, 
Euphrosyne  Parepa  Rosa, 
Mary  Abigail  Dodge, 
Frances  E.  Willard, 
Susan  B.  Anthony, 
Frances  Power  Cobbe,    . 
Elizabeth  Cady  Stanton, 
Julia  Ward  Howe, 
Harriet  G.  Hosmer, 
Harriet  Prescott  Spofford, 
Belva  A.  Lock  wood, 
Louise  Chandler  Moulton, 
Lady  Henry  Somerset, 
Mary  N.  Murfree, 
Queen  Victoria, 
Anna  E.  Dickinson, 
Fanny  J.  Crosby, 
Mary  H.  Hunt, 
Margaret  Oliphant, 
Mrs.  Humphry  Ward, 
Clara  Barton, 
Florence  Nightingale, 
Adelaide  Ristori,    . 
Elizabeth  Blackwell, 
Charlotte  M.  Yonge, 
Empress  Eugenie, 
Baroness  Burdett-Coutts, 
Mary  A.  Livermore, 











** Grace  Greenwood/* 445 

Clara  Louise  Kellogg,     .........  446 

Frances  Hodgson  Burnett, 449 

Mrs.  Frank  Leslie,          .........  450 

* 'Marian  Harland,** 451 

Vinnie  Ream  Hoxie, 452 

Margaret  E.  Sangster, 453 

Adelina  Patti, .  454 

Elizabeth  Storrs  Mead 455 

Elizabeth  Stuart  Phelps,          ........  456 

Mrs.  Potter  Palmer, 459 

Pundita  Ramabai,            .         .   '      .         .         .         .         .         .  460 

Empress  Dowager  of  China, .462 

Helen  Miller  Gould,        . 464 

Marie  Corelli,          . 465 

Mrs.  Frances  Cleveland,          ........  466 

\arina  Anne  Davis,         .........  467 

Mrs.  Leland  Stanford,     .........  468 



Nineteenth  Century  —  General  Advancement  —  Civil  War  —  The  Awakening — 
Sanitary  ('onimission — Its  First  Marked  Influence  —  Aid  Associations  — 
Methods  of  Securing  Money —  Nursing —  Work  of  Clara  Barton  —  Mrs.  Liv- 
ermore —  Mrs.  Iloge —  Women  in  Battle  —  "  Mother  "  Bickerdyke —  Profes- 
sional Nursing  —  Nursing  in  England  —  Women  of  the  South  —  Recent 
Advance  —  Woman  and  the  Ballot  —  Worcester  Convention  —  Wyoming 
KesolatioD  —  Status  in  Colorado — W^oman  and  Property  Rights —  Beginning 
of  Reform  —  In  Europe  —  Epitome  of  Rights  —  Teaching 469-490 






Woman  in  Literature, 493 

By  Thomas  Wentworth  Higginson. 

Woman's  Achievement  in  Invention  and  Science,  .       506 

By  Marcus  Benjamin. 

Woman  in  the  Professions, 517 

By  Rev.  Willard  E.  Waterbury. 

The  Woman's  Christian  Temperance  Union,  526 

By  Anna  A.  Gordon. 

What  Woman  has  done  with  her  Pen,         ....       543 
By  Edward  W.  Bok. 

Woman  and  the  Stage 552 

By  Helena  Modjeska. 

Woman's  Higher  Education, 563 

By  David  Starr  Jordan. 

Woman  as  an  Artist, 570 

By  Several  Writers. 

Woman  in  the  Alliance  Movement, 581 

Qy  Anna  Le  Porte  Diggs. 

Woman  as  a  Wage-Earner,  601 

By  Rev.  Willard  S.  Waterbury. 

Woman  in  Philanthropy, 611 

By  Several  Writers. 

Woman  in  Educational  Progress, 624 

By  President  William  H.  P.  Faunae. 

Woman  in  Social  Reform,  630 

By  May  Wright  Sewall. 

Woman  in  World-Wide  Missions, 648 

By  William  C.  King. 

Woman  in  the  Home,  656 

By  Bishop  John  H.  Vincent. 




Portrait  of  Martha  Washington, 

Type  of  the  Egyptian  Woman, 

Departure  of  Hagar, 

Finding  of  Moses, 

Samson  and  Delilah, 


Antony  and  Cleopatra, 

Mary.  Mother  of  Christ, 

Shipwreck  of  Agrippina, 

Queen  Boadicea,     . 

Augustine  and  His  Mother,  Monica, 

A  Roman  Boudoir, 

Death  of  Brunehaut, 


Mohammedan  Woman, 

Court  Life  in  Granada, 

Alnwick  Castle, 

Blanche  of  Castile, 

Petrarch  and  Laura, 

Jo.m  <»f  Arc,   . 

Isabella  Hearing  Columbus, 

Castle  Life  in  the  Middle  Ages, 

Trial  of  Oueen  Catharine, 

Oueen  Llizabeth  Signing  the  Death  Warrant  of  Mar 

Kleonora  D'Este  Entertaining  Tasso, 

Portrait  <>f  Queen  Anne, 

Portrait  of  Catharine  II.  of  Russia, 

Portrait  of  Madame  de  Stael, 

Madame  Roland  in  Prison, 

First  Meeting  of  Dante  and  Beatrice, 

Empress  Maria  Theresa, 

Marie  Antoinette  Condemned, 

F\»rtrait  of  Queen  Victoria, 

Portrait  Group,       .... 

Abigail     Adams  —  Hannah    More  —  Jane    Austen  — 
D'Arblay — Sarah  Siddons. 


Queen  of 











Portrait  Group,       .......... 

Felicia  Hemans  —  Madame  R^camier  —  Emma  Willard  — Lydia 
H.  Sigourney  —  Frederika  Bremer. 
Poitrait  Group,       .......... 

Harriet  Martineau  —  Catherine  M.  Sedgwick  — George  Sand  — 
Lucretia  Mott  —  Mary  Lyon. 
Portrait  Group,  ......... 

Henrietta  Sontag  —  Charlotte  Bronte  —  Charlotte  Cushman  — 
Margaret  Fuller  Ossoli  —  Lucy  Stone  Blackvvell. 

Portrait  Group,       .......... 

George    Eliot  —  Christina    Rossetti  —  Maria    Mitchell  —  Jean 
Ingelovv  —  Dinah  Maria  Craik. 

Portrait  Group,       .......... 

Amelia  B.  Edwards  —  Lucy  Webb  Hayes  —  Helen  Hunt  Jack- 
son —  Parepa  Rosa  —  Baroness  Burdett-Coutts. 

Portrait  Group,       .......... 

Frances  Power  Cobbe  —  Julia  Ward  Howe  —  Adelaide  Ristori  — 
Harriet  Beecher  Stowe  —  Mary  A.  Livermore. 

Portrait  Group,       .......... 

Harriet  G.  Hosmer — Marian   Harland  —  Empress  Eugenie  — 
Mrs.  Belva  A.  Lock  wood  —  Clara  Barton. 

Portrait  Group,       .......... 

Rosa  Bonheur  —  Mrs.  Frank  Leslie  —  Mary  N.  Murfree  —  Clara 
Louise  Kellogg  —  Mrs.  Jane  Stanford. 

Portrait  Group,       .......... 

Mrs.  Grover  Cleveland  —  Lady  Henry  Somerset  —  Mrs.  Hum- 
phry Ward  —  Mrs.  Potter  Palmer  —  Winnie  Davis. 


Portrait  of  Frances  E.  Willard, 

Portrait  of  Harriet  Prescott  SpofTord, 

Portrait  of  Jenny  Lind,   . 

Plowing  in  Nivernais, 

Portrait  of  Lucy  Larcom, 

In  the  Hospital,      .... 

Queen  Louise  Visiting  the  Poor, 

Breaking  Home  Ties, 













been  seen,  for  sin  was  unknown  on  earth.  All  was  at  peace  ;  there  was 
harmony  between  man  and  God  above  him  and  between  man  and  the 
beasts  below  him. 

The  whole  wide,  genial  planet,  with  its  myriad  teeming  creatures  on  hill, 
in  dale,  in  river,  sea,  and  sky,  was  then  before  our  mother  Eve  ;  who,  so 
vast  were  her  endowments,  could  and  did  intelligently  converse,  not  only 
with  the  Deity,  but  even  with  the  beasts  of  the  field.  So  usual  was  this, 
her  speech  both  with  God  and  with  the,  to  us,  dumb  creatures  of  earth, 
that  when  one  possessed  of  an  evil  spirit  sought  to  tempt  her  to  evil,  its 
speech  was  readily  understood,  and  caused  her  no  surprise  ;  and  then,  woe 
to  the  world  !  those  half-truths  told  her  were  believed  and  acted  upon,  and 
Eve  fell,  and,  falling,  dragged  down  Adam  with  her,  and  *'  by  one  man  sin 
entered  into  the  world,  and  death  by  sin." 

Man  had  placed  upon  him  by  Deity  but  one  prohibition.  There  can  be 
no  development  of  moral  character  where  self-restraint  is  wanting.  What 
was  designed  for  discipline  became  the  occasion  of  the  fall.  By  the  subtle 
insinuations  of  the  evil  one.  Eve  was  led  to  doubt  the  Creator* s  justice  and 
love  in  withholding  anything  from  her.  Fidelity  to  God  was  undermined  ; 
self-gratification  gained  the  ascendency. 

Disobedience  causes  a  child  to  seek  to  avoid  the  parent  who  has  been 
disobeyed.  So  it  was  with  the  first  pair  —  these  children  of  God  in  Eden  ; 
they  sought  to  hide  away  from  their  loving  Creator.  The  dread  heritage 
of  sin  in  all  these  succeeding  centuries  has  been  such  that  men  have  been 
driving  themselves  away  from  God,  while  he  has  sought  to  win  them  back. 

This  is  not  the  place  to  discuss  the  great  problem  of  the  origin  of  evil. 
But  it  may  safely  be  said  that  it  cannot  yet  i)e  understood  how  vast  was  the 
change  then  wrouglit  in  the  nature  and  person  of  Eve,  and  in  the  destiny 
of  mankind.  It  may  never  be  comprehended  by  mortals.  It  brought  a 
change  in  the  operation  of  the  Creator's  plans.  She  and  Adam  were  ban- 
ished from  Eden,  and  thereafter  led  a  life  of  toil  and  sorrow,  until  in  the 
evening  of  ''the  day"  foretold  them,  death  brought  the  next  great  change 
in  their  hist<^ry. 

Nor  can  it  now  he  dcterniiiucl  at  what  point  in  the  world's  history  this 
most  tremendous  of  all  its  great  events  —  the  coming  of  sin  —  took  place. 



That  oldest  of  all  histories  that  have  come  down  to  u.?,  the  Bible,  purposely 
leaves  indeterminate  the  time  when  Eve  was  created,  and  how  long  she 
lived  in  Eden.  More  than  two  hundred  different  dates  have  been  assigned 
to  the  period,  each  professedly  based  upon  the  Bible,  and  varying  from  that 
of  Rabbi  Lipman's  of  B.C.  3438  to  that  of  Regiomontanus  of  B.C.  6984. 

Archbishop  Usher,  whose  time  reckonings  are  yet  put  in  the  English 
Bible,  professed  to  determine  it  so  accurately  that  he  named  Friday, 
October  28th,  of  the  year  4004  B.C.,  as  the  time,  an  effort  long  since 
laughed  at  as  childish. 

Where  was  Eden,  the  first  home  of  Eve  ?  No  man  can  tell,  but  proba- 
bly near  the  upper  region  of  the  present  Euphrates  river.  An  immense 
number  of  books  have  been  written,  and  a  vast  number  of  theories  proposed, 
concerning  the  site  of  Eden.  Some,  despairing  of  finding  any  locality  on 
earth  correspK)nding  to  the  Genesis  account,  have  put  it  in  that  "third 
heaven  '*  to  which  Paul  was  caught  up,  and- where  he  heard  "unspeakable 
things.''  Others  have  located  it  in  the  fourth  heaven  ;  some  in  the  seventh 
heaven  ;  some  at  a  point  within  the  moon's  orbit  ;  while  recently  the 
learned  president  of  a  great  university  put  forth  a  labored  treatise  showing 
that  Eden  was  situated  at  the  present  North  Pole  region.  Others  have 
been  equally  sure  that  at  the  Asiatic  equator  upon  a  supposed  region  now 
submerged  by  the  Indian  Ocean  and  called  Lenniria,  was  the  spot  where 
the  first  woman  of  earth  had  her  home.  Other  learned  men  ha\'e  as  stoutly 
arj^cii  that  Ethiopia  in  Equatc^rial  Africa  is  tlie  original  site  of  Kden. 
Millions  <»f  Moslems  Ix^lieve  that  the  island  of  Ceylon  was  the  place,  and 
ihey  yet  show  the  print  of  Adam's  feet.  China,  Tartary,  the  Bahylonian 
Plains.  .Assyria,  Arabia,  Mesopotamia,  .Syria,  Palestine,  Western  and  Cen- 
tnil  Europe,  each  have  had  their  many  or  earnest  adxocates  who  ha\  e 
<>tablished.  at  least  to  their  own  satisfaction,  where  h.\e  first  lixcd.  No 
place  on  earth  now  answers  to  the  deseription  ^ixeii  in  the  Hihh*.  The 
I'Kality,  as  such,  long  ago  disappeared.  And  it  is  well  for  hmnanity  that  its 
identity  cinnot  now  be  established.  The  interminable  j)il^rinia^('s  that  man- 
kind in  every  age  has  been  making  to  the  so-ealled  holy  places  of  earth  hut 
iainily  show  how  disiistrous  to  the  race  would  ha\'c  been  its  prrser\ation. 

There  remain  only  hints  in  the  ( Genesis  narrative  as  to  Eve's  home  anrl 



manner  of  life  after  leaving  Eden.  That  life  was  long  and  full  of  pathos, 
for,  with  the  human  instinct  for  home  strong  within  her,  she  doubtless  lin- 
gered in  the  vicinity  of  the  loved  and  lost  Eden.  And,  remembering  her 
Creator's  loving  promise  that  her  seed  should  recover  what  the  deceiver 
had  caused  her  to  lose,  when  her  firstborn  son  Cain  came  to  her  breast, 
we  are  told  that  she  joyfully  cried,  "I  have  gotten  a  man  —  the  Lord." 
Bi:t  when  the  second  son  appeared  we  are  then  told  that  she  called  him 
Abel,  i,  ^.,  *'  vanity."  Human  nature  and  its  law  of  heredity  existed  then 
as  now. 

And  was  it  in  human  nature  for  Adam  to  have  refrained  from  reproach- 
ing her  for  the  bitter  change  thit  had  come  to  them  ?  He  was  not  pres- 
ent when  she  transgressed.  What  wonder  then,  that  Cain  was  sullen, 
morose,  and  at  length  a  murderer  of  the  favorite  brother?  And,  so  it  is 
told,  God  afterward  pitied  while  he  blamed  Cain,  just  as  he  had  before 
pitied  Adam,  his  father,  and  Eve,  his  mother.  But  what  a  volume  of  family 
discord  and  bitterness  lies  hid  in  that  one  word,  Abel,  "vanity."  How 
her  hopes  had  perished  ! 

It  is  recorded  that  Adam  lived  930  years  **and  he  begat  sons  and 
daughters."  No  names  of  Eve's  daughters  are  given  in  the  Bible,  and 
only  three  of  her  sons  are  called  by  name.  When  the  third  son  whose 
name  appears  in  the  Bible  was  born  to  Eve,  she  called  his  name  Seth,  i.  r. , 
**  consolation,"  apparently  now  discerning  that  through  this  child,  instead 
of  by  her  firstborn,  the  Messiah  was  to  come  to  redeem  her  and  regenerate 
the  earth. 

Of  the  after  events  of  her  long  life,  of  her  influence  over  husband  and 
children,  and  the  conduct  of  her  home,  no  record  remains,  save  we  are  told 
that  her  firstborn  son  builded  him  "a  city,"  from  which  it  may  be  safely 
concluded  that  this  great  fore-mother  of  mankind,  of  wondrous  intellect 
and  many  virtues,  who  had  known  and  conversed  with  her  Creator  in  Eden, 
was  not  the  gentle  savage  that  some  of  her  descendants  imagine  her  to  have 
been,  but  dwelt  in  a  home  suitable  to  the  nt-eds  of  her  numerous  household, 
busy  with  the  cares,  and  sorrows,  and  joys  that  ever  come  to  the  matron 
with  many  children,  and  longing  evermore  for  the  coming  of  that  better 
Eden  that  yet  awaits  the  earth  and  man. 





f     HE  wife  of  the  founder  of  the  most  remarkable  of  all  the  ancient 
\  ^     religions  was  born  in  Ur,  the  most  ancient  capital  town  of  Chaldea. 
T  From  one  of  the  oldest  and  most  important  of  the  clay  tablets 

recently  exhumed,  we  learn  that  people  in  Sarah's  city  worshiped  the 
planets  ;  while  from  other  sources  it  is  learned  that  her  father,  Terah,  was 
the  chief  of  the  priests  of  Nergal  (the  planet  Mars),  and  a  great  prince  or 
lord  of  the  city,  and  was,  according  to  the  Koran,  a  son-in-law  of  that 
mighty  overlord  of  the  land,  Nimrod,  who  was  the  great  grandson  of 

The  Bible  informs  us  that  the  year  Terah  was  seventy  there  was 
bom  to  him  Abram,  Nahor,  and  Haran.  This  Abram  was  afterward 
the  husband  of  Sarah. 

It  will  be  remembered  that;  on  a  notable  occasion,  Abraham  declared 
this  very  relationship,  saying  of  Sarah,  *'  And  moreover,  she  is  indeed  my 
sister,  the  daughter  of  my  father  but  not  the  daughter  of  my  mother,  and 
bhe  became  my  wife." 

Repugnant  as  this  may  be  to  our  modern  thought,  it  was  then  a  very 
a»mmon  law  or  custom,  not  only  in  Chaldea,  but  in  Egypt,  and  it  prevailed 
in  cultured  Athens  and  elsewhere  in  Oreecc*  so  late  as  the  time  of  Philo, 
and  yet  exists  more  or  less  in  most  polygamous  countries. 

In  Sarah's  country,  polygamy  was,  as  the  tablets  show,  the  rule 
amon^  the  nobles  and  well-to-do,  women  being,  as  in  modern  Turkey,  an 
anicle  of  merchandise.  Fathers  then  bartered  their  daughters  to  whomso- 
ever they  chose,  without  regard  to  the  daughter's  wishes. 

Terah  was  not  only  owner  of  several  wives,  and  a  prince  of  the  land  and 
chief  of  the  priests,  but  he  was  also  a  maker  of  statuary  of  the  gods,  being 
the  6rst  of  which  there  is  any  record. 

When  the  University  of  Pennsyhania's  expedition  recently  exhumed 
ancient  Nippur  (the  Calneh  of  the  Bible),  a  vast  number  of  phallic  images, 
the  symbols  of  Terah's  gods,  were  found  in  the  oldest  of  these  temple  ruins. 



Sarah  was  married  while  living  at  Ur,  and  remained  in  that  rich,  luxu- 
rious, and  grossly  licentious  city  of  idols,  until  the  great  change  in  her  hus- 
band's religious  views  forced  the  whole  family  to  migrate.  The  Bible  notes 
this  migration  and  also  the  previous  idolatry  of  Terah  and  Abram.  From 
other  sources  we  learn  that  Abram,  while  a  heathen  priest  of  Ur,  and  not- 
ing, as  was  his  wont,  the  planets  in  order  to  predict  coming  events,  after 
the  manner  of  the  ancient  and  modern  astrologers,  became  convinced  that 
these  planets  were  not  gods,  but  moved  in  obedience  to  natural  law.  He 
consequently  renounced  his  Sabianism,  which,  according  to  the  Koran, 
so  enraged  his  priestly  father  Terah,  and  the  mighty  despot  Nim- 
rod,  that  they  persecuted  him  and  imprisoned  him  for  ten  years.  At 
length  they  ordered  him  to  be  burned,  on  which  last  occasion  he  was 
divinely  rescued. 

This  led  to  Terah' s  renouncing  his  idolatry,  whereupon  the  whole 
family  was  thrust  out  from  their  greatly  profitable  and  hooorable  position, 
and  fled  up  the  Euphrates  valley  seven  hundred  miles  beyond  Nimrod's 
dominions,  and  located  at  Haran,  the  Moon-god  city. 

This  place  was  in  those  old  times  "  a  great  city,"  and  was  located  on 
the  main  line  of  travel  and  commerce  between  Central  and  Western  Asia. 
Great  caravan  roads  met  there,  and  then  branched  out  to  the  great  fords 
on  the  Euphrates  and  Tigris  rivers.  Long  after  it  passed  under  the 
dominion  of  the  Roman  Empire,  its  people  spoke  the  ancient  Chaldean 
language  and  worshiped  Chaldean  gods. 

Here  Sarah  resided  for  some  thirty- five  years,  and  became,  as  the  Bible 
tells,  wealthy  and  prominent,  her  husband  then  owning  ''many  slaves" 
and  much   ' '  substance. ' ' 

The  manner  of  life  of  well-to-do  women  at  Haran  (with  the  exception  ot 
religious  customs)  may  be  seen  illustrated  in  modern  Bagdad  and  other 
towns  of  the  Euphrates. 

At  her  father's  death,  Abram  received  that  great  call  from  God  to  leave 
his  "country,"  "kindred,"  and  "father's  house,"  and  go  "unto  the 
land  that  I  will  show  thee,"  which  resulted  in  Abram' s  leaving  Haran  and, 
with  his  fatherless  nephew  Lot,  migrating  to  southern  Palestine,  while  the 
other  members  of  the  family  remained  at  Haran.      It  may  be  conjectured 



that   the  old  idolatry,  with  its  amazing  licentiousness  and  horrid  human 
sacrifices,  was  yet  too  strong  for  Abram  even  at  Haran. 

The  sixty  or  more  years  that  Sarah  lived  in  Palestine  were  full  of  stirring 
incidents,  and  her  life  now  differed  greatly  from  either  that  at  old  priestly 
Ur.  or  at  commercial  Haran.  As  detailed  in  twelve  chapters  of  Genesis 
iChap.  12-24)  it  was  now  almost  wholly  spent  in  tents,  her  husband's  life 
being  an  almost  exact  duplicate  of  that  of  a  modern  Bedouin  sheik. 

Some  time  after  the  arrival  in  the  Negib  district,  one  of  the  periodical 
famines  of  that  section  occurred,  and  they  went  to  Egypt,  where  Sarah's 
Inrauty  attracted  the  attention  of  the  Pharaoh,  who,  after  the  custom  of  his 
kind,  took  her  into  his  harem  and  gave  Abram  many  presents  of  slaves, 
camels,  cattle,  sheep,  and  draft  animals,  so  making  him  "very  rich  in 
cattle,  in  silver,  and  in  gold." 

On  being  sent  out  of  Egypt  by  the  Pharaoh,  Sarah  and  her  husband 
lived  at  Hebron,  while  Lot  chose  the  plain  of  Jordan,  and  finally  settled  at 
Sodom,  both  that  district  and  its  people  closely  resembling  his  native  Ur. 
Here  Lot  was  captured  by  marauding  kings  from  Chaldea,  and  was  rescued 
by  Abram  and  his  fellow  sheiks. 

During  this  h)ng  residence  at  Hebron,  God  made  that  memorable 
covenant  with  Abraham,  with  its  sanitary  seal  of  circumcision  and  of 

Sarah  does  not  appear  to  have  shared  greatly  in  her  husband's  piety, 
and  certainly  did  not  possess  his  faith  in  the  divine  j)redictions.  Because 
'►f  this  unVx.'lief  she  gave  him  her  slave-girl,  Hagar,  to  wife,  and  then  so 
dbusetl  the  slave  through  her  furious  jealousy  and  selfishness  as  to  make 
herself  appear  to  our  modern  eyes  inhuman. 

According  to  the  divine  promise,  Sarah  became  the  motlK-r  of  Isaac  at 
a  |>eriod  that  then  began  to  be  accounted  "old,"  in  contrast  with  the 
lormer  great  length  of  life.  She  lived  to  see  her  idolized  son  reach  man- 
h<xKl,  and  then,  it  is  conjectured,  died  of  grief  and  fright  at  the  time 
.Abraham's  faith  in  the  resurrection  of  the  body  prompted  him  to  offer  Isaac 
in  accordance  with  the  divine  command.  She  was  buried  in  the  historic 
Cave  of  MachiK-lah,  and  has  been  greatly  reverenced  by  the  Jews  in  every 
age  as  their  great  ance*stress. 




I  RABIA,  a  country  four  times  as  large  as  France,  is  of  peculiar  inter- 
est to  all  Bible  students.  No  other,  save  little  Palestine,  holds  so 
many  hallowed  and  impressive  associations.  Here  Hagar  lived 
and  died  ;  and  here  her  descendants  yet  literally  fulfill  the  prediction  made 
to  her  concerning  her  unborn  babe.  Here  lived,  and  suffered,  and  tri- 
umphed, the  patriarch  Job.  Here  Moses  fled  from  Egypt,  >and,  at  that 
burning,  unconsuming,  bush,  was  commissioned  by  Jehovah  to  rescue  his 
brethren  from  Egyptian  bondage.  Here  for  forty  years  he  led  them,  and 
saw  those  marvelous  displays  of  divine  power  and  guidance.  Here 
Elijah  found  shelter  from  Jezebel's  wrath,  and  Saul  of  Tarsus  a  refuge  after 
his  conversion. 

Through  its  northern  border  ran  the  great  road  from  Egypt  to  Pales- 
tine, over  which  Hagar  had  traveled  as  a  poor  slave  from  Egypt  some  years 
before  tlic  time  in  which  her  name  appears  in  the  Bible.  She  was  the  child 
of  the  Pharaoh  by  Abraham's  wife  Sarah,  at  the  time  the  latter  was  an 
inmate  of  his  harem.  When  Sarah  left  Egypt  for  Palestine,  the  young  girl 
was  taken  with  her,  and,  fearing  lest  the  Dammesck-Eliezer  should  finally 
be  the  *' possessor  of  my  house,"  she  proceeded  after  the  manner  of  her 
native  Chaldea  to  give  Hagar  as  wife  to  Abram,  her  lawful  husband. 
Hagar,  whose  rights  and  lot  in  those  far-off  times  were  no  higher  than  those 
of  our  cattlt!  now,  had  no  choice  but  to  obey  the  owner's  command. 

In  old  Egypt,  as  in  tlie  present  Turkish  Empire,  if  one  of  the  concubines 
bore  the  sultan  an  heir  in  advance  of  the  wife,  she  then  became  the  chief 
Kadin  of  the  harem  and  as  principal  wife  had  authority  over  the  others.  It 
was  then  but  natural  that  when  Hagar  **savv  that  she  had  conceived,  her 
mistress  was  despised  in  her  eyes.**  In  Sarah's  country,  however,  it  was 
different.  At  that  period  and  later,  in  Chaldea,  the  husband  had  absolute 
power  over  his  wives,  even  to  the  taking  of  their  lives.  Th«  penal  code  of 
Asshur  relating  to  divorce  set  out  that  "if  a  husband  say  unto  his  wife 





RBprnducad  frnm  the  painting  of  W.  Hamll- 
tan,  R,  A,,  an  English  artist.  Hamlltan  studied 
under  Zucchi  In  Rditlb,  and  after  his  return  to 
England  was  elected  to  the  Royal  Academy. 
He  made  numernus  pictures  far  the  "  Shakes- 
peare G-allery," 


*  Thou  art  not  my  wife/  he  shall  pay  half  a  mina,  and  be  free  ;  but  i£  a 
woman  repudiate  her  husband,  she  shall  be  drowned  in  the  river.  * ' 

Sarah,  now  being  unwilling  to  face  the  consequences  of  her  own  con- 
duct, apf)ealed  to  Abram,  who  meekly  turned  his  slave  wife  over  to  her 
Jealous  rival.  The  latter  at  once  proceeded  to  wreak  her  vengeance  on 
,Hagar,  and  that,  too,  so  ''hardly"  that  Hagar  fled,  taking  the  road  to 
Eg\'pt,  150  miles  distant,  with  the  apparent  purpose  to  seek  her  own  kin. 
While  resting  at  a  fountain  on  the  lonely,  perilous  road,  the  "  Angel  of  the 
Lord"  called  her,  and  advised  her  to  return,  telling  her  in  few  words  the 
great  future  of  her  unborn  child,  and  describing  so  accurately  the  character 
of  the  .Arab  race,  as  they  have  been  seen  in  all  ages  and  as  they  yet  are,  as 
to  thenceforth  constitute  the  Ishmaelite  the  living  miracle  of  the  world  for 
all  time.  Obedient  to  this  divine  command,  Hagar  returned  to  Abram,  and 
when  her  child  was  born  called  him  Ishmael,  **  God  heareth,"  as  she  had 
been  directed. 

Fourteen  years  later,  Sarah,  the  free-born  wife  of  Abram,  bore  him  a 
son,  who  was  called  Isaac. 

Among  the  Jews,  in  after  years,  the  legal  age  for  boys  was  thirteen,  and 
the  firstborn  son  inherited  the  patrimony.  But  under  the  Chaldean  law 
the  children  inherited  through  the  mother  ;  the  children  of  the  free-born 
wife  only  l)eing  direct  heirs,  which  led  to  the  seemingly  unjust  distribution 
of  .Abram's  property  among  his  children  that  was  made  in  after  years,  and 
also  to  the  seemingly  unjust  divorce  of  Hagar  that  occurred  when  Ishmael, 
his  son,  was  seventeen. 

\Vh<n  the  second  son,  Isaac,  was  three  years  of  age,  his  mother,  Sarah, 
afttr  the  Chaldean  custom  at  weaning,  made  a  feast  and  at  this  feast  arrayed 
him  in  the  sacred  robe  which  was  the  formal  badge  or  symbol  of  the  birth- 
right that  then  constituted  him  the  heir  and  head  of  the  family  or  clan. 
Ishmael,  to  whom  this  formal  change  of  fortune  in  his  father's  family  meant 
much,  "laughed  derisively"  at  both  the  actors  and  the  occasion,  which  so 
enrai^ed  the  imperious  Sarah  that  she  now  instantly  demanded  the  divorce- 
ment of  Hagar  and  the  disinheriting  of  Ishmael. 

This  "  thing  was  very  grievous  in  Ai)raiiam's  sight,  on  account  of  his 
son,"  and  not  until  told  by  God  to  comply,  did  he  do  so.      The  reason  for 



such  direction  is  not  given,  beyond  this  statement,  **  for  in  Isaac  shall  thy 
seed  be  called. ' ' 

And  now  occurred  that  pathetic  and  cruel  incident  that  has  been  the 
subject  for  poets  and  painters  for  many  ages  ;  namely,  '*  The  casting  out  of 
Hagar.  * '  Whether  her  relatives  in  Egypt  were  now  dead  or  the  condi- 
tions in  that  country  such  that  she  dared  not  go  there,  or  whether  she 
resolved  to  remain  in  the  region  of  the  old  home,  cannot  be  known  ;  but  it 
is  certain  she  did  not  take  the  highway  to  Egypt,  but  was  wandering  and 
nigh  unto  death  when  found  by  the  *'  Angel  of  the  Lord  "  in  that  arid,  up- 
land region  in  south  Palestine,  known  as  the  Wilderness  of  Beersheba. 

Being  now  once  more  providentially  rescued,  she  afterward  went,  ac- 
cording to  the  record,  with  her  son  to  the  plain  of  Paran  at  the  foot  of 
Mount  Sinai,  where,  many  years  later,  she  is  said  to  have  died.  The 
Mohammedans,  however,  who  claim  her,  and  also  Abraham,  as  of  their 
faith,  say  she  married  again  and  lived  at  Medina,  "and  was  there  buried. 

Her  son  Ishmael  married  an  Egyptian  woman,  according  to  the  Bible. 
But  the  Arabs  say  he  also  married  a  daughter  of  Sheik  Mudad,  whence 
sprang  Adnan,  the  ancestor  of  Mohammed,  the  founder  of  the  Moham- 
medan religion. 

.  The  children  of  Keturah,  Abraham's  third  wife,  also  settled  in  Arabia, 
as  did  most  of  Esau's  descendants,  and  these  mingled  with  the  Ishmaelites  ; 
the  latter,  however,  were  the  ruling  or  predominating  element  according  to 
Arab  historians  through  all  the  ages  until  now. 

In  the  sixth  century  of  our  era,  Mohammed  arose  and  succeeded  in 
rallying  these  ancient  nomads  under  their  petty  chiefs,  and  within  less  than 
fifty  years  he  had  planted  the  triumphant  standards  of  the  Crescent  over  the 
earth,  from  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar  to  the  regions  far  beyond  the  Oxus. 

The  Bedouins  of  to-day  are  the  lineal  descendants  of  the  prophet 
Abraham  by  the  *  *  Egyptian  handmaid  * '  Hagar.  Though  not  so  stated 
in  the  Bible,  it  may  be  inferred  that  wealthy  Abraham  looked  after  the 
comfort  of  the  cast-out  Hagar,  for,  seventy-two  years  later,  we  are  told  that 
Ishmael,  with  Isaac,  reverently  buried  their  father  by  the  side  of  Sarah  in 
the  Cave  of  Machpelah,  a  statement  otherwise  unaccountable,  unless  the 
son  Ishmael  was  far  more  forgiving  and  magnanimous  than  his  father. 




IN  the  marriage  ceremony  of  the  Episcopal  Church  are  these  words  : 
*'That  as  Isaac  and  Rebekah  lived  faithfully  together,  so  these  per- 
sons may  surely  perform  and  keep  the  vow  and  covenant  betwixt  them 
made.**  Their  lives  stand  as  a  shining  example  of  domestic  felicity  in 
ancient  times. 

How  Isaac  obtained  his  wife  is  a  charming  oriental  love  story.  Abra- 
ham sent  his  old  servant  back  to  Haran  in  northern  Chaldea,  to  secure  a 
wife  for  Isaac.  Parents  usually  provided  wives  for  their  sons  without  con- 
sulting them.  We  cannot  wonder  that  often  the  union  was  a  business 
transaction  rather  than,  as  in  this  case,  a  love  marriage. 

"Rebekah  at  the  Well,"  so  familiar  to  all,  represents  the  toil-worn 
travelers  who  have  made  the  long  overland  journey  and  have  halted  at  the 
well  at  evening  time.  Rebekah  comes  with  pitcher  upon  her  shoulder  to 
draw  water  for  the  family.  The  old  ser\ant  feels  that  he  has  found  a  bride 
for  his  master's  son.  He  is  entertained  at  the  damsel's  -home  and  makes 
known  his  mission.  Arrangements  are  consummated,  and,  with  her  slaves 
and  dowry.  Rebekah  leaves  her  home  to  go  into  the  distant  west  to  become 
the  wife  (A  the  man  she  has  never  seen. 

Isaac  is  walking  alone  in  the  field  i?t  evening  when  the  caravan  arrives. 
He  sees  his  future  wife  and  loves  her.  He  had  been  devoted  to  his  mother 
Sarah.      She  is  now  dead  and  Rebekah  has  his  undivided  aflfection. 

Twin  sons,  Jacob  and  Esau,  are  born  to  thcni.  Unfortunately  there  is 
iavoritism  in  the  family.  The  mother  is  especially  devoted  to  Jacob,  who  is 
•^•t  a  shrewd  turn  of  mind  like  herself.  Esau  loves  hunting  and  general  out- 
of-do<^^r  life  and  is  the  father's  favcjrite. 

Rel>ekah  plot^  to  secure  the  inheritance  fur  Jacob,  and,  though  she  suc- 
ceeds, the  wrath  of  Esau  is  such  that  Jacob  is  obliged  to  flee,  and  spends 
many  years  in  exile.      Not  until  after  his  mother's  death  does  he  return. 

The  story  is  replete  with  the  peculiarities  of  ancient  marriage. 




'TTVE  first  see  her  as  a  young  girl  beside  the  Nile,  watching  at  a  dis- 
\f^      tance  the  water-tight  basket  among   the    reeds  of  the  river,   in 
which  her  little  baby  brother  has  been  placed. 

When  Pharaoh's  daughter  discovers  the  infant  in  his  queer  cradle, 
Miriam  hurries  to  the  scene  and  suggests  that  a  nurse  be  secured.  This 
meets  the  approval  of  the  princess  and  the  girl  hurries  away  to  get  her 
mother,  who  becomes  the  royally  appointed  nurse  of  her  own  babe,  and  so 
his  life  is  saved. 

When  that  brother  was  weaned,  he  was  taken  to  the  royal  palace  and 
his  education  in  all  the  arts  and  sciences  of  Egypt  began,  and  was  con- 
tinued for  forty  years.  The  sister  who  watched  him  in  his  boat  cradle, 
watched  his  career  amid  royalty. 

Then  came  a  change.  He  fled  into  exile,  where  he  remained  for  forty 
years  until  God  called  and  sent  him  back  to  lead  Israel  out  of  bondage. 

Regretting  this  great  loss  to  his  kingdom,  and  recovering  from  his  awful 
fright  at  those  divine  '  *  wonders ' '  done  in  the  field  of  Zoar,  Pharaoh 
gathered  his  legions  and,  pursuing,  was  overwhelmed  as  he  followed  them 
through  the  divinely  parted  Red  Sea. 

When  the  fugitive  Israelites  JTave  crossed  the  Red  Sea,  we  see  Miriam 
leading  the  women  in  the  antiphonal  jubilee  chorus. 

Her  j)rophetic  power  showed  itself  somewhat  as  in  the  later  times  of 
Samuel  and  David  —  which  was  exhibited  in  poetry  accompanied  with 
music  and  procession. 

When  Moses  married  a  Cushite  wife,  Miriam  took  the  lead  with  Aaron 
in  the  complaint  against  him.  She  felt  that,  as  an  older  sister,  she  could 
not  relinquish  her  right  to  some  part  in  the  control  of  her  brother's  afifairs. 
As  a  punishment  she  was  smitten  with  leprosy.  This  was  afterward  re- 
moved. The  affliction  and  the  cure  form  the  last  public  event  in  Miriam's 
life.      She  died  at  Kadesh  and  was  there  buried. 




^^HE  migrating  hordes  of  Israel,  in  the  time  of  Deborah,  poured  into 

«lfe     Palestine,  —  driving  out  and  displacing,  after  the  custom  of  those 

times,  the  former  terribly  depraved  and  demonized  people. 

But  their  long    residence  in  Egypt  and  familiarity  with  the  licentious 

worship  of  the  gods  had  left  its  inevitable  impress  on  these  Israelites,  and, 

.  spite  of  Jehovah's  miraculous   leadings    through  the  wilderness  for  forty 

years,  they  seemed  unable  to  live  according  to  the  new  code  of  pure  ethics 

given  them. 

On  reaching  Palestine  they  fell,  after  the  '*  death  of  Joshua  and  the 
elders  that  outlived  him,"  into  that  gross  sexual  debasement,  if  not  also 
into  the  demoniacal  idolatry,  for  which  God  had  decreed  the  annihilation  of 
ihe  Canaanite  people.  As  a  result,  the  divine  plans  for  them  were  now 
changed,  and  **  he  sold  them  into  the  hands  of  their  enemies  round  about 
^and  they  were  sore  distressed." 

For  twenty  years  the  Canaanite  king  Jabin  had  '\mightily  oppressed 
the  children  of  Israel,"  robbed  their  fields,  taxed  them  and  forced  them 
t'j  unpaid  work  with  his  huge  marauding  army  that  inchided  in  its  cavalry 
'  nine  hundred  chariots  of  iron." 

**And  the  children  of  Israel  cried  unto  the  Lord,"  who  commissioned 
Deborah,  the  seeress,  to  call  to  arms  Barak,  who,  with  10,000  men,  as- 
H:mbk'd  at  Mount  Talx)r.  But  when  he  saw  the  vast  army  of  Jabin,  led  i)y 
its  ^Teat  general ,  .Sisera,  he  would  have  fled,  had  not  the  proj^hetess,  whom 
he  insisted  should  accompany  his  soldiers,  now  ordered  an  immediate 
charge  in  the  midst  of  a  furious  hail  storm  that  drove  full  in  the  face  of 
the  enemy,  by  which  they  were  thrown  into  a  panic  and  completely  an- 
nihilated by  Barak's  forces,  the  general  Sisera  being  killed  by  Jael,  the 
wife  of  Heber. 

This  deliverance  is  commemorated  in  the  ancient  Hebrew  poem  found 
w  Judges  V. 




IFTER   Jacob  bargained    with    his   brother    Esau    for  the  birthright, 
obtaining   it  for  a  mess  of  pottage,  and  then  gained  his  father's 
blessing  by  deception,  he  fled,  according  to  his  mother's  directions, 
to  Haran,  her  girlhood  home.     Esau  had  already  married  two  wives  out- 
side the  tribe,  and  so  had  forfeited  his  inheritance. 

Jacob,  at  his  parents'  directions,  seeks  a  wife  from  among  their  kindred 
in  the  far  east.  He  comes  to  the  home  of  his  uncle  Laban,  meets  his  cousin 
Rachel,  and  loves  her.  According  to  the  Chaldean  custom,  he  serves 
for  her,  as  he  has  no  property.  The  contract  is  made,  and  shrewd  Laban 
gets  seven  years  of  Jacob's  time,  but  to  the  lover  the  time  seems  short. 

There  was  a  Chaldean  custom  of  which  Jacob  was  ignorant.  Daughters 
must  be  married  in  the  order  of  their  ages.  At  the  end  of  the  seven  years 
the  older  sister  Leah  was  given  him  instead  of  Rachel,  and  he  was  obliged 
to  serve  seven  years  more  for  the  woman  he  loved. 

There  was  a  strife  for  maternity  between  these  wives,  and  each  gave 
Jacob  a  slave  wife  to  multiply  offspring  to  her  own  account.  From  these 
four  wives  came  the  heads  of  the  twelve  tribes  of  Israel. 

Sharp  business  practices  indulged  in  by  Jacob  and  his  father-in-law,  and 
jealousy  of  Jacob's  success,  induced  the  latter,  after  secret  conference  with 
his  wives,  to  flee  to  Palestine,  which,  as  he  had  become  a  member  of  his 
wives'  clan,  was  contrary  to  law  without  iheir  father's  consent.  When 
Laban  returned,  gathering  his  armed  retainers,  he  pursued  Jacob,  but  was 
restrained  from  capturing  him  by  a  divine  admonition,  but  he  added  to  the 
marriage  contract  of  Jacob  a  proviso  that  no  wives  of  another  tribe  should 
be  taken  by  Jacob. 

Subsequently,  as  the  outcome  of  frequent  family  quarrels,  Rachel's 
eldest  son  Joseph  was  sold  as  a  slave  in  Egypt,  and  there  became  the 
second  ruler  or  prime  minister,  and  at  a  time  of  famine  saved  his  father  and 
family  by  bringing  them  to  Egypt. 



O  8  O  t  C< 


TT\  HE  ancients  were  full  of  superstitious  faith  in  the  visits  of  the  supernal 
JL  powers  and  their  vast  influence  over  mankind.  This  lay  at  the  bot- 
tom of  all  their  religions  —  was  their  religion;  and,  coupled  with 
gross,  licentious  rites  and  practices  among  every  ancient  people,  save  where 
the  Mosaic  statutes  prevailed,  it  gave  those  religions  that  tremendous  power 
over  man  that  is  everywhere  seen. 

With  them,  the  unfortunate  dumb,  deformed,  or  epileptic,  and  even  the 
barren  woman,  were  controlled  or  cursed  by  demons,  good  or  bad. 

Like  the  moderns,  they  were  acquainted  with  that  as  yet  unexplained 
d>*namic-psychic  control  of  one  human  being  by  another  that  we  call  hyp- 
notism or  mesmerism,  and,  as  an  average  of  one  person  in  five  may  be 
hypnotized,  there  was  never  a  lack  of  subjects,  but  with  them  it  was  solely 
the  doings  of  the  *'  genii  "  and  those  so  affected  were  bewitched. 

Saul  doubtless  read  that  injunction  of  the  Mosaic  statutes  not  to  suffer  a 
vitch  to  live  with  them  as  a  command  not  to  let  them  live  anywhere  at  all. 
And  so  he  had  vigorously  killed  and  driven  them  out.  But  now,  forsaken 
otQxi,  he  secretly  visits  at  night  "  a  woman  mistress  of  an  ol)i  in  Endor," 
2Uid  requests  her  to  bring  up  for  consultation  the  spirit  of  the  dead  prophet 
Samuel.  This  obi,  according  to  the  account,  produced  the  spirit  of  Sam- 
uel, who  foretold  Saul's  death  and  that  of  his  sons  on  the  morrow's  battle 
*ith  the  Philistines,  which  took  place  as  predicted. 

Did  dead  Samuel  really  appear?  The  writer  of  the  Apocryphal  Book  of 
Ecdesiasticus,  the  Jewish  historian  Josephus,  the  early  Christian  Father 
]er(>me,  and  others  held  that  it  was  an  actual  occurrence.  Others  main- 
tain that  Satan  or  an  evil  spirit  personated  Samuel  ;  others  that  a  miraculous 
•nipress  was  upon  the  senses  of  the  obi  and  Saul  so  that  they  actually  saw 
^muel  ;  others  concluded  from  the  words  of  the  Septuagint  that  the 
*oman  was  a  ventriloquist  and  used  the  common  trick  of  the  profession  to 
ddude  Saul. 



B.C.  1680? 


^^HE  Nile  valley,  like  the  Euphrates,  was  one  of  the  earliest  homes  of 
\2/  civilization.  Its  great  enterprises  and  buildings,  and  the  millions  of 
'  human  beings  who  made  them,  lie  moldered  to  dust  in  those  great 
graveyards  of  the  ancient  world.  Their  names  and  memorials  have  alike 
perished,  save  as  the  spade  of  the  explorer  fortunately  turns  up  some  broken 
pieces  of  pottery  on  which  their  scribes  were  wont  to  record  their  doings,  or 
the  learned  decipher  their  long  dead  languages,  written  on  the  walls  of  their 
rock  tombs  or  on  the  boundary  stones  of  their  great  empires. 

Their  historians  diligently  recorded  the  deeds  of  the  times,  but,  unfor- 
tunately, all  these  have  vanished,  save  here  and  there  a  fragment  of  the 

These  explorations  show  that,  in  the  narrow  Nile  valley  extending  600 
miles  upward  from  the  Mediterranean,  a  great  empire  existed  whose  begin- 
nings date  back,  it  is  supposed,  to  B.C.  3893,  to  Menes,  whose  tomb  is  said 
to  have  been  recently  found  in  Upper  Egypt. 

Some  six  hundred  years  before  the  birth  of  queen  Nofritari,  the  regions 
of  the  Delta,  with  its  great  cities,  had  been  occupied  by  Scythians  from  Asia, 
who,  by  B.C.  2061,  captured  the  country  of  Egypt  and  ruled  it  for  340 
years,  being  known  as  Hyksos,  Shepherd  Kings. 

Salatis,  their  chief,  began  ruling  at  Memphis,  and  constructed  a  military 
encampment,  Avaris,  near  Tanis,  sheltering  240,000  soldiers.  The  native 
Theban  kings  resisted,  and  for  six  generations  they  kept  the  country  in  a 
perpetual  warfare,  desirous  of  tearing  up  Egypt  by  the  very  roots. 

The  Theban  Ahmosis  besieged  the  Hyksos  camp  with  480,000  men, 
driving  them  out  beyond  Beershcba,  and  Ahmosis  was  worshiped  as  a  god 
for  800  years  later. 

Nofritari  had  six  children,  one  of  whom,  Amenothis  I.,  minor  at  his 
father's  death,  became  king.  She  reigned  with  him,  the  real  ruler,  some 
forty  years.  As  the  great  queen  she  was  afterwards  worshiped  as  goddess 
for  nine  centuries.     Her  mummy  was  recently  found  at  Deitel-Bahari. 



B.  C.  1690? 


{ \)  CELEBRATED  queen  of  Egypt  and  the  eldest  daughter  of  Ahmasi 
X\     and  Sonisonbu.     According  to  Professor  Maspero,  her  father  gave 
her  to  wife  when  young  to  her  junior  brother,  known  in  history  as 
Thotmosis   IL,  but  she   being  of  solar,  /.   e.,    *»' divine "   birth,  and  thus 
higher  than  her  husband,  was  the  real  ruler  of  Egypt,  and  sought  to  con- 
ceal her  sex  by  changing  the  termination  of  her  name,  and  appearing  on  all 
public  occasions  in  male  attire.     On  the  Theban  monuments  she  appears 
as  male,  with  false  chin  beard,  and  minus  breasts,  but  with  her  feminine 
pronoun,  and  claiming  to  be  the  betrothed  of  the  god  Amon. 

Her  husband  died  at  thirty,  leaving  two  daughters  by  Hatasu  and  a  son 
by  a  slave  Isis.  This  son,  Hatasu  proclaimed  as  her  successor  and  married 
her sur\'iving  daughter  to  him.      He  appears  in  history  as  Thotmosis  III. 

Her  reign  was  prosperous,  as  appears  by  the  great  buildings  she  caused 
to  be  erected,  by  her  famous  architect  Sanmut,  throughout  the  province  of 
Thebes.  One  of  those  immense  obelisks  is  yet  standing  among  the  ruins 
'>^  Karnak. 

The  monuments  give  an  account  of  her  expedition  lo  the  unknown  land 
of  Perfumes  for  a  cargo  of  perfumes  for  the  gods  ;  and  of  the  wonder 
Mcited  at  Thebes  on  the  return  from  the  long  voyage  to  the  Somali  coast. 
She  is  represented  as  reigning  eight  years  after  this  memorable  expedi- 
tion, and  as  opening  the  Sinai  mines,  and  the  canals  in  the  Delta  that  had, 
h^^use  of  the  previous  long  continued  wars,  been  silled  up. 

She  was  averse  to  war  and  so  lost  nearly  all  that  her  father  had  con- 
n^ereil  in  Syria  ;  nevertheless  she  developed  Egypt  as  but  few  before  her 
had  done.  She  resolutely  kept  the  reins  of  government  in  lier  own  hands 
loni^' after  her  son-in-law  had  come  of  age,  dying  when  Thotmosis  III.  was 
t»eniy-five  years  old  :  he  revenged  himself  by  seeking  lo  destroy  the  very 
^^embrance  of  her  from  the  earth. 

A  richly  car\'ed  chair  belonging  to  this  great  cjueen  was  found  in  one  of 
the  royal  tombs  of  Egypt  recently. 


QUKEN  Til. 

B.  C.  1500? 


J^ECAME  wife  of  Amenothes  III.  in  the  tenth  year  of  his  reign,  being 
j[2r     ^"^  ^^  ^^^  ^^^  wives.     She  was  not  of  the  blood  of  the  Pharaohs, 
her  father  being  one  Iiiia  and  her  mother  Tiiia. 

Hincks  supposes  that  she  was  a  Syrian  of  the  tribe  of  Levi  and  that  her 
influence  brought  about  that  strange  revolution  in  the  religion  of  Egypt 
seen  during  her  lifetime  and  that  of  her  son  Amenothes  IV\,  who  is  now 
known  as  Khu-en-aten  or  Khuniaton. 

Her  husband  gave  her  the  town  Zau  as  dowry  and  raised  her  above  his 
other  princess  wives  and  concubines,  even  those  of  the  "solar  rank,"  to  be 
the  Queen  of  the  Empire,  and  permitted  her  to  appear  at  his  side  at  pubHc 
ceremonies,  and  on  the  monuments. 

She  had  vast  influence  over  him,  and  busied  herself  greatly  in  all  afifairs 
of  state,  and  after  her  husband's  death,  while  not  officially  known  as  regent, 
she  exercised  that  power  during  her  lifetime  under  the  reign  of  her  son, 
giving  that  strange  oriental  impress  to  her  son's  religious  policy  that  then 
appears  on  the  monuments. 

She  is  supposed  to  have  been  born  near  Heliopolis,  that  ancient  seat  of 
the  sun  (Ra)  worship,  where  under  its  priests  Plato  studied,  and  where  tra- 
dition says  Joseph  and  Mary  stayed  when  in  Egypt.  The  place  is  called 
**the  abode  of  the  sun,"  and  known  as  On  in  the  Bible.  The  High 
Priest's  daughter,  Asenath,  the  Pharaoh  gave  Joseph  to  wife. 

In  the  Tel-el- Amarna  correspondence,  Tii  is  called  "Thy  mother," 
/.  ^. ,  of  Amenothes  1\^. 

During  her  life  the  power  of  the  great  hierarchy  of  the  god  Amon  at 
Thebes  was  temporarily  overthrown,  and  a  new  religious  cult,  that  of 
Antonu,  the  invisible  disk,  prevailed. 

Her  son  builded  an  immense  palace  and  temple  and  a  town  devoted  to 
this  form  of  sun  worship  whose  ruins  have  recently  yielded  those  celebrated 
tablets  known  as  the  Tel-el- Amarna  correspondence,  that  confirm  in  so 
many  points  the  historic  accuracy  of  Genesis. 



ReprDducBd  froni  the  painting  by  Schnpin,  a 
German  painter  of  French  extraction.  His  works 
are  principally  historical  pictures,  At  one  time 
Schcpi::  was  a  pupil  of  Baron  Bros. 







B.  C.  1600. 


FNCIENT  Thebes,  on  both  sides  of  the  Nile  for  over  fifteen  miles,  con- 
tains remains  of  once  gigantic  buildings  erected  by  Egypt's  greatest 
king,  Rameses  II.,  the  Sesostris  of  the  Greek  historians. 

His  mummified  body  was  discovered  at  Thebes  in  1881,  and  may  now 
be  seen  in  the  museum  at  Gizeh. 

When  M.  Naville  unearthed  Pithom,  one  of  the  treasure  cities  built  by 
the  Israelite  slaves,  the  niins  showed  him  to  have  been  the  great  oppressor, 
who  by  their  labor  constructed  those  immense  cities,  temples,  canals,  and 
frontier  walls,  that  were  the  astonishment  of  after  ages. 

Whether  she  who  adopted  Moses  was  Rameses'  daughter,  or  daughter 
of  his  brother,  Armais,  who  occupied  the  throne  as  regent  while  the  great 
Rameses  with  his  army  of  600,000  foot  soldiers,  24,000  cavalry,  and  27,000 
war  chariots,  was  for  nine  years  conquering  the  surrounding  nations,  cannot 
now  be  told. 

But  through  her,  Moses  "was  skilled  in  all  the  wisdom  of  Kgypi." 
As  elsewhere  told,  learning  was  wholly  confined  to  the  priests,  of  whom  the 
king  was  head  ;  these  great  schools  were  connected  with  the  temples,  and, 
at  timtrs,  had  thousands  of  students.  In  them  were  taught  such  ancient 
vkLMiom  as  that  found  in  chapter  64  of  the  Book  of  Dead,  hooks  and  forms 
«•?  devotion  ;  hymns  to  and  of  the  gods  ;  war  and  lo\e  souths  :  moral  and 
:.hil*JSOphical  treatises  :  letter  writing  ;  h-j;al  documents  :  mathematics, 
.i-m»nomy,  and  military  tactics  ;  astrology  and  mechcine  :  sur\eying,  nui- 
-«:«:al  composition,  and  business  in  general. 

M«>st  of  our  prizeil  fables  and  folklore  have  come  (uit  of  Mgypt's 
-^  h'K»ls,  which  <iid  not  hesitate  to  appropriate  whatever  of  ancient  or  con- 
:rmp<'>rar\'  knowledge  the  stranger  might  bring. 

According  to  Josephus,  Moses  became  the  commanding  otticer  of  the 
rigyptian  army,  and  defeated  the  Kthiopiaus  in  a  noted  cam|)aiun.  captiu'ed 
their  capital  Meroe,  and  married  the  Ethiopian  king's  daughter. 



B.  C.  1S18. 



YHER  E  is  lack  of  agreement  as  to  the  parentage  of  Helen  of  Troy, 
but  she  was  generally  represented  as  the  daughter  of  Jupiter  and 
Leda,  who  was  wife  of  King  Tyndareus. 

When  Helen  was  but  ten  years  of  age  she  was  carried  of!  by  Theseus, 
who  made  his  mother  the  keeper  of  his  captive. 

Helen  had  two  famous  brothers,  Castor  and  Pollux,  who  came  to  her 
rescue,  and  in  turn  carried  away  Theseus'  mother  as  Helen's  slave. 

Having  returned  to  her  home  she  was  sought  by  many  noted  men  ; 
among  them,  the  Homeric  hero,  Ulysses.  She  finally  accepted  Menelaus 
as  her  husband. 

Paris,  the  son  of  Priam,  King  of  Troy,  was  entertained  by  Menelaus, 
and  basely  repaid  the  hospitality  by  carrying  ofl  Helen  to  his  home  in 
Troy,  but,  as  it  would  seem,  not  against  her  will.  The  Greek  princes, 
many  of  whom  had  been  her  suitors,  vowed  to  restore  her  to  her  husband 
and  the  result  was  the  Trojan  war. 

Paris  was  killed  during  the  siege,  and  Helen  married  his  brother,  but 
when  Troy  was  taken  she  betrayed  him  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy  to  win 
favor  with  her  former  husband,  Menelaus.     She  received  his  forgiveness. 

There  are  various  stories  of  her  death.  One  is  that,  after  the  death  of 
Menelaus,  she  fled  to  the  Island  of  Rhodes,  where  the  queen  of  the  island, 
whose  husband  had  been  killed  in  the  Trojan  war,  caused  her  to  be  seized, 
tied  to  a  tree  and  strangled. 

The  Spartans  counted  her  a  goddess  and  dedicated  a  temple  to  her 
name.  It  was  supposed  that  women  worshipers  at  this  temple,  however 
homely,  would  become  beautiful. 

Homer's  Iliad  and  Odyssey  give  vivid  pictures  of  the  social  life,  man- 
ners, customs,  religion,  and  government  of  the  Greeks  and  the  condition  of 
women  in  the  davs  of  Helen.  Among  later  poets  the  tales  of  Helen  are 
much  complicated,  and  her  character  often  sufiFers  severely  at  their  hands. 



B.C.  1200? 


BOR  nearly  two  thousand  years   Nineveh,  the   ancient   Babylon,  was 
lost  to  the  world.     Ancient  history  was  full  of  its  fame,  yet  so  com- 
plete was  its  ruin  that  Herodotus,  B.C.  460,  passing  over  its  site, 
did  not  even  know  it.     Sixty  years  later  Xenophon  and  his  10,000  on  that 
iamous  retreat  from  Persia  did  not  hnd  so  much  as  its  name. 

Lucian.  B.C.  137,  affirms  that  it  had  so  utterly  perished  that  its  very 
site  was  unknown.  For  1500  years  men  doubted  its  existence,  and  until 
about  fifty  years  ago  the  Bedouin  fed  his  flocks  over  it  all  unmindful  of  the 
tact  that  scores  of  feet  beneath  lay  the  great  palaces  of  the  most  famous  city 
of  ancient,  if  not  of  all,  time  ;  a  city  whose  area  was  ten  times  that  of  London 
oil«)-(iay.  But  the  huge  statues,  obelisks,  monuments,  marble  slabs,  exca- 
vatttl  hy  Layard,  and  now  in  the  Assyrian  room  of  the  British  Museum, 
^vc  abundantly  confirmed  the  classic  stories  of  the  amazing  greatness  of 
thbcity  toundi'd  by  Ninus  and  his  greater  spouse,  Semiramis. 

Stmiramis  was  first  the  wife  of  his  captain,  ( )nnes,  but  won  the  king's 
'"Vfbvan  hi-roic  exploit,  the  capture  of  Bactria,  which  had  dertcd  the  royal 
^Tci-s.  Ninus  died,  and  Semiramis,  succeeding  to  his  i)o\\t:r,  traversed  all 
;»art>  of  the  Assyrian  empire,  erecting  great  cities,  particularly  Babylon. 
•»r»d  stupendous  monuments,  or  opening  road^  through  savage  mountains, 
•''ntuas  unsuccessful  only  in  an  attack  on  India.  At  length,  after  a  reign 
'•forty-two  years,  she  delivered  up  the  kingdom  to  her  son  Xinyas,  and 
'disappeared  :  or,  according  to  what  seems  to  be  the  original  form  of  the 
>*'^'r\.  was  turned  into  a  dove  and  thenceforth  worsniped  as  a  deity. 

This  is  the  k*gend  which  the  (ireeks  received  irom  Ctesias,  and  which  is 
^v  preserved  by  Diodorus,  though  it  has  been  modified  by  traits  borrowed 
•r'^-m  the  history  of  .Alexander  the  ( ireat. 

<'»n  the  statue  of  the  god  Nebo  in  the  British  Museum  occurs  the  name 
'•f  King  Vul-Lush  and  his  queen  Semiramis,  a  princess  of  Babylon. 



B.  C.  1188? 


(Jj\OR  hundreds  of  years  after  the  Israelites  settled  in  Palestine  they  were 
-L  governed  by  men  called  Judges  (an  elective  office)  who  interpreted 
and  enforced  the  Mosaic  statutes,  and  whose  position  was  somewhat  like 
the  Greek  "  Kphors  "  or  Roman  "Consuls,"  and  whose  office  seemed  to 
have  been  a  life  one,  but  was  not  hereditary. 

In  the  intervals  between  these  judges,  the  people  seem  immediately  to 
have  adopted  the  customs  and  idolatry  of  their  neighbors,  and  as  a  punish- 
ment fell  under  the  rule  of  the  nomad  chiefs  or  petty  kings  surrounding 

Jephthah  was  such  a  nomad  chief  who  had  been  expelled  from  among  the 
Israelites  because  of  his  birth.  ¥ot  eighteen  years  the  Israelites  had  been 
subject  to  the  oppressive  rule  of  the  Philistines  and  Ammonites,  and  they 
now  entreated  the  aid  of  Jephthah,  promising  him  their  rulership  if  he  would 
lead  their  army  in  attempt  to  gain  independence. 

He  consented,  and  made,  after  the  custom  of  his  time,  a  vow  to  sacri- 
fice, as  a  burnt  offering  in  case  of  victory,  whatsoever  should  first  meet  him 
on  his  return  to  his  own  house.  This  proved  to  be  his  daughter,  and  it  is 
recorded  that,  after  the  two  months  of  delay  she  asked  for,  "  he  did  with 
her  according  to  his  vow." 

Human  sacrifices  were  then  common.  Was  his  daughter  burned  alive? 
Probably  not,  for  these  reasons  :  Jephthah  was  not  an  idolater  ;  it  was 
forbidden  as  an  abomination  by  his  Mosaic  law  ;  only  the  priests  could  offer 
sacrifices  ;  only  the  Levite  could  take  the  victim's  life  ;  he  was  neither. 
Only  a  male  \  ictim  could  be  offered  ;  burnt  sacrifices  could  only  then  be 
offered  at  Shiloh  ;  there  the  high  priest,  Phineas,  would  not  have  allowed 
it  :  redemption  could  havr  l)een  secured  l)y  paying  a  small  sum  ;  his  con- 
duct is  conunended  in  Heb.  ix:  32,  which  would  be  atrocious  if  he  had 
burned  her.  The  word  he  used  was  ne'-der,  "consecration,"  not  che- 
run,  "destruction."  The  probabilities  are  that  she  was  only  condemned  to 
a  life  of  celibacy,  which  event  the  women  of  that  time  celebrated  yearly. 



ReproducBd  frnm  a  picture  by  the  cBlehratBd 
Van  Eyck,  "w/hn  "for  nnbls  use  nf  calnr,  ElegaiicB, 
and  style  ranks  as  one  of  ths  first  paintars."  Van 
Eyck  was  barn  at  Antwerp,  and  studiad  under 
Rubens.  In  pcrtraitura  ha  was  unsurpassed. 
Among  his  many  works  ara,  "  Portrait  of  Charles 
I.,"  "  Tha  P.nyal  Family,"  "  MlraculDr:S  Draught 
of  FlshBS,"  and  "  Christ   Lrownad  with  Thorns." 

^'^  /\^^ 








B.  r.  1187? 


'«^— *—■ ^ - 

(J^OR  twenty  years  Samson  had  been  the  leader  of  his  people  against 

£*        the  sore  oppression  of  the  Philistines.      He  was  a  Nazarite  by  birth, 

and  at  manhood  married  a  PhiHstine  woman,  against  whose  clan  his 

uralh  was  chiefly  directed.       He  was  simply    irresistible  :    new    ropes,    a 

thousand  men,  city  gates  with  bolts  and  bars,  were  of  no  avail  against  him. 

But  he  had  with  his  physical  strength  an   ungoverned  animal  nature. 

Fur  a   time   he   broke   through    every  snare   laid    for    him.      He  became 

tnamored  of  Delilah.     The  lords  of  the  Philistines  inchiced  her  to  entice 

him  to  reveal   the  secret  of  his  strength.      They  offered,  as  a   reward,  to 

c-ach  give  her  eleven  hundred  pieces  of  silver. 

Samson,  in  lying  jest,  told  her  that  if  she  were  to  bind  him  with  green 
withes  he  would  be  powerless.  This  was  tried  and  found  to  be  false.  He 
then  proposed  being  bound  with  new  ropes,  which  proved  equally  futile. 
He  next  told  her  to  weave  the  seven  locks  of  his  hair  with  the  web  of  the 
l'X)m.  This  she  did,  and  when  she  cried  ''  The  Philistines  are  upon  thee  " 
hi- awoke  and  carried  off  loom,  web  and  all. 

The  Ixiftled  courtesan  now  complained  that  he  did  not  lo\  e  her.  Over- 
'''»mt  at  last  by  her  complaining  and  coaxing,  Ik*  revealed  the  secret  of  his 
^a/arite  v<.»w.      She  cut  his  locks  and  he  was  ea])ture(l  by  the  Philistines. 

His  enemies  put  out  his  eyes,  bound  him  with  fetters  of  brass,  and 
^»a<le  him  grind  in  the  i)rison  house,  while  Delilah,  like  all  of  her  kind, 
protiu'd  by  ht-r  treachery  and  no  doubt   mocke(l   her  \  ictini. 

There  is  a  sad  irony  in  his  fate  of  beinii  made  blind.  The  eyes  which 
l"oked  nn  depraved  beauty  and  led  to  his  fall  were  destroyed. 

At  a  great  festival  in  honor  of  their  ^od  Hagon,  blind  Samson  was 
•'roiight  forth  to  be  gh)ried  over  at  the  innnense  temple,  then  holding  thoii- 
MHils  «»f  people*.  Hen-,  asking  ( iod  t«>  ri  >tore  hi>  ^treni^th,  he  pulled 
'l^'wn  two  main  piihirs,  wrecking  the  building  and  perished  with  the  thou- 
Mnds  of  idolatrous  onlookers. 

The  story  is  relati'd  in  the  book  of  Judges,  chapters  xiv-xvi. 


B.  C.  1120? 


^^HE  present  Turkish  district  of  Kerah,  bordering  some  forty  miles  on 
\[y     the  east  of  the  Dead  Sea,  and  now  almost  wholly  a  wilderness  over 

'  which  the  wild  Bedouins  roam,  was  once  a  densely  populated  and 
wealthy  country  as  the  extraordinary  number  of  ruins  scattered  over  it 

The  lowland  part  of  the  district  south  of  the  Arnon  was  Ruth's  home. 
A  famine  caused  by  incessant  Midianite  raids  prevailed  in  South  Palestine, 
and  Klimelech  of  Bethlehem,  with  his  family,  crossed  the  Jordan  into  Moab, 
and  Mahlon,  one  of  his  sons,  married  the  Ruth  of  the  Bible. 

Ten  years  later  Elimelech  and  his  sons  being  dead,  Naomi,  his  widow, 
hearing  that  Gideon  had  destroyed  the  Midianite  robbers,  and  her  home- 
land was  now  prosperous,  resolved  to  return  to  Bethlehem,  and  took  leave 
of  her  daughter-in-law.  But  Ruth  now  refused  to  be  parted  from  Naomi, 
and  together  they  reached  Bethlehem  "  at  the  beginning  of  th^  barley  har- 
vest,"  their  arrival  causing  a  deal  of  excitement  in  the  little  hamlet. 

After  the  custom  of  the  poor,  Ruth  at  once  went  into  the  fields  to  glean 
after  the  reapers,  * '  and  her  hap  was  to  light  on  the  portion  of  the  field 
belonging  unto  Boaz,  who  was  of  the  family  (clan)  of  Elimelech  —  a  mighty 
man  of  wealth. 

In  the  Biblical  book  of  Ruth,  finest  of  all  pastoral  narratives,  is  given 
the  thoroughly  oriental  courtship  of  the  widow  Ruth,  and  the  ancient 
device  adopted  by  Boaz,  who  stood  only  in  the  relation  of  a  goe/  to  Ruth 
(one  having  privilege  only  of  redeeming  an  inheritance )  and  not  that  of  a 
/evir  (one  whose  duty  according  to  Mosaic  law  it  was  to  redeem),  to 
induce  the  near  kinsman  to  renounce  his  rights  to  the  widow  that  he  might 
take  her.  The  kinsman,  on  learning  that  he  must  take  the  widow  as  an 
incumbrance  on  the  estate,  refused  the  inheritance,  whereupon  Boaz  mar- 
ried her  and  she  became  the  mother  of  Obed,  the  grandfather  of  David, 
King  of  Israel. 



B.  C.  1116? 


YHROUGHOUT  all  the  ancient  world,  motherhood  was  the  aim  and 
ambition   of  all  married  women.       A    numerous    offspring  was  the 
goal  of  those  ancient  worthies.      If  a  wife  was  childless,  her  lot  was 
indeed  a  hard  one  ;  for  if  she  bore  no  children,  she  alone  was  blamed  and, 
il  not  then  divorced,  another  wife  was  added  to   the  household  and   the 
childless  one's  life  made  bitter. 

Hannah's  life  was  embittered  by  the  taunts  of  the  woman  who  shared 
the  husband's  name  with  her,  and  which  was  but  little  mitigated  by  the 
fact  that  she  was  the  best  beloved  wife. 

The  ancients  also  held  that  barrenness  was  due  not  to  physical  causes 
hut  to  the  su|>ernal   powers. 

And  so  it  is  recorded  that  at  the  great  annual  religious  festival  at 
ShJoh,  Hannah  prayed  earnestly  to  "the  Lord  of  hosts"  for  offspring, 
consecrating  such,  if  granted  her,  to  the  service  of  God  as  priest.  In 
answer  to  her  prayer,  Samuel,  the  great  prophet-priest  of  Israel,  was  born 

When  he  was  three  years  old  he  was  weaned  and  in  ac  rord  with  her 
vow  Hannah  presented  him  at  Shiloh  to  VA'i,  the  high  priest,  and  thereafter 
"the  child  did  minister  unto  the  Lord  before  Kli  the  priest/'  The  mother 
VNtwi  him  each  year  bringing  a  little  coat  upon  which  she  had  i>cstowed 
months  of  loving  skill. 

When  Kli's  prie^st  sons  were  slain  because  of  their  lew(hi«*ss,  roi)l^ery, 
^nd  oppression,  and  the  father  died  of  grief  thereat,  Sanuiel  became  the 
priestly  ruler  of  the  people,  and  under  his  j^overninent  Israel  had  such 
r*ace  and  prosperity  as  had   not  i)een   hitherto  known  by  them. 

When  he  became  too  old  and  feel)l(.-  longer  to  tra\(l  as  judge  among 
the  pe»»ple,  he  appointed  his  three  sons  to  the  ot"fu<\  who,  unfortunately, 
"walked  not  in  his  ways,  but  turned  aside  after  lucre,  and  took  bril^jes  and 
p^Aertetl  judgment,"  and  the  ine\itable  c  onse(juences  soon  came,  the  de- 
>tructit»n  of  the  government. 


».  C.  1004? 


■  -    -    -  -  .}e;;-H-H^. 

HEBA  was  the  name  of  the  great  South  Arabian  kingdom.  Sol- 
omon's fame  for  wisdom  and  wealth  had  reached  that  kingdom. 
The  queen  of  the  South  no  doubt  thought  it  would  be  politic  to 
keep  on  good  terms  with  this  rapidly  rising  power.  There  was  also  a 
curiosity  to  verify  the  stories  of  his  wisdom  and  regal  splendor. 

She  prepared  her  royal  caravan  and  started  on  her  thousand  mile  jour- 
ney. Solomon  was  accustomed  to  royal  gifts  from  surrounding  nations 
but  the  camels  laden  with  the  choicest  of  spices  from  the  land  of  spices, 
surprised  even  the  king.  ' '  There  came  no  more  such  abundance  of  spices 
as  these  which  the  Queen  of  Sheba  gave  to  king  Solomon,"  and  the  hun- 
dred and  twenty  talents  of  gold,  over  fifteen  millions  of  dollars,  was  a  gift 
that  the  wealthiest  of  kings  could  not  ignore. 

We  may  presume  that  Solomon  and  his  people  had  not  held  the  people 
of  Arabia  in  high  esteem.  They  had  neither  the  history  nor  the  deeds  of 
Egypt  and  the  far  East  to  boast  of.  But  they  had  gold  mines,  which  made 
that  metal  an  abundant  commodity.  The  coming  of  that  caravan  to 
Jerusalem  gave  the  peoi)le  a  new  estimate*  of  that  great  south  land. 

The  Queen  of  Sheba  i)rouglit  surprises  and  found  more.  Day  after 
day  she  listened  lo  vSolonion's  words,  putting  to  him  hard  questions  in 
philosophy  and  religion,  especially  seeking  information  concerning  the  God 
of  the  Jews.  She  gazed  on  the  splendid  architecture  of  palace  and  temple, 
and  at  last  was  led  to  exclaim,  "  It  was  a  true  report  that  I  heard  in  mine 
own  land  of  thy  acts  and  of  thy  wisdom.  Howbeit,  I  believed  not  the 
words  until  1  came  and  mine  eyes  had  seen  it  ;  and  behold  the  half  was 
not  told  me  !  " 

Then  follows  a  noble  acknowledgment  of  the  source  of  vSolomon's  great- 
ness which  he  so  soon  forgot. 

"  Blessed  be  the  Lord  thy  God  which  delighted  in  thee,  to  set  thee  on 
the  throne  of  Israel.  Because  the  Lord  loved  Israel  forever,  therefore 
made  he  thee  king,  to  do  judgment  and  justice.*' 



B.  C.  1060? 


r^ABAL  was  a  wealthy  sheepmaster,  pasturing  his  four  thousand  ani- 
lY     mals  on  the  southern  slopes  of  Carmel. 

^  David  having  fled  from  the  jealous  and  insane  king  Saul,  gathered 
about  him  a  band  of  debtors  and  malcontents  to  the  number  of  six  hundred. 
Once  a  year  the  sheepmaster  and  his  men  held  a  great  banquet  at  the  time 
o\  sheep  shearing.  David's  men,  at  one  of  their  encampments,  had  pro- 
tected the  shepherds  and  flocks  of  Nabal,  instead  of  making  depredations  ; 
and,  at  sheep  shearing  time,  partly  requested,  partly  demanded,  a  gift  as 
iood  for  themselves  and  their  outlaw  band.  Nabal  peremptorily  refused, 
and.  in  so  doing,  placed  himself  at  the  mercy  of  David  and  his  men. 
Nabal' s  men  perceived  the  danger,  but  did  not  dare  approach  him  ;  so 
they  told  Abigail,  his  wife;  who,  it  is  said,  was  of  "good  understanding 
and  of  a  beautiful  countenance. ' ' 

With  offerings  of  bread,  wine,  grain,  raisins,  figs,  and  dressed  sheep, 
^^c.  with  her  attendants,  liastened  down  to  David's  encampment.  And 
n«'netoo  scmui.  Four  hundred  men,  fully  armed,  were  on  the  way  to  exter- 
ininate  Nabal  and  his  men.  Her  womanly  tact  and  beauty  softened  the 
fit^artof  David,  and  the  little  army  turned  l^ack. 

When  >he  reached  home  Nabal  was  in  the  midst  of  revelry,  too  drunk 
'^f'know  or  care  al)out  the  danger.  When  he  was  told  next  (hiy  how  near 
ne  had  been  to  death,  the  shock  was  so  great  that  he  died  from  the  effects 
of  it, 

Ahigail  was  summoned  to  the  camp  of  David,  and  became  his  wife. 
Prom  h<.-ing  an  outlaw  chieftain,  he  became  king  after  th(.-  death  of  Saul, 
i^duiih  him  Abigail  shared  the  honors  of  royalty.  One  son,  Chileah,  was 
^'m  to  them. 

Her  pn>mptitude,  courage,  and  tact  are  womanly  virtues  which  we 
^^imire.  She  was,  unfortunately,  obliged  to  submit  to  a  division  of  David's 
afiections  with  his  other  wives. 


B.  C.  917? 


-^>— )K-<^ 

ER  ancestors,  the  Phoenicians,  were  the  inventive  and  commercial 
Yankees  of  the  ancient  world  and  emigrated,  according  to  Herod- 
otus, from  the  Euphrates  valley,  near  the  Persian  Gulf,  to  Pales- 
tint-,  settling,  according  to  tradition,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Dead  Sea. 
When  that  region  was  shaken  and  sunken  by  an  earthquake,  such  as 
escaped  fled  to  the  Mediterranean  coast,  and  founded  Sidon,  Tyre,  and 
Byblus,  and  planted  a  colony  in  Ireland  as  early  as  the  days  of  Abraham. 

Jezebel's  father,  Ethbaal,  was  first  priest  of  Baal-Melkarth  at  Tyre  and 
afterwards  the  prince  or  king  of  Tyre.  The  temple  of  this  god  at  Tyre 
was  so  splendid  and  so  rich  in  offerings  and  magnificent  in  ceremoniak, 
vestments,  and  pageants,  as  to  astonish  the  much  traveled  Herodotus. 

Tyrians  were  devotees  of  Astarte  (the  C^reek  Aphrodite),  goddess  of 
love,  who  demanded  at  her  annual  festivals  the  gift  of  virgins  in  the  sacred 
groves.  They  also  worshiped  great  Moloch,  to  whom,  at  times,  awful 
human  sacrifices  were  made. 

Jezebel  became  the  wife  of  Ahab,  king  of  Israel,  and  made  her  husband 
more  renowned  for  wickedness  "  than  all  the  kings  of  Israel  that  were  be- 
fore him."  Ahai>  sank  himself  and  the  people  in  the  grossest  forms  of 
the  idolatrv  of  liis  wife's  native  country,  though  in  all  probability  he  did 
not  intend  to  abolish  the  worship  of  Jehovah. 

She  ruled  Ahab  with  an  iron  will  ;  and  did  not  hesitate  at  cold  blooded 
murder  to  accomplish  her  ends,  notably  in  securing  Naboth's  vineyard  by 
causing  the  owner  to  be  slain.  At  her  table  were  supported  no  less  than 
four  hundred  and  tifly  priests  of  Haal  and  four  hundred  of  Astarte. 

It  was  from  her  wrath  that  the  prophet  Elijah  fled  after  the  slaughter  of 
her  priests  at  Carmel.  Years  afterwards,  when  Jehu  entered  Jerusalem, 
Jezebel  was  trampled  under  his  horses'  feet  and  her  remains  cast  upon  the 
city  refuse  heap.  Later,  relenting,  Jehu  ordered  that  she  be  buried,  saying, 
"(io  and  take  this  cursed  woman  and  bury  her.  For  be  she  what  she 
may,  she  was  at  least  a  king's  daughter." 


About  B.  C.  869? 



ER  husband,  Acerbas  (who  was  also  her  uncle),  was  priest  of  Baal- 

Melchar  (the  Greek    Hercules)  at   Tyre,  and    was    murdered    by 

Dido's  brother,  the  king  Pygmalion  of  Tyre,  for  a   cause.      Dido 

iWreupon  gathered  a  company  of  disaflfected  nobles  of  Tyre,  and  sailed  first 

10  the  Islands  of  Cyprus,  and  later  to  North  Africa  opposite  Sicily,  where 

they  bought  of  the  natives  as  much  land  as  a  bull's  hide  would   cover,  and 

tricked  the   natives  by  cutting  the  hide   into  strips,   so   inclosing  enough 

land  on  which  to  build  Carthage. 

They  were  wonderfully  enterprising  and  the  city  became  the  greatest 
commercial  emporium  of  its  time,  outrivaling  the  other  great  ancient  cities 
o(  the  Semite  peoples,  Sidon,  Tyre,  and  Thebes. 

The  prophet  Ezekiel's  description  of  the  wealth  and  greatness  of  the 
nioiher  city,  Tyre,  but  faintly  portrays  that  of  Carthage,  whose  ships  were 
^^  lar^'est  of  the  world,  trading  with  all  parts  of  the  known  earth,  and 
<^xploring  and  colonizing  distant,  hitherto  unknown  lands. 

It  was  governed  by   nobles    called    "  suffetes,"    corresponding   to    the 
judgt-s"  of  the  Israelites,  the  form  of  government  being  very  similar  to 
^"<^  Spartan,  save  that  the  rich  only  had  voice  in  it. 

h>  army  was  composed,  not  of  citizens,  to  whom  such  ser\ice  was 
^*l>Tading  <  they  Ixjing  merchants  and  rulers  only  ),  but  of  mercenary  troops 
otticere<l  by  Carthaginians.  Several  of  these  generals  were  ainc)iig  the  very 
^rcate^t  the  world  has  ever  known. 

Because  <»f  this  military  defect,  Carthage  was  at  last  overcome  i)y  its 
K^tat  rival,  Rome,  towards  the  end  of  those  three  hundred  years  of  com- 
f^trdal  and  military  struggle  for  the  world's  supremacy,  it  being  captured 
*ith  awful  carnage  and  burned  by  the  Romans  at  the  end  of  the  third  Punic 
*^.  B.  C.  146.  The  Romans  unfortunately  destroyed  all  its  historic 

Their  religion  and  customs  were  sensual,  revolting,  and  fearfully  cruel  ; 
^d  often  involved  the  offering  of  human  sacrifices. 



B.  C.  609? 


/  I  \HE  little  state  of  Palestine  was  the  only  available  highway  between 
JL       those  two  great  ancient  empires,  Egypt  and  Assyria,  and  was  a  con- 
stant prey  to  the  cupidity  or  revenge  of  both. 

In  the  early  ages  the  Hittite  peoples  of  Syria  served  as  a  buffer  between 
them,  but  after  their  rule  was  destroyed  it  was  inevitable  that  Palestine 
should  suffer  from  the  armies  of  those  great,  ambitious,  warring  nations  who 
now  swept  its  treasure  and  people  into  their  countries  to  build  and  adorn 
their  great  cities. 

Sennacherib,  it  is  recorded,  employed  360,000  captives  in  enlarging  and 
beautifying  wonderful  Nineveh,  which,  within  two  years,  he  boasted  he  had 
made  **  as  splendid  as  the  sun." 

An  enormous  booty  and  200,000  captives  were  taken  from  Hezekiah 
(king  of  Judah),  and  forty-six  of  his  cities  in  one  campaign  ;  and  seventy- 
nine  cities,  eight  hundred  towns,  over  200,000  captives,  and  immense  wealth 
from  the  Babylonian  states  in  another. 

With  the  fall  of  Nineveh  the  great,  B.C.  625,  under  the  joint  forces  of 
the  Medes,  and  that  traitorous  viceroy  of  Babylon,  Nabopolassar,  the  latter 
became  king  of  Babylon,  his  son  Nebuchadnezzar  (afterwards  the  great 
builder  of  Babylon)  being  for  years  at  the  head  of  his  armies.  During  this 
reign  of  Nabopolassar  it  is  supposed  the  event  of  Judith  occurred. 

The  mighty  king,  after  conquering  the  Persians,  resolved  to  punish  the 
people  of  Palestine,  Syria,  and  Phoenicia  for  refusing  to  aid  him  in  the  war 
against  Persia,  and  to  this  end  sent  an  army  into  Palestine  under  command 
of  Holof ernes,  who  laid  siege  to  Bethulia  in  Samaria.  In  order  to  rescue 
the  famished  inhabitants,  a  rich  widow  named  Judith  entered  the  Assyrian 
camp  under  pretext  of  being  a  deserter,  and  willing  to  betray  Bethulia  to 
them.  Judith  was  taken  into  the  tent  of  Holofcrnes,  who  was  enraptured 
by  her  great  beauty,  intellectual  gifts,  and  piety.  At  a  banquet  in  his  tent, 
given  to  Judith,  he  became  drunken,  when  she  beheaded  him,  thus  causing 
the  defeat  of  his  army. 



B.  C.  600. 


yj      HIS  famous  poetess,  estimated  by  many  as  the  greatest  poetess  the 

\Jj  ^     world   has   ever  seen,   was  a  native  of  the  Island  of  Lesbos,   and 

T         probably  was    born  and   lived  at    Mytilene.     At  Lesbos   she   was 

the  center  of  a  brilliant  society  and  head  of  a   great  poetic   school,   for 

poetry  in  that  age  and  place  was  cultivated  as  assiduously  and*  apparently 

as  successfully  by  women  as  by  men.     The  names  of  two  of  her  rivals  are 

prtser\ed  —  Andromeda  and  Gorgo. 

In  antiquity  the  fame  of  Sappho  rivaled  that  of  Homer.  She  was 
called  "the  poetess,"  as  he  was  called  '*  the  poet."  Different  writers 
style  her  *'the  tenth  muse,"  "the  flower  of  the  Graces,"  "a  miracle," 
"the beautiful,"  the  last  epithet  referring  to  her  writings,  not  her  person, 
which  is  said  to  have  been  small  and  dark.  She  is  said  to  have  sung  her 
poems  to  the  Mixo-Lydian  mode,  which  she  herself  invented. 

The  few  remains  which  have  come  down  to  us  amply  testify  to  the 
>tice  of  the  praises  lavished  upon  Sappho  by  the  ancients.  The  perfec- 
tK'n  and  finish  of  every  line,  the  correspondence  of  sense  and  sound,  the 
<^>mmand  over  all  the  most  delicate  resources  of  verse,  and  the  requisite 
symmetry  of  the  complete  odes,  raise  her  into  the  very  first  rank  of  tech- 
nical |>oetry  at  oner,  while  her  direct  and  fervent  painting  of  passion  has 
ne\erlK*en  surpassed.  Her  fragments  also  bear  witness  to  a  profound  {{^e\- 
^i^U*r  the  beauty  of  nature  ;  we  know  from  other  sources  that  she  had  a 
[•et-uliar  delight  in  flowers,  and  especially  in  the  rose. 

The  ancients  also  attributed  to  her  a  considerable  powtr  in  satire,  but 
4.r  excelled  in  the  [)6etry  of  passion. 

The(ireek  comic  poets  were  fond  of  introducing  her  into  their  dramas 

^'^  a  courtesan  :  but  later  writers  now  maintain  that  she  was  a  pure  woman. 

.According  to  Suidas,  she  was  married  t(^  Ctrcolas  of  .Andros  and  had  a 

'^ughler    Cleis.      Because   of  the   Draconian    times  she  fled  to   Sicily,  but 

aiten*ards  returned  to  Lesbos,  where  she  died. 



B.  C.  468? 


ESTHER,  a  beautiful  Jewish  maiden,  the  heroine  of  the  Biblical  book 
that  bears  her  name,  was  the  daughter  of  Abihail,  a  Benjamite,  and 
uncle  of  Mordecai.     Her  proper  Hebrew  name  was  Hadassah,  but 
on  her  introduction  into  the  royal  harem  she  received  the  Persian  name  of 

Her  parents  being  dead,  Esther  was  brought  up  as  a  daughter  by  her 
cousin  Mordecai,  who  had  an  office  in  the  court  or  household  of  the  Persian 
monarch,    "at  Shushan,  in  the  palace." 

The  reigning  king  of  Persia,  Ahasuerus,  having  divorced  his  queen, 
Vashti,  because  she  properly  refused  to  comply  with  his  drunken  com- 
mands, search  was  made  throughout  the  empire  for  the  most  beautiful 
maiden  to  be  her  successor.  Those  whom  the  officers  of  the  harem  deemed 
the  most  beautiful  were  removed  thither,  the  eventual  choice  among  them 
remaining  with  the  king  himself.  The  choice  fell  on  Esther,  who  found 
favor  in  his  eyes,  and  was  advanced  to  a  station  enviable  only  by  com- 
parison with  that  of  the  less  favored  inmates  of  the  royal  harem. 

The  king,  however,  was  not  aware  of  her  race  and  parentage  ;  and  so 
with  the  careless  profusion  of  a  sensual  despot,  upon  representations  made 
to  him  that  the  Jews  were  a  pernicious  race,,  he  gave  his  prime  minister, 
Haman,  full  power  and  authority  to  kill  them  all,  young  and  old,  women 
and  children,  and  take  possession  of  all  their  property. 

The  circumstance  that  Esther  herself,  though  queen,  seemed  to  be 
included  in  the  doom  of  extirpation,  enabled  her  to  turn  the  royal  indigna- 
tion upon  Haman,  whose  resentment  against  Mordecai  had  led  him  to 
obtain  from  the  king  this  monstrous  edict.  The  laws  of  the  empire  would 
not  allow  the  king  to  recall  a  decree  once  uttered  ;  but  the  Jews  were 
authorized  to  stand  on  their  defense  ;  and  this,  with  the  known  change  in 
the  intentions  of  the  court,  averted  the  worst  consequences  of  the  decree. 

The  Jews  established  a  yearly  feast,  the  Purim,  in  memory  of  this  deliv- 
erance, which  is  observed  to  this  day. 




RepraducBd  from  the  painting  by  C  Falma, 
an  artist  of  the  "yenetian  schonl,  distinguish ed  for 
the  freshness  of  his  coloring.  Falma  devoted 
man/  years  to  the  study  of  the  works  of  Titian, 
Michael  Angelo,  and  Raphael,  and  ■was  much 
influBiiced  by  those  great  masters,  "The  Last 
Judgment,"  "Perseus  and  Anrircrnsda,"  and  the 
"  Marriage  of  St,  Catherine"  are  amung  his  best 
known  works. 




K.  r.  ftio. 

f$)  UCRETI A  is  celebrated  as  much  for  her  virtue  as  for  her  beaut\'. 

^^     The  stor>-  ;is  told  by  Roman  historians  recites,  in  brief,  that  Lucius 

Tarquinius  usurped  the  kingdom  of  Rome  by  bloody  deeds,  ruling 

like  the  Greek  tyrants.     His  nephew,  L.  Tarquinius  Collatimus,  prince  of 

CoUatia,  had  married  the  daughter  of  S.  Lucretius  Triciptimus,  a  lady  of 

^reat  beauty,  chastity,  and  domestic  virtues. 

During  the  siege  of  Ardea  at  which  were  her  husband,  father,  and  the 
two  sons  of  Tarquin,  one  of  the  sons,  Sextus,  and  a  kinsman  of  her  hus- 
band, abused  the  hospit.ility  of  her  home  by  entering  at  night  her  bed- 
chamber with  a  drawn  sword,  and  by  threatening  ncjt  only  to  kill  her,  but 
10  further  scandalize  her  by  cutting  the  throat  of  one  of  her  slaves  so  as  to 
incriminate  both  in  the  eyes  of  her  husband,  he  compelled  her  to  yield. 

On  the  morrow,  sending  hastily  for  father  and  husband  and  telling 
them  of  the  facts*  and  making  them  swear  to  banish  the  hated  tyrants,  she 
plunged  a  d^;ger  into  her  heart  and  died.  The  body  was  carrit'd  to  the 
market  place,  where  Junius  Hrutus  pulled  the*  da^^cr  from  htr  lnvasl  and 
recounted  the  outrage  to  the  multitude,  and  demanded  the  expulsion  of  the 
Tarquins.  On  the  news  reaching  the  army,  the  tyrant  and  his  sons  were 
left  to  their  fate,  and  shortly  afterward  the   Roman  re|)ul)lie  was  organized. 

B«tii«r  eontinaed. 

The  character  of  Esther,  as  she  appears  in  the  Bi!)le,  is  that  of  a  woman 

•  if  deep  piety,  faith,  courage,  patriotism,  and  caution,  (N)mhini(l  with  reso- 
lution :  a  dutiful  daughter  to  her  adoptivi-  father,  dociU'.  and  (»lK(iient  to 
his  counsels,  and  anxious  to  share  the  kinj^'s  favor  with  him  fnr  the  i^ood 

•  •I  the  Je\^i^h  people.  That  she  was  a  \irtuons  woman,  an<l.  as  far  .is  lur 
situation  made  it  possible,  a  good  wif<'  to  the  king,  her  e()ntiniie<l  intluenee 
over  him  f<ir  so  long  a  time  warrants  us  t^  infer. 

The  \asi  foundations  of  Xerxes'  j)ala('e  aX  Shu-^han.  "The  Lily."  yet 
Terrain,  u  !)»re  tii«;  humble  Jewish  maiden  rose  to  be  cjueen  over  a  mighty 


AS  PAS  I  A. 

B.  C.  470?— 410? 


PSPASIA,  daughter  of  Axiochus,  was  born  at  Miletus  in  Asia  Minor 
and  removed  to  Athens  when  young,  becoming,  it  is  said,  the  leader 
of  the  courtesan  class. 

Among  the  Greeks,  girls  were  carefully  secluded,  save  at  the  public 
festivals  and  dances,  and  no  woman  appeared  on  the  streets  except  the 
sellers  of  bread  and  flowers,  and  the  puNic  women. 

The  laws  of  marriage  in  (j recce  were  very  severe  with  women,  but  ver\' 
lax  with  men,  so  that  at  times  marriage  was  at  a  great  discount  because  of 
male  dissoluteness,  and  the  class  of  courtesans  was  large. 

In  Athens  marriage  with  foreign  women  was  illegal,  and  the  children  of 
such  were  illegitimate. 

No  people  on  earth  were  so  enamored  of  mere  physical  beauty  as  the 
Greeks,  and  none  were  so  gifted  with  it.  At  all  festivals  and  public  pro- 
cessions the  most  beautihil  women  were  foremost.  Public  prizes  were 
given  to  the  handsomest  women  and  men.  At  Segasta,  a  temple  was  built 
and  sacrifices  were  otTered  t<>  her  who  took  the  prize  for  beauty. 

lulucation  was  cultivated  by  this  class  of  public  women,  and  Aspasia 
was  greatly  celebrated  for  her  beauty,  talent,  elocpience,  and  knowledge  of 
the  politics  of  the  times.  Her  hou^e  became  the  resort  of  many  of  the 
noted  men  of  the  age,  who  were  attracted  by  her  many  charms  of  person 
and  mind. 

The  innnortal  Socrates  was  a  fretjuent  caller,  and  that  great  ruler  of 
Athens.  Pericles,  was  so  captixated  that  he  divorced  his  wife,  by  whom  he 
had  two  sons,  in  order  to  live  with  Aspasia.  A  son,  l*ericlc*s,  was  born  to 
them,  who  was  legitimatized  by  })opular  decrie  and  became  a  noted 

Aspasia  was  accused  of  inducing  free  women  to  become  courtesans,  but 
after  a  tearful  defense  by  PtTicles,  was  accpiitted.  She  is  said  to  have  com- 
posed much  of  the  great  oration  of  Poricles  over  the  Athenians  who  fell  iu 
battle,  B.  C.  430. 



B.  C.  480? 


fl  i\OR  twenty-seven  years  the  Greeks,  whom  Xerxes'   army  of  millions 
J-        could  not  conquer,  had  been  zealously  at  work  as  was  their  wont,  in 
ferociously  killing  each  other  in  those  civil  conflicts  known  as  the  Pelopon- 
nesian  wars  ;  and  at  last  Athens  (founded  B.  C.  1556)  was  conquered  and 
its  walls  demolished,  and  the  liberties  of  Greece  went  out  in  darkness  under 
the  reign  of  the  Thirty  and  the  Ten  Tyrants.     It  was  at  this  period  that 
Socrates,  greatest  spirit  of  all  the  pagan  world,  fell  a  victim  to  the  super- 
stition of  his  time,  accused  of  neglecting  worship  of  the  gods,   introducing 
new  deities,  and  corrupting  the  youth  of  Athens  ;  and  B.  C.  399,  this  loftiest 
genius  of  the  ancients,  who  had  brought  more  wisdom  into  the  storehouse  of 
ages  than  has  any  other  philosopher,  came  to  his  death  at  the  hands  of  Envy. 
His  wife  has  j)assed  into  history  as  the  typical  scold.     Yet  it  must  be 
confessed  that  few  women  could  have  endured  with  patience    the   life  of 
abject  poverty  he  chose  to  live,* and  the  trials  to  which  he  subjected  her. 
Fur.  as  an  opponent  truthfully  said  to  him,  **  A  slave  whose  master  made 
him  live  as  you  do  would  run  away." 

Wfunen  among  the  Greeks,  while  perhaps  better  treated  than  elsewhere, 
wtTC  yet  slaves.  Being  asked  by  Alcibiades  how  he  could  live  with  such  a 
'A'»nKin,  Socrates  is  said  to  have  rei)lied,  "  She  exercises  my  patience,  and 
t-nal)k>  me  to  bear  with  all  the  injustice  I  experience  from  others."  It  is 
ITMUihic,  however,  that  Xantippe's  faults  have  been  much  exaggerated. 
'"^"^ rates  e\  idently  entertained  a  sincere  regard  for  her,  and  gave  her  credit 
•"rnianv  domestic  virtues. 

^'*P««itA  continued. 

After  the  death  of  Pericles,  Aspasia  lived  with  and  greatly  advanced  the 
'^Ttiines  of  Lysicles,  a  noted  cattle  dealer.  Hy  her  instructions  she  raised 
^'ini  to  a  prominent  [)lace  in  the  state.  This  episode  is  somewhat  obscure, 
^pnrially  as  Lysicles  seems  to  have  fallen  in  battle  in  428. 

Much  of  the  glory  of  the  administration  of  Pericles  has  been  ascribed  to 
her  el(»quent  instruction  and  political  sagacity. 





eARIA  was  a  small    mountainous   Greek   kingdom   on  the  Mediter- 
ranean coast  of  what  is  now  Turkey  in  Asia,  having  the  kingdom 
of  Phrygia  on  the  east,  and  Lydia  on  the  north.     The  chief  towns 
were  Miletus,  Halicarnassus,  and  Cnidus  ;  principal  river  the  Meander. 

The  Greeks  were  the  most  individualized  people  in  the  world,  incon- 
stant, fickle,  delighting  in  suits  at  law,  arguments,  and  disputes,  and  seldom 
able  to  agree.  Their  chief  cities,  at  this  time  ruled  by  tyrants,  were  almost 
perpetually  at  strife  with  each  other,  and  often  in  bloody  wars. 

Artemisia  was  the  sister  and,  after  the  ancient  customs,  became  the  wife 
of  Mausolus,  king  of  Caria,  who  died  B.  C.  352,  the  widow  surviving  him 
two  years. 

She  is  chiefly  known  to  history  for  the  conquest  of  the  Island  of 
Rhodes,  afterwards  the  greatest  seat  of  learning  in  the  world,  and  then 
celebrated  and  wealthy.  She  built  a  monument  to  commemorate  the  event, 
which  the  Rhodians,  wIumi  they  gained  their  liberty  again,  rebuilt  so  as  to 
make  it  inaccessible.  Her  excessive  grief  over  her  brother-husband* s  death 
is  also  noteworthy.  She  is  said  to  have  mingled  his  funeral  ashes  with  her 
wine  ;  and  built  for  him,  at  Halicarnassus,  a  tomb  (she  dying  before  it  was 
finished;  so  costly  and  grand  as  t(^  be  considered  one  of  the  seven  wonders 
of  the  ancient  world,  and  from  which  our  modern  word  Mausoleum  comes. 
Ruins  of  the  tomb  yet  remain.  She  employed  the  most  celebrated  Greek 
orators  to  pronounce  orations  to  his  honor,  giving  prizes  to  the  most  suc- 
cessful, and  is  said  to  have  died  of  grief  for  him. 

Alexander  the  Great,  wlien  Darius  was  assassinated,  B.  C.  330,  estab- 
lished the  Grecian  ICmpIre  on  the  ruins  of  the  overthrown  empire  of  Persia, 
that  had  continued  two  hundred  and  six  years.  Seven  years  later  Alex- 
ander died  at  Babylon  and  his  vast  empire  was  divided.  But  during  all 
the  Greek  predominance,  the  common  woman's  condition  was  but  little  im- 
proved. She  was  secluded,  not  taught  housekeeping  until  marriage,  and 
was  afterwards  a  tlrudge.      (^f  rights  she  had  none. 


B.C.  108? 


/  I  ^HIS  famous  Roman  lady  lived  in  the  days  of  the  Roman  Republic  — 
-L  a  hollow  mockery  for  a  state  —  that  existed  for  five  hundred  years, 
and  was  in  reality  a  government  by  an  aristocracy,  at  first  one  of  birth  ; 
later,  of  wealth,  selfishness,  and  lust.  Slavery  was  the  foundation  and 
oligarchy  the  structure,  and  within  it  was  full  of  unspeakable  cruelties  and 

By  birth  Cornelia  was  of  the  very  highest  patrician  class,  her  father 
being  the  P.  Scipio  Africanus  who  had  destroyed  Carthage,  and  her 
mother,  Amelia,  the  daughter  of  the  L.  ^milius  Paulus,  who  perished  at 
the  battle  of  Cannae. 

She  was  married  to  T.  Sempronius  Gracchus,  of  a  plebeian  family  of 
wealth,  renowned  for  their  acts  and  sympathies  with  the  great  multitudes  of 
the  city*s  suffering  poor.  Twelve  children  were  born  to  her,  three  only 
reaching  adult  age. 

She  was  highly  educated  in  the  Latin  and  Greek  literature,  was  pre- 
tmintnl  for  virtue  and  gravity  of  character,  and  a  central  figure  in  Roman 
^KkXy  during  her  husband's  lifetime  and  after.  Her  house  was  the  resort 
ot  ihe  high  minded,  noble,  and  learned  of  Rome. 

Her  daughter  Sempronia  married  the  younger  Africanus,  her  two  sons 
^)tin^  those  famous  Gracchi,  Tiberius  and  Cains,  i)()th  eminent  soldiers  and 
tribunes.  The  former  sought  when  tribune  to  aid  the  poor  by  amendment 
"^land  laws  and  urged  that  the  immense  wealth  Attilus,  king  of  Perganios, 
^3(1  left  to  Rome  be  distributed  among  them.  At  election  for  tribune, 
*iberius  and  hundreds  of  his  followers  were  killed  in  riots  instigated  by 
^^  patricians.  Ten  years  later,  Caius,  for  seeking  to  reform  the  govern- 
^«it  in  the  interests  of  the  poor,  employing  them  in  building  roads  and 
^ther  public  works,  was  set  upon  in  a  similar  riot  and  perished  at  the  hand 
^^  his  slave.  The  Romans  afterward  repenting,  put  upon  the  motlu-r's 
toml).  ''Cornelia,  mother  of  the  Gracchi." 



B.  C.  70?-ll. 


X^  ER  father  was  the  Roman  Praetor,  Caius  Octavius,  and  the  family  one 
MLf       of  great  patrician    distinction.     One  of   her   brothers   became  the 

^  Emperor  Augustus  after  the  rotten  Republic  had  slid  again  into 

In  the  days  of  Julius  Caesar  she  was  married  to  his  bitter  enemy, 
C.  Marcellus,  and  Caesar  later  greatly  desired  her  to  divorce  her  husband 
and  marry  Pompey,  but  she  refused.  Her  husband  died  three  years  after 
Caesar's  assassination,  and  then,  to  prevent  if  possible  the  civil  war  that  was 
brewing  between  her  brother  Octavius  and  Antony,  she  was  induced  to 
marry  Antony  immediately  after  the  death  of  Marcellus. 

The  historians  report  her  to  have  been  a  woman  of  very  high  character 
and  many  accomplishments,  and  for  a  time  she  kept  the  dissolute  Antony 
with  her,  inasmuch  as  she  was  a  far  more  beautiful  woman  in  person  than 
the  courtesan  Cleopatra.  But  his  affection  for  his  wife  was  not  strong 
enough  to  counterbalance  the  feelings  that  weighed  against  it. 

After  Antony's  unsuccessful  Parthian  campaign  slie  went  with  troops 
and  money  to  meet  him  at  Athens.  But  he,  now  that  Cleopatra  was  with 
him,  refused  to  see  her,  and  bade  her  return  to  Rome.  Sending  the  troops 
and  money  to  him  she  returned  to  his  house  at  Rome  overwhelmed  with 
grief  at  his  infatuation  for  the  Egyptian  queen,  and  thereafter  devoted 
herself  to  the  education  of  her  children,  she  having  had  three  by  her  first 
husband,  Marcellus,  and  two  daughters  by  Antony.  From  these  daughters 
descended,  it  is  said,  the  emperors  Caligula,  Claudius,  and  Nero. 

Even  after  Antony  had  so  cruelly  and  unjustly  divorced  her,  she  con- 
tinued to  educate  his  son  by  Fulvia,  along  with  her  own  children  ;  and  after 
his  and  Cleopatra's  shameful  death  she  took  Antony's  children  by  Cleo- 
patra, protecting  and  educating  them  as  if  they  had  been  her  own. 

She  is  known  as  the  "  Patient  Grizel  of  the  ancient  world,"  and  died,  it 
has  been  supposed,  of  grief  at  her  misfortunes,  when  in  her  fifty-fourth 
year.     She  was  buried  with  the  highest  honors  in  Rome. 



B.  C.  37  ? 


MARIAMNE  was  of  the  Jewish  Asmonean  line,  and  was  accounted  the 
most  beautiful  princess   of  her  time.     She  was  betrothed  to  Herod 
the  Great,  and  married  to  him  at  Samaria,  B.C.  41,  Herod  leaving 
his  siege  of  Jerusalem  for  that  purpose. 

She  was  of  proud  spirit,  boastful  of  her  Maccabean  ancestry,  and  of 
strong  temper,  and  the  king's  harem  was,  according  to  Josephus,  anything 
W  a  pleasant  place,  owing  to  the  ill-will  existing  between  Mariamne  and 
htr  mother,  Alexandrine,  and  Herod's  mother,  Cypros,  and  his  sister, 
Salome,  the  latter  women  being  taunted  by  her  at  times  with  their  less 
nol)le  birth.  She  persuaded  Herod  to  depose  Ananel  from  the  high  priest- 
h«KKl,  and  appoint  her  young  brother,  Aristobulus,  which  brother  was 
purposely  drowned  by  his  order  at  a  swimming  bout,  the  following  year. 

Antony  having  oversight  of  Rome's  eastern  dominions,  and  Mariamne 
reporting  this  to  Cleopatra,  Herod  was  summoned  to  Laodicea  to  explain, 
ancl!)<»ueht  the  good  will  of  Antony. 

H(T«»d,  who  loved  Marianme  with  a  wild,  insane  passion,  gave  orders  to 
^ve  her  killed  in  case  Antony  ordered  his  death  so  as  to  i)revent  her  from 
tallin'^r  inir,   Antony's    power,   and    was   upbraided   by  her    on   the   return. 

Herod's  mother  and  sister  now  accused  her  of  adultery  with  Josephus, 
sn'l  the  hirious  FleTod  killed  Josephus,  and  imprisoned  Marianme' s  mother. 

After  Antony's  overthrow  at  Actium,  Herod  went  to  Rhodes  to  inter- 
cede with  Octavius  for  having  been  Antony's  partisan.  Before  j4c>ing  he 
^^ilied  Marianme' s  grandfather,  and  shut  her  up  in  |)rison  with  her  mother, 
'ta\ing  orders  with  the  officers,  Soemus  and  Josephus,  to  kill  them  if  he  did 
r*'t  return.      This  also  became  known  to  them. 

A  year  latrr  .Salome  falsely  accused  her  of  attempting  to  poison  Herod, 
^y  torturing  her  chamberlain,  Herod  discovered  the  story's  falsity,  but 
learned  that  the  officers  had  told  of  his  last  purpose,  and  put  them  to  death. 
Mariamne,  em  his  sister's  now  further  falsehood  of  her  adultery,  and  through 
*H<- constant  urging:  of  Salome  and  his  mother,  was  also  put  to  death. 



B.C.69?— B.C.30. 


/  I  \HIS  last  queen  of  ancient  Egypt  was  the  third  and  eldest  surviv 
JL       daughter  of  Ptolemy  Antites,  of  Egj'pt's  Greek  line  of  kings,  i 
was  horn   B.C.   69,  at  Alexandria,  Egypt,  and  died  there  Aug 
30,  B.C.  30. 

When  she  was  seventeen,  her  father  died,  and  by  the  terms  of  his  1 
she  was  to  be  joint  ruler  of  the  Eg>'ptian  dominions,  with  her  yount 
brother  Ptolemy,  who  was  to  be  her  husband. 

Cleopatra  was  brilliant,  beautiful,  self-willed,  and  educated  in  Greek  i 
six  other  lanjjuages,  and  the  nobles,  finding  they  could  not  use  her  to  th 
enrichment,  and  led  by  Ptolemy's  guardian,  Pothinus,  and  Achilles,  cc 
mander  oi  the  anny,  expelled  her  from  the  cit\'.  Collecting  an  army  fr 
the  dependencies  t)f  Arabia  and  Palestine,  she  advanced  to  battle  for 
rights,  when  Julius  Cies;ir,  who  had  just  overthrown  Pompey  at  Pharsa 
and  was  pursuing  the  fleeing  Pompey  to  Eg\-pt,  appeared  on  the  see 
and,  finding  Pompey  had  l>een  assassinated  at  Pelusium,  came  to  Alex 
dria  as  arbitrator. 

I'nable  to  gain  Caesar's  notice,  she  had  herself  smuggled  into  his  pi 
ence  in  a  roll  of  car^>et  carrieil  by  her  slaves,  which,  being  unrolled, 
great    C:es;ir   was    captivateil    by    her   charms,    and    espoused   her   cat 
Ptolemy  was  killed  in  a  battle  i>n  the  Nile  near  Memphis,  and  Cleopatra  y 
given  her  Vinrngtst  brother,  then  eleven  years  old,  as  a  husband  by  Cae 

Within  a  few  weeks  after  C;es;ir  left  to  suppress  a  revolt  in  Armei 
Clei>patra  hor^-  him  a  son,  Ciesarion.  The  next  year,  B.C.  46,  with  1 
son  .\m\  her  brother-husbiind,  she  went  with  Ca*s;u'  to  Rome,  and  lived  i 
palace  luar  the  Tiber  as  his  wife,  to  the  great  disgust  t>f  aristocratic  Ron 
not  that  Rinnans  were  purer  than  Cleopatra,  but  she  was  a  foreigner,  wl: 
was  v^all  arul  \\i»nn\\i.H>d  to  the  blue-bUKxl  profligates  oi  Rome. 

Here  Cvis^ir  put  her  statue  in  a  temple  built  to  \'enus.  But  his  as: 
sinativMi  in  B.  C.  44  com pelleil  her  to  return  to  Egypt.  Two  years  h 
the  battle  of  Phars^ilia  put  the  Triumvirate  in  pK>wer  and  Marc  Antony  ' 


— ©♦© — 

ReprDducBd  frnni  the  painting  by  Eustav 
WerthBimBr,  an  Austrian  artist,  and  a  specialist 
in  history  and  ganra  painting.  "  The  Waves' 
Kiss,"  "  Shipwreck  af  Agrippina,"  "Fisherman's 
Dream,"  and  the  "King's  Breakfast"  are  other 
examples  of  his  work. 



allotted  the  government  of  the  East,  and  established  a  brilhant  court  at 
Tarsus.  Ck»opatra  not  appearing  among  the  great  throng  of  f>otentates 
that  flocked  to  do  him  honor,  he  sent  an  ambassador  and  then  letters,  beg- 
Knnji  her  to  visit  him.  When  the  brother-husband  came  of  age  he  was 
conveniently  put  out  of  the  way  by  poison. 

Gcopatra  was  now  twenty-eight,  in  the  fullness  of  her  Greek  beauty, 
and  when  she  sailed  up  the  Cydnus  in  that  gorgeous  Oriental  manner  so 
strikinjjly  depicted  by  Shakespeare,  Antony  became  at  once  her  enamored 
islaveand  followed  her  to  Alexandria,  where  the  winter  of  B.  C.  40-41  was 
s^fK-nt  in  wild  revelry  of  every  kind,  the  couple  claiming  to  be  the  gods 
Osiris  and  Isis. 

Antony's  wife,  Fulvia,  now  sought  to  compel  his  return  by  inciting  a 
*ar  in  Italy.  Her  forces  were  defeated  and  she  fled  to  Athens,  where 
Antony  met  her.  I'pon  his  return  from  Rome,  however,  he  left  Fulvia  at 
Siac^n.  where  she  died  of  rage  and  grief  at  his  neglect. 

A  reconciliation  was  now  obtained  by  friends  of  the  two  Triumvirs, 
Antony  and  ^)ctavius,  by  which  the  latter' s  recendy  widowed  sister, 
< ^ctavLi,  iKi-ame  Antony's  wife  and  for  two  winters  he  lived  with  her  at 
Athens.    CleojKitn*  meanwhile  was  furious  with  rage  and  jealousy. 

Aninnv  then  went  to  Syria,  warring  against  the  Parthians,  and  sent  for 
n»i,jvitra.  who  met  him  at  Laodicea  and  went  with  him  to  the  Kuphrates, 
^'\i*i\  thf  return  he  went  with  her  to  Egypt. 

Th».  nt\t  year  he  con'jiKred  Armenia  and  returning  to  Alexandria  pro- 
'  iiinetl  a  "  triumph  *'  for  Cleopatra  as  the  ''(jueen  of  kings,"  making  her 
^■•-  ^'V  Ca-rvir  hgitimati-,  and  his  offspring  by  Cleopatra  possessors  of  rich 
•^'  ■■  pn.\inct.-s. 

Alter  divorcing  Dctavia,  he  spent  the  year  B.  C.  33  in  revelries  with 
'-'"t'^ra  .it  Kphesus,  .Samos,  and  Athens. 

R"m<-  nt»w  (Itclared  war  against  Cleopatra  and  the  armies  met  at 
•^■^uim.  \vli«Te  .^he  j)ersuaded  Antony  to  tight  with  the  naval  forces  instead 
''*h-land  tpM.p-^  and  in  the  mid^t  of  the  battle  turned  the  scale  against 
■-'  f'V  tl.f ing  with  sixty  ships.  Antony  learned  during  the  battle  that  she 
''•i^ifiMJ.  and  flung  away  half  the  world  to  follow  her,  leaving  his  forces  t(» 
*'^T:<n(ier  to  Octavius. 



The  winter  was  spent  with  her  at  Alexandria  in  wildest  excesses, 
the  spring  Octavius  appeared  at  Alexandria,  and    Antony  was  defeat 
Cleopatra  seeking  to  buy  her  safety  by  offering  to  betray  Antony. 

She  now  fled  to  the  immense  mausoleum  she  had  constructed.     Anto 
hearing  that  she  was  dead,   mortally  wounded  himself,  then,  learning 
was  alive,  had  himself  carried  to  the  tomb,  where  Cleopatra  and  her  i 
slaves,  with  much  labor,  raised  him  to  their  upper  chamber,  and  he  die( 
her  arms. 

Octavius  by  artifice  captured  her  in  her  tomb  and  she  .was  brought 
fore  him.  Failing  to  entice  him  and  seeing  that  she  was  destined  fo 
Roman  "triumph,"  she  caused  her  woman  slaves,  Iris  and  Charmain 
array  her  in  her  royal  robes  and  crown,  and  then  placed  an  asp  in 
bosom  that  a  countryman  had  smuggled  to  her  in  a  basket  of  figs,  ; 
died,  in  her  twenty-ninth  year  ;  her  women  followed  her  example  i 
guards  of  Octavius  found  them  all  dead. 

And  so  old  Egypt's  long  line  of  kings  and  queens  forever  passed  aw 
With  her  ended  the  dynasty  of  the  Ptolemies  and  Egypt  became  a  Ron^ 

The  portrait  of  Cleopatra  on  her  coins  is  that  of  a  woman  of  intelk 
rather  than  of  beauty.  A  broad  head,  with  wavy  hair,  an  aquiline  no 
large  deep-set  eyes,  and  a  full  eloquent  mouth,  is  supported  by  a  long  sl< 
der  throat.  To  these  personal  qualities  she  added  a  mind  singularly  cu 
vated  and  resourceful. 

She  had  three  children  by  Antony. 





^n7HE  Bible  is  the  very  oldest  and  the  only  consecutive  history  of  early 
®|fe  mankind  that  is  known.  The  oldest  of  the  exhumed  historic  an- 
nals of  Chaldea  or  of  Egypt,  of  India  or  of  China,  are  but  the 
debris  of  history  —  the  mere  dust  of  long  vanished  records,  with  no  present 
coherence  and  with  little  reliability.  Gods  and  demi-gods  are  the  burden 
of   their   themes.       For  well-nigh    three   thousand   years   of 

Bitoic  human  history,  the  Bible  bears  its  own  unattested  and  yet 
uncontradicted  story  of  the  origin  of  mankind  and  of  the 
doings  of  a  few  men.  Is  its  story  reliable?  If  not,  man  has  no  certain 
records  of  his  beginning  and  his  early  years.  It  does  not  enter  into  the 
purpose  of  this  present  work  to  discuss  that  question.  We  proceed  upon 
the  assumption  that  the  Biblical  story  is  historic  and  reliable.  A  witness 
whose  testimony  has  been  invariably  corroborated  by  those  to  whom  any 
knowledge  of  like  character  is  possible,  may  safely  be  believed  when  he 
tfsiihes  concerning  things  of  which  he  alone  has  knowledge.  Such  a  wit- 
ness is  the  Bible. 

The  Bible  is  the  only  ancient  historic  book  that  teaches  the  creation  of 
the  world.  In  the  fragments  of  other  ancient  annals  that  are  known  to 
^itn,  there  arc  to  be  found  accounts  of  the  beginnings  of  earthly  things, 
^^ut  always  from  previously  existent  matter  ;  and  those  who  suppose  the 
'biblical  narrative  to  have  been  derived  from  Chaldean  or  any  other  creation 
9'<^s  would  do  well  to  study  and  compare  them.  Such  study  can  only 
f^ult  in  the  conviction  that  the  Genesis  account  stands  unique,  alone,  and 
und(Ti\ed  from  any  yet  known  human  source,  or  sources. 

The  present  writer  also  holds  that  the  first  woman  was  not  one  of  the 
^^hfcanthropoids  —  ape-like  women  —  of  Professor  Haeckel's  twenty-first 
-^geoi  evolution,  but  was  a  direct  creation  of  Deity  as  stated  in  the  Genesis 
''^ord,  and  we  therefore  seek  by  it  to  know  what  was  the  condition  of 
*oman  in  those  far-of!  ages. 



There  was  much  of  human  history  in  those  old-world  times,  for  there 
were  great  events.  But  of  them,  the  barest  hints  only  remain  to  us.  For 
instance,  seventy  verses  (Genesis  iv  to  vi:  12),  more  than  half  of  which  con- 
sists  of  names  and  ages  of  the  chieftains  of  the  antediluvian  peoples,  tell  all 
that  historians  know  of  man  during  a  period  probably  as  great,  if  not  hun- 
dreds of  years  greater,  than  has  elapsed  from  the  birth  of  Christ  until  now. 
Yet  how  much  of  human  history  has  been  crowded  into  our  nineteen  cen- 
turies of  the  Christian  Era  !  How  many  volumes  it  takes  to  even  faintly 
tell  it !  But  those  seventy  verses  are  absolutely  the  only  records  left  us  of 
twenty  centuries  of  human  life.  And  then,  too,  for  nearly  a  thousand 
years. longer,  men  must  continue  to  go  to  this  ancient  book  —  the  Bible  — 
for  any  certain  records  that  are  left  them  of  theh*  kind. 

Certain  incidental  statements  appear  in  those  old  brief  Bible  chronicles, 
that  shed  more  or  less  light  upon  the  condition  of  woman.  For  example, 
we  are  told  that  the  first  son  of  the  first  woman  the  world 
^w^oman  ^^'^^  knew,  "  builded  a  city  and  called  the  name  of  the  city 
after  the  name  of  his  son  Enoch,"  and  that  he  was  also  a  far- 
mer or  "  tiller  of  the  ground."  Hence  we  infer  that  his  mother,  the  first 
woman,  could  not  have  been  that  gentle  savage  of  our  modern  wise  men, 
who,  they  tell  us,  was  wont,  stone  hammer  in  hand,  to  go  bone  hunting  for 
marrow.  Nor  did  this  first  woman  live  in  tents.  Not  until  hundreds  of 
years  later,  in  the  seventh  generation  from  Eve,  do  we  meet  with  one  Jabal, 
who  is  said  to  have  been  the  father,  /.  c. ,  founder,  of  that  style  of  life,  he 
being  a  herder  or  cattle  raiser. 

These  records  also  inform  us  that  during  the  lifetime  of  the  first  wo- 
man, Eve,  musical  notes  and  harmony  were  known,  the  herder's  brother, 
Jubal,  being  ''the  father  of  all  such  as  handle   the   harp  and 

primeirai    ^,.or^,^  "       Mining   and    forging    were    also    known    in    those 
civilization         ^  .s  .^     f> 

days,  Tubal-Cain  l^eing  "  the  forger  of  every  cutting  instru- 
ment of  brass  and  iron."  Even  the  fine  arts,  as  poetry,  were  in  use, 
Lamech's  speech  to  his  wives  being  the  oldest  fragment  of  poetr>'  known. 
And  in  this  poetic  chieftain,  Lamech,  of  the-  fifth  generation  from 
Adam,  we  meet  with  the  first  polygamist  of  the  world  ;  a  departure  from 
the  previous  condition  of  woman  so  radical,  that  the  names  of  his  wives 



an*  reconk-d  :  they,  tojjelhcr  with  Kve  and  one  other  (Tubal-Cain's  sister), 
beinjj  the  only  names  of  women  preserved  in  the  Bible  for  the  first  twenty 
centuries.  This  frantic  jKx.^tic  appeal  of  Lamech  to  his  wives  for  just ifica- 
ti«»n  se«-ms  to  contain  a  romance,  as  well  as  to  recite  a  tragedy.  Did 
Lamech  ro\)  that  **  younj^  man  "  of  a  sweetheart  or  a  wife? 

It  further  appears  from  this  ancient  chronicle,  that  the  husband  of  the 
first  woman  possessed  much  knowledge  of  animal  life  and  gave  names 
descriptiv*'  of  their  naturcfs  to  the  whole  animal  world,  and  doubtless  im- 
parted this  knowledge  to  others  also,  for  Noah,  of  the  tenth  generation 
from  Adam,  was  thoroughly  posted  as  to  what  were  "clean"  and  **  un- 
clean "  animals  and  birds. 

Adam  and  the  antediluvian  peoples  were  able  to  distinguish  "  seed -bear- 
ing herl>s "  and  also  every  "tree  in  which  is  a  seed-bearing  fruit,"  and 
'•  fvery  gn-en  herb"  of  non-poisonous  kinds;  a  necessity  for  them  to 
know,  as  mankind  were  then  vegetarians. 

It  would  also  seem  that  they  were  accjuainted  with  minerals,  for  **gold" 
and  "precious  stones"  were  then  known.  It  is  therefore  safe  to  assimie 
that  woman  in  those  ancient  ages  had  both  the  comforts  of  life  and  some  of 
its  luxuries. 

It  cannot  now  Ix*  known  hr)w  much  (»f  the  earth  was  then  occupied  by 

man.      Tht-  pri-sent  Malay  people  within  K^s  than  five  hundred  years  have 

xiie         ^*J>read    along  two  hundred  degrers  of  latitude,   from   Kaster 

Ancient      Island  to  Madagascar,  and,  within  a  less  j)erio(l  than  that  em- 

^^^''  braced  in  the  antediluvian  tinu*s,  half  the  contint-nt  of  Africa 

hiiN  In-tn  jKoplfd  by  a  race  whose  various  tribes  ditTer  in  sjnech  no  more 
than  d«»  High  and  Low  derman  :  while  the  .American  Indians  have  shifted 
thtir  homt-s  tw(»  thous;uid  miU»s  away  from  wlurr  Columbus  found  them  in 
A.I>.  1492.  The  Norsemen  sailed  to  Iceland,  (ireinland,  and  New  Eng- 
l.ind.  in  litth-  l>oats  not  so  seaworthy  as  ihosr  of  the  native  Polynesians. 
L«»ng  iM-fon-  R«»me  was  f<»imded.  ihr  C'hincsr  knrw  the  magnet  and  the 
m.irinir's  comp.'iss.  made  junks,  and  went  to  sea  in  them,  touching  our 
Pacific'  co.i>t.s  generations  before  the  NorMincn  reached  New  Kngland. 
Why  then  shouUl  it  be  thought  improbable  that  the  antedihn  ians  navigated 
the  M.MS  and  |K-ople<l  the  earth,  during  those  two  th(»usimd  years  before  the 



Flood?  Boats  were  not  unknown  to  them,  as  appears  from  Noah's  ready 
and  skillful  construction  of  the  Ark,  and  mankind  were  all  of  one  speech  ; 
a  great  aid  to  travel. 

In  this  primeval  age  here  being  considered,  the  race  was  probably  as 
prolific  as  now.  The  first  woman.  Eve,  it  is  recorded,  had  **sons  and  daugh- 
ters** born  to  her  other  than  those  whose  names  appear  in  the  Genesis  ; 
while  tradition  assigns  to  that  first  polygamist,  Lamech,  no  less  than  sev- 
enty-seven children.  In  those  ancient  ages  men  lived  eight  and  nine  hun- 
dred years,  a  condition  that  admitted  of  a  numerous  progeny  and  a  vast 
experience  of  life. 

This  great  longevity  seems  to  have  been  a  natural  consequence  of  the 
physical  condition  of  the  earth  at  that  time,  and  it  is  described  in  the 
Bible.  It  will  be  recalled  that  not  until  after  the  Flood  does  the  rainbow 
appear,  and  then  it  is  put  in  the  cloud  as  a  token  of  the  new  covenant  with 
Noah  and  his  posterity,  a  seeming  absurdity  if  the  sun  had  ever  been 
observed  shining  on  falling  drops  of  water  prior  to  the  Flood,  for  the  rain- 
bow would  then  have  often  appeared. 

Again,  it  is  stated  that,  at  the  creation,  God  made  **  a  firmament  in  the 
midst  of  the  waters ' '  thereby  ' '  dividing  the  waters  which  were  under  the 
firmament  from  the  waters  which  were  above  the  firmament,"  this  firma- 
ment being  what  we  now  call  the  air,  which  is  as  truly  a  fluid  as  water. 

Further,  at  the  end  of  fitting  up  the  world  for  man,  just  prior  to  the 

creation  of  Adam,  we  are  told  that  "  the  Lord  God  had  not  caused  it  to 

rain  upon  the  earth  "  — but  "  there  went  up  a  mist  from  the 

queou  ^^j^ii  and  watered  the  whole  face  of  the  ijround."  The  writer 
therefore  concludes  the  meaning  to  be,  that  the  world  during 
antediluvian  times  was  surrounded  by  an  aqueous  cloud  belt,  resembling  in 
appearance  those  belts  now  to  be  seen  around  the  planet  Jupiter,  or  Venus, 
or  Saturn,  as  they  are  viewed  through  telescopes  from  our  earth.  This 
belt  shut  off  the  chemical,  atomic,  or  ener\ating  rays  of  the  sun,  thus  keep- 
ing the  climatic  conditions  throughout  all  the  world  wondrously  conduciv^e 
to  a  great  length  of  life.  Such  conditions  would  allow  no  ice  caps  at  the 
poles,  as  we  now  have  them  ;  and  accounts  for  those  buried  forests  of 
palms,  magnolias,  cypresses,  and  other  tropical  trees,  now  to  be  found  as 



far  north  as  Upemavik,  Greenland,  and  in  other  of  the  Arctic  regions. 
Finally  the  belt  was  broken  up  and  fell  on  the  earth  in  the  days  of  Noah, 
being  those  * '  windows  of  heaven  ' '  that  were  *  *  opened, ' '  and  constitutes  a 
reasonable  explanation  for  many  otherwise  inexplicable  mysteries. 

It  is  staled  that  there  grew  up  amid  this  great  length  of  human  life  in 
ihe  antediluvian  world,  and  possibly  then  because  of  it,  very  grave  evils 
that  particularly  affected  woman.  That  period  was,  according  to  the  testi- 
mony of  Jesus  Christ  and  the  Apostles  Jude  and  Peter,  particularly  charac- 
terized by  extreme  license  in  the  gratification  of  the  bodily  appetites, 
through  gluttony  or  high  living  and  gross  licentiousness. 

The  prophet  Enoch,  we  are  told,  in  the  seventh  generation,  mightily 
exhorted  against  it,  and  warned  the  people  of  a  coming  judgment  because 
of  it.  Some  four  hundred  years  later  that  evil  rose  to  enormous  propor- 
tions, and  the  governors  or  rulers  of  the  people  were  unable  to  suppress  it. 

Soon  a  new  form  of  the  evil  arose,  so  fierce  and  terrible  that  the  memory 

of  it  survived  for  ages  after  the  Flood.     This  culminated  in  such  deeds  of 

violence  upon  women,  and  such  a  corruption  of  the  race  of 

_^  men,  that  in  the  reign  of  the  governor  and  prophet  Noah  the 

human  race  was  destroyed  by  a  deluge  of  waters,  Noah  only 

and  his  family  being  saved  in  the  Ark  that  he  had  built  under  divine  direc- 

^i'^>n,  and  Ix^cause  of  a  warning  that  had  been  given  him  of   this  coming 

^^^nt.     This  warning,  our  Lord  and  his  apostles  say,  was  given  by  him  to 

^h*^  world,  but  all  in  vain.     The  Hood  came  and  swept  twenty  centuries  of 

humanity  from  the  earth. 

Authorities  are  not  agreed  as  to  either  the  date  when  the  Deluge 
^^'urrwl,  or  as  to  the  time  from  it  to  the  call  of  Abraham.  The  Scptuagint 
^reek )  version  of  the  Old  Testament  assigns  2262  years  from  the  creation 
^'' Adam  lo  the  Flood  of  Noah.  The  Masoretic  Hebrew,  1656  years,  and 
^^^' Samaritan  Pentateuch,  1307  years  ;  while  Josephiis  gives  2256  years  as 
^^t  number. 

It  is  recorded  that  Noah  lived  three    hundred  and  fifty  years  after  the 
Flood.      But,  according   to  the  Biblical  records,  the  old  time 

obvious,  however,  is  tl 


longevity  henceforth  rapidly  shortened.     The  one  fact  that  is 
obvious,  however,  is  that  the  plains  of  Shinar,  in  the  Euphrates 


valley,  became  the  first  habitation  of  postdiluvian  man.  Here  their  first 
cities  were  builded.  Here  they  began  building  that  vast  historic  Tower  of 
Babel.  Here  occurred  the  "  Confusion  of  Tongues,"  and  thence  men  were 
scattered  abroad  upon  the  face  of  the  earth.  Kurds  and  Turkomans  now 
dwell  in  mijerable,  dirty  villages,  in  this  waste  and  desolate  land,  which 
once  was  the  richest  part  of  the  earth,  and  the  only  land  where  wheat  grew 
wild  ;  where  crops  yielded  two  hundred  and  often  three  hundred  fold,  and 
two  and  three  harvests  a  year  were  gathered  ;  where  pastures  were  so  rich, 
even  in  historic  times,  that  cattle  had  often  to  be  driven  from  them  lest 
they  become  too  fat  for  use. 

In  this  region  Herodotus  traveled  and  expressed  his  astonishment  at  the 
hundred  or  more  great  cities  he  saw,  while  Babylon,  once  the  "glory  of 

story         ^^^  kingdoms,"   presided  over  them  all.     All  is  now  ruins. 

of  ttie        Of  the  hundred  or  more  visible  mounds  covering  the  sites  of 

*  *  *  once  mighty  cities  and  temples,  scarce  a  half  dozen  have  yet 
been  exhumed.  But  from  these  have  been  taken  thousands  of  burnt  clay 
tablets,  cylinders,  images,  and  fragments,  telhng  of  a  once  great  civilization 
that  flourished  here  for  three  thousand  years.  Those  people  made  arches, 
tunnels,  aqueducts,  canals,  drains  ;  used  the  mechanical  lever  and  roller  ; 
manufactured  glass  and  made  lenses  of  it  ;  engraved  gems  ;  practiced  inlay- 
ing, overlaying,  and  enameling  of  metals  ;  made  jars,  dishes,  vases,  ivory 
and  bronze  ornaments  ;  were  weavers,  manufacturers  of  all  sorts  ;  architects 
and  builders ;  had  earrings,  bells,  and  jewels  of  elegant  forms  ;  wrote  poems, 
annals,  hymns,  and  magic  incantations,  at  a  time  that  history  knows  not. 

What  was  woman's  condition  then  ?  The  ancient  tablets  show  us  some- 
what of  it,  but  the  later  empire  more. 

The  early  cities  were  of  winding,  narrow,  muddy  streets,  littered  with 
kitchen  refuse  and  offal  of  beasts  and  men,  where  packs  of  dogs  and  ravens 

cities        ^vere   the  scavengers.     There    were  crowded,  noisy   bazaars, 

and  each  trade  in  its  own  lane  or  blind  alley.      The  houses  of  the 

Housen      pii(^i(il^.  an(^i  lower  classes  were  huts  of  reeds  and  puddled  clay, 

or   else   were   low,  crude  brick    structures,  with    a    conical    dome  on   top. 

There  were  gloomy  brick   walls  inclosing   silent,   almost   desolate   spaces, 

where  the  rich  dwelt  in  palaces  and  gardens  carefully  screened  frorti  the  gaze 



<»i  the  vulgar  herd;   while  towering  over  all  was  the  temple  —  palace  of 

thtgod,  with  its  ziggurat  and  painted  or  gilt  sanctuary.     The  palaces  of  the 

rich  were  lighted  by  small  holes  in  the  upper  part  of  the  walls  ;  rooms  were 

small,  oblong  affairs,  a  few  only  used  for  living  purposes,  the  others  being 

J^torc  chambers    for  household  treasures  and    provisions  ;    the  furniture  of 

living  rooms,   mainly  chairs  and    stools    like   those  pictured  on  Egyptian 

monuments  :  bedrooms  contained  chests,  for  linen  and  coverings,  the  beds, 

mainly  mats  on  the  floor  with  a  wooden  head  rest,   almost  the  picture  of 

th()>e  now  used  by  the  Galla  people  in  Africa  (whom  some  suj)pose  to  be 

ihtir  descendants),  those   ancient  women  putting   their  hair  up   like  the 

Gallas  in  huge  erections  that  require  such  head  rests  ;  in  the  corner  of  the 

courtyard  an  oven,  and  near  it  the  millstones  for  grinding  the  grain,  ashes 

aglow  on  thi!  hearth  always,  or  near  at  hand  the  fire-stick,  pots  of  earthen- 

uare,  watt-r  and  wine  jars,  heavy  plates,  knives,  scrapers,  and  mall  heads  of 

Hint,  bronze  axes  and  hammers,  and  wicker  baskets,  great  and  small.      In 

later  Empire  times  the  houses  had  flat  roofs  such  as  may  now  l)e  seen  in 

Bagdad,  and  other  Euphrates  towns,  where  the  women  spent  most  of  their 

time,  morning  and  evening,  gossiping  or  story-telling  or  perchance  in  small 

houbeuork,  till  driven  below  by  the  heat  of  the  day. 

Till*  well-to-do  had  several  wive^s,  who  dwelt  in  a  harem,  which,  if  the 

tablets    do    not    belie,   was    the    place    of    endless    cjuarrels    and    intrigues. 

PoAiti  These,  while  supplied  with  the  luxuries  of  the  time  in  food 

ortiie        and  dress,  were  j)racticallv  slaxes,  ^oing  out  only  to  visit  a 

*  female  friend,  or  relative,  or  to  the  frecjuent  festivals  at  the 

^•niple.   when    they   were  attended    by  a    crowd    of    slaxes,    eunuchs,    and 

l^'t-^.  who  carefully  shut  out  the  world  to  them. 

Women  (»f  the  middle  and  lower  classes  spent  their  lives  in  endless  toil 
''•r  husband  and  children.  Night  and  morning  they  ( arried  water  from 
^^•'-  i>ublie  well,  or  river  :  they  ground  the  corn,  made  bread,  spun,  wove, 
niadc  garments  for  the  household,  went  bareheaded  and  barrfoot  to  market, 
'^faring  the  loin  cloth  only,  or  else  a  long  draped  garment  of  wool  of 
^ir>-  texture. 

Maternity  was  the  begiiming  and  the  sole  vm\  of  woman's  existence, 
^d  she  might  be  repudiated  by  a  word  from  her  lordly  husl)and.      If  she 



was  sterile,  she  was  often  divorced  for  it,  unless  the  marriage  contract  had 
specified  she  should  not  be.  (Under  the  later  new  Chaldean  Empire,  the 
divorced  wife  might  demand  the  amount  of  the  dowry  the  bride  had  always 
to  bring  to  her  husband.  And  if  she  owned  property  in  her  own  right  be- 
fore marriage,  it  remained  hers  independently  of  her  husband,  to  be  used 
as  she  pleased. ) 

If  the  wife  was  a  scold  or  disobedient,  the  husband  might  sell  her  as  a 
slave.  If  she  miscarried  or  was  permanently  barren,  she  was  believed  to 
be  possessed  by  an  evil  spirit  and  was  a  dangerous  person,  and  accursed, 
and  so  was  often  banished  from  the  family. 

So  hard  was  the  lot  of  woman  in  those  old  days,  that  girl  babies  were 
often  thrown  into  the  river  or  left  at  cross  roads,  if  possible  to  excite  the 
pity  of  passers-by,  or  to  be  devoured  by  vultures. 

Childless  couples,  to  avoid    the  stigma  of  childlessness,  were  wont  to 

adopt   these   foundlings,   or  others,  in  order  to  have   children  to  supf)ort 

them   or  inherit    their  property.     Newly  born    infants  were 

ctilidren     shown  to  reliable  witnc*sses,  then  marked  on  the  soles  of  their 

feet  to  insure  identity  to  the  parents.     It  was  a  misdemeanor 

in  parents  to  disown  a  child,  unless  for  cause,  and  they  were  shut  up  in 

their  house  so  long  as  they  persisted  in  it. 

If  a  son  said  to  his  father,  "Thou  art  not  my  father,"  the  father 
marked  him  by  a  conspicuous  sign  and  sold  him  as  a  slave  in  the  public 
market.  If  he  .said  thus  to  his  mother,  he  was  similarly  branded  and  led 
through  the  street,  or  along  the  road,  with  hooting  and  clamor  and  driven 
out  of  the  city  or  province. 

The  rich  owned    many  slaves  of   both  sexes,  while  the  middle  classes 

owned  but  two  or  three  at  a  time.     These  were  captives  taken  in  war,  as 

was  Lot,  or  in  the  almost  constant  raids  made  on  peaceful 

suiires  settlements  by  petty  chieftains,  to  replenish  their  treasury'. 
Slaves  were  counted  by  the  law  as  cattle  only,  and  the 
owner's  will  was  as  absolute  over  them  as  over  his  flocks  or  trees.  He 
could  shackle  them,  whip  them  mercilessly,  or  take  their  lives.  Male 
slaves  sold  for  from  ten  shekels  of  silver  by  weight,  to  a  third  of  a  mina  ; 
females  for  four  and  a  half  shekels.     Female  slaves  counted  it  as  great 



honor  to  be  taken  as  wife  by  the  master,  who  could  treat  them  as  he  would. 
Slaves  married  among  themselves  and  their  offspring  went  to  the  master. 
Occasionally  a  slave  was  allowed  by  the  master  to  purchase  his  freedom, 
rarely  was  it  ever  given  him.  At  times,  if  apt  at  trade,  the  master  set  him 
up  in  business,  allowing  him  some  of  the  profits.  If  a  slave  became  free  he 
could  marr\'  sometimes  in  the  middle  class.  Workmen  taught  their  own 
trades  to  their  children. 

Originally  the  middle  and  lower  classes  seemed  to  have  owned  their 
own  homes,  but  often  they  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  usurers,  who  were  wont 
10  ask  twenty  and  twenty-five  per  cent,  interest  on  loans,  and  when  they 
had  to  rent  the  houses,  the  rates  were  very  high. 

Gold,  silver,  and  copper  were  in  use  as  money,  but  it  was  not  coined, 
or  e\en  cut  in  rings  or  twisted  in  wire,  as  in  Egypt,  at  this  early  date  of 
which  we  now  speak,  but  was  exchanged  by  weight,  silver  being  very  gen- 
erally the  preferable  money. 

The  commerce  of  the  cities  was  almost  wholly  carried  on  at,  and  in,  the 
temples.  As  in  Egypt,  so  in  Chaldea,  the  priest  stood  next  to  the  king. 
The  king  was  par  excellence  the  head  of  the  priesthood  — 
ti«oo«i  ^^^  representative  of  the  Planetary  god  among  men.  But 
he  had  under  him  a  body  of  priests,  some  of  whose  offices 
«crc  here<litar\-.  and  some  he  selected  to  perforin  for  him  the  multitudinous 
'iaily  siicerdotal  functions.  At  the  head  of  these  was  the  high,  priest  or 
i>hshaku,  whose  chief  duty  was  to  pour  out  the  libations  to  the  gods,  and 
t<»j)rt*>ide  over  various  orders  of  under  priests  and  priestesses,  such  as  the 
"Muj^utu"  class,  who  had  charge  of  the  harem  of  the  god  ;  the  "  kipu  " 
•^n<i  "shatammu,"  who  managed  the  finances  of  the  temple  (then  as 
•il ways  afterward  a  most  important  class),  while  the  *'  pashoshus"  anointed 
^»ith  holy.  p<^-rfumed  oil,  the  god's  statues  of  stone,  or  metal,  or  wood, 
that  were  always  clothed  with  vestments  and  adorned  with  jewels  ;  they 
^l'^)  anointed  the  holy  vessels,  basins,  i)owls,  etc.,  used  in  the  ritual  ablu- 
t><'ns,  and  also  the  victims  to  be  sacrificed,  both  of  beasts  and,  on  great 
occasions,  the  human  sacrifices. 

There  were  also  connected  with  the  temj)le  service,  the  official  butchers, 
augers,    soothsayers,    prophets,    record    keepers,    and,    not    least,    several 



classes  of  holy  courtesans  who  honored  the  god  by  offering  themselves  sex- 
ually to  whoever  would  put  in  their  hand  the  usual  piece  of  money.  . 

Almost  every  hour  there  was  a  fresh  sacrifice  or  ceremony  of  some  sort, 

additional   to  the  regular  morning  and   evening  sacrifice's.     These  priests 

also  manufactured  the  money  of   the  land  in  their  temples, 

claiming  the  gold  and  silver  as  "sacred"  and  the  gift  of  the 
Xcmplc  .  .         . 

gods  to  their  great  priest,  the  king.  They  likewise  con- 
ducted commercial  transactions  at  the  temples  and  took  charge  of  estates 
or  moneys  ;  were  intermediaries  between  borrowers  and  lenders  for  a  good 
commission,  the  interest  rate  being  from  twenty  to  twenty- five  per  cent, 
per  annum  in  old  Chaldea. 

They  had  gifts  of  fields,  flocks,  and  slaves  come  to  them  by  will  when 
the  worshipers  died  (or,  mayhap,  while  they  yet  lived),  in  order  to  appease 
the  god  or  to  gain  his  favor. 

To  maintain  these  vast  establishments  for  this  Planetary  worship,  there 
was,  further,  an  annual  sulwidy  granted  to  the  temples  from  the  state  treas- 
ury, such  as  gifts  of  beasts,  l)irds,  fish,  liquors,  bread,  incense,  gold,  silver, 
copper  (moneys  always  by  weight),  gems,  precious  woods,  and,  after  a  suc- 
cessful raid  or  war,  always  their  tithes  (legally  a  tenth,  under  later  Empire 
times  the  bulk)  of  spoils  were  taken,  especially  slaves  and  herds. 

V^ast  areas  of  cultivated  lands  were  given  to  the  temples,  of  which  the 
priests  cultivated  a  part,  the  rest  were  rented  or  else  farmed  by  their  hosts 
of  slaves,  which  included  gardeners  and  laborers  of  all  sorts. 

Very  many,  too,  of  the  articles  in  daily  use  by  the  people,  as  well  as  the 
luxuries  of  life,  were  produced  in  factories  owned  by  the  temples  and  under 
the  direction  of  these  holy  (?)  men  of  the  gods  ;  who  likewise  added  to 
their  revenues  by  maintaining,  in  connection  with  the  worship  of  the  gods, 
troops  of  women  singers,  and  the  wailers  for  the  dead,  and  the  sacred 

So  debasing  was  this  worship  of  the  planets  upon  the  w^omen  of  this 

first  settlement  and  kingdom  of  men  after  the  Flood,  as  it  is  now  revealed 

to  us  by  their  literature,  that  the  public  prostitution  of  every 

Planetary    ^vq,^,^^    \^y  j^  j^ast   one  act,    became  obligatory   by   law,  a 
worship  .  1 

thing  that  continued  for  centuries  thereafter,  as  is  witnessed 



by  the  ttrstimony  of  Herodotus  as  late  as  B.  C.  500,  who  was  a  personal 
oilier ver  of  the  things  he  then  speaks  of  as  existinjj  in  the  pahiiiest  days  of 

This  same  low  estate  of  woman  was  found  in  Palestine  in  this  period 
and  even  a  lower  depth.     All  through  the  Old  Testament  times  is  seen  this 
s.ime  great  debasement  of  women.     The   "groves"  and   "high  places" 
against  which  the  later  prophets  of  Jehovah   thundered  their  anathemas, 
were  hut  the  resorts  of  abandoned  women  whose  sins  constituted  the  wor- 
ship,  and  long  after  the  last  prophet  (Maiachi)   had  denounced  this  yet 
existint^  degradation  of  woman,  the  Apochryphal  Book  of  Baruch  speaks  of 
this  siime  old  Chaldean  custom  as  then  prevailing. 

There  are  those  who  complain  of  the  severity  of  Moses  and  carp  at  his 
statutes,  but  they  were  the  only  media  that  preserved  the  chastity  of 
«oman  and  made  it  possible  for  the  Christ  to  be  born  of  mankind. 

It  is  imjK)ssible  to  comprehend  or  even  faintly  know  the  condition  of 
»oman  in  those  early  ages,  apart  from  this  religion  that  then  was  the  all  to 

In  Egypt,  that  other  early  settled  part  of  the  earth,  this  same  form  of 

idolatr)-  of  the  solar  system  originally  prevailed,  but  with  some  important 

modifications.      There  also,  as  in  old  Chaldea,  the  king  was 

Etjrpt        the  chief  pontitT,   and   in  addition   to  the   several    classes   of 

priests,  the  Hood  Papyrus  takes  up  half  of  the  second  |)age 

^ith  the  titles  of  temple  S(;r\'ants  and  artisans,    men  and  women,  such  as 

■  •ut. her>.  cooks,  pastry  cooks,  confectioners,  cellarers,  water  carriers,  milk 

am«T>.  florists,  weavers,  shoemakers,  etc..  all  waxing  fat  on  the  supersti- 

lj'>n..f  the  times. 

In  Kj^ypt,  also,  the  priests  solicited  and  had  (according  to  the  monu- 
ments dn(\  inscriptions)  vast  gifts  of  houses,  fields,  \  ineyards,  orchards, 
tbh  jH»nd>.  slaves,  silver,  gold,  copper,  etc.,  large  legacies  being  left  to 
thtm  l.y  the  worshipers  to  institute  prayers  and  sacrifices  in  behalf  of  the 

While  not  so  keen  tradesmen  as  their  Chaldean  brethren,  like  them  the 
^-Kyptian  priesthood  through  their  chief,  the  king,  claimed  the  "sacred 
^t'tals "  and  made  it  in  their  temj)les,  fixing  the  ratios  as  pleased  them,  and 



these  also  became  rich  and  powerful  and  able  at  times  to  dictate  terms  even 
to  the  king  on  his. throne  ;  many  even  becoming  king. 

Here  also,  even  down  to  the  time  of  the  Caesars,  were  to  be  found  those 
Pallacides,  of  whose  remarkable  tombs  Strabo  and  Diodorus  speak.  These 
were  the  sacred  harlots,  being  girls  belonging  to  the  families  of  nobles  at 
Thebes  who  were  consecrated  to  a  life  of  immorality  in  the  service  of  the 
god  Ammon. 

And  as  the  gods,  among  whom  was  the  much  worshiped  and  praised 
Osiris,  had  married  their  sisters,  so  it  was  the  constant  custom  in  Egypt, 
through  all  its  history,  for  brothers  to  marry  sisters  (in  Egyptian  love  songs 
the  words  brother  and  sister  mean  only  our  modern  lover  and  mistress). 
Indeed,  some  of  their  kings,  as  Psammetichus  I,  and  Rameses  II.  (the 
Pharaoh  of  the  Israelite  oppression),  following  the  example  of  their  illus- 
trious gods,  married  their  own  daughters.  The  Achaemidian  kings  did  the 
same  and  Artaxerxes,  king  of  Persia,  also  married  two  of  his  own  daughters. 

Later  discoveries  have  shown  that  Diodorus  was  mistaken  in  thinking 
that  women  were  supreme  in  Egypt,  the  custom  that  he  refers  to  of  the 
husband  visiting  at  the  separate  homes  of  his  polygamous  wives  and  being, 
while  there,  treated  as  a  guest,  having  given  him  that  idea.  It  is  now 
known  that  the  position  of  woman  in  ancient  Egypt  was  almost  identical 
with  that  prevailing  in  Ciialdea.  If  the  wife  was  by  birth  the  sister  of  her 
husband,  or  was  of  the  same  rank  or  caste,  she  had  more  of  independence 
granted  her. 

But  the  will  of  the  husband  was  supreme.     The  rich  and  the  nobles  had 

several  wives,  who  dwelt  apart,  each    in  her  own  house,  where   the   wife 

Husband    received     the   visits     of    her   lord,    and   ground    the    corn, 

and  cooked,  wove,   and  made  clothing  and  perfumes,   kept  the 

'^^^^  fire  alive,  and  nursed  and  taught  her  children,  just  as  her 
sisters  did  in  the  Euphrates  valley. 

The  chief  or  noble  had  also,  besides  wives,  concubines,  who  were  either 
slaves  born  in  his  households,  bought  with  money  of  the  poorer  classes, 
or  captives  of  war.  These  were  his  chattels,  and  at  his  disposal,  being  often 
sold,  even  though  they  had  borne  him  children. 

All  his  children  were  legitimate  in  the  law  of  Egypt,  but  not  all  of  the 



same  rank  :  those  of  the  sister  or  wife  of  his  own  rank  having  preference 
over  those  of  the  concubine,  unless  the  latter  had  brought  him  a  firstborn 

The  homes  of  the  common  people  were  identical  with  those  of  the  fellah 
of  to-day,  viz. ,  low  huts  of  wattle,  daubed  with  puddled  clay,  or  else  of  sun- 
dried  brick,  of  one  room,  a  door  being  the  only  opening. 

Those  of  the  middle   class  were  large  enough  at  times  to  even  require 
a  roof  supported  by  trunks  or  limbs  of  a  tree  for  columns. 

The  furniture  was  of  the  same  type  as  that  noted  in  Chaldea,  a  few 
pieces  of  earthenware,  stools,  and  chairs. 

In  the  Middle  and  Later  Empire  times  the  palaces  of  the  barons  and 
kings  rivaled  in  luxury  those  of  Babylon. 

The  dress  of  women  was  then  the  loin-cloth  and  mantle,  the  poorer 
going  barefoot,  others  wearing  coarse  leather  or  plaited  straw  or  split  reed, 
or  wooden  sandals,  and  having  their  necks,  breasts,  arms,  wrists,  and  ankles 
covered  with  rows  of  necklaces  and  bracelets,  and  their  hair  towering  aloft 
and  requiring  the  head  rest  at  night  for  its  support.  Later  they  adorned 
themselves  with  all  those  trappings  enumerated  by  the  prophet  Isaiah  in  his 
third  chapter,  as  characteristic  of  the  women  of  Jerusalem  in  his  day. 

The  artisan  class  formed  guilds,  the  son  pursuing  the  occupation  of  the 
lather  from  generation  to  generation. 

Of  public  schools  there  were  none.  Education  was  of  the  priest,  save 
35  the  parents  might  teach  what  they  knew.  Reading,  writing,  and  ele- 
mentary arithmetic  were  common  to  a  large  class  or  classes  known  as 
>crilK'S.  The  above  amount  of  education,  though  imj^crfect,  l)cing  the  door 
t«»  jjovernment  employment,  was  generally  sought  for,  and  some  of  the 
>cribfs.  though  of  slave  parentage,  are  recorded  as  having  risen  Joseph-like, 
loljt  vice-regent  over  half  of  Egypt  ;  the  country  being  divided  into  many 
petty  districts,  each  with  its  hosts  of  tax-gatherers  and  small  oflficials,  gave 
''J['[»rtunity  for  the  ambitious. 

In  those  early  times,  Palestine  was  occupied  in  its  northern  section  and 

beyond,   by  a  people,   now  known  from  the    monuments  as 

'miMrttott    the  Hittite,  and  in   its    southern  section    by    the    Canaanite. 

These  people,  like  the  Chaldeans  and  Egyptians,  also  wor- 



shiped  the  planets.  Their  chief  god  was  Baal,  he  being  the  El  of  Chaldea, 
and  the  Zeus  of  Syria  and  Greece.  -  This  was  the  pknet  Saturn.  Baal  had 
his  female  companion,  Baaltis,  who  was  the  Balit  of  Babylon  and  the  Ashera 
of  the  Hebrews.  Baal  became  later,  in  the  popular  language,  the  sun,  and 
was  worshiped  on  the  tops  of  hills  and  the  "  high  places."  His  compan- 
ion goddess  had  her  altars  both  there  and  in  groves,  in  forests,  under  cer- 
tain noted  trees,  as  the  terebinth,  pomegranate,  and  cypress,  or  along  the 
highways,  where,  as  religious  acts,  women  offered  themselves  to  passers-by, 
the  money  received  going  into  the  treasury  of  the  god. 

At  the  chief  sanctuiaries  and  temples,  one  of  which,  that  of  Tyre,  was  so 
rich  and  grand  as  to  astonish  the  much  traveled  Herodotus,  were  kept  the 
same  great  class  of  women,  married  and  unmarried,  as  were  found  in 
Chaldea  and  Egypt,  and  for  the  same  purpose.  This  class  at  the  sugges- 
tion of  Balaam,  their  priest,  led  the  Israelites  into  sin  on  that  notable  occa- 
sion mentioned  in  the  Bible. 

Mars,  the  Chaldean  god  of  war  and  death,  was  worshiped  in  Canaan 

under  the  name  of  Moloch,  and  its  tires  were  kept  perpetually  burning  to 

consume  its  offerings.      And  it  is  recorded  that  at  times  as 

Bioiocii  many  as  a  thousand  human  beings,  captives  of  war,  were 
offered  at  his  altars  in  gratitude  for  a  victory.  He  was 
further  propitiated  with  human  victims  if,  in  war,  a  disaster  came,  or  when 
a  famine  or  a  pestilence  appeared.  Then,  children,  young  girls,  the  most 
beautiful,  the  purest  and  best  of  their  families,  the  firstborn  of  sons,  from 
the  kings  to  those  of  the  humblest  peasant,  were  thrown  alive  into  the 
sacrificial  fires. 

Carthage,  Rome's  great  rival,  founded  by  Dido,  princess  of  Tyre,  B.  C. 
869,  had  her  Kronos  or  Moloch  altar,  as  described  by  the  historians,  a 
huge,  half-human,  half-monster  shaj)ed  hollow  iron  caldron,  with  out- 
stretched arms,  and  interior  ca\'ity  flaming  with  fire,  into  whose  arms  hun- 
dreds of  victims  were  cast.  Hanno's  son,  Hamilcar,  there  offered  himself 
as  a  burnt  offering  in  the  year  480  B.  C.  When  Agathocles  of  Syracuse 
besieged  Carthage,  himdreds  of  noble  boys  were  thrown  in  and  consumed, 
while  their  pannts,  nuite  and  tearless,  stood  by  and  witnessed  their  burning 
(for  a  tear  or  a  groan  would  have  rendered  the  offering  vain),  the  shrieks 



and  cries  of  the  victims  being  drowned  by  the  drums,  flutes,  double  pipes, 
and  clanging  cymbals  of  the  priests. 

The  Hittite  moon-goddess,  the  Astarte  of  the  Greeks,  also  demanded 
human  sacrifices.  Like  Moloch,  her  fires  were  perpetual,  albeit,  as  she 
\^as  a  gixldess  of  purity  and  her  priests  pledged  to  purity  and  celibacy, 
no  married  woman  might  approach  her  altars  save  as  a  sacrifice  ;  her  offer- 
ings consisting  of  married  women  and  maidens.  All  her  priests  and  serv- 
ants were  eunuchs. 

Maidens  coming  to  her  must  remain  maidens  forever,  and  her  devotees 
chanvje<l  apparel,  men  donning  that  of  the  women,  and  they,  the  garments 
oi  the  men. 

Her  eunuch  priests  numbered  thousands  and  at  her  altars  the  worshipers 
gathcreil  by  the  ten  thousands,  to  the  beating  of  drums,  blowing  of  pipes. 
Priests       *^*^^    clashing   cymbals    of  the   priesthood.      Then    the   dev- 
of  otees  contorted  their  bodies,  bending  backward  and  forward, 

**  till  their  hair  was  matted  with  mire,  then  swinging  aloft  their 

•irms  and  swaying  their  bodies,  they  moved  around  and  around  until, 
o>\trf<i  with  dirt  and  sweat,  they  began  to  beat  themselves  with  knotted 
^hip>.  to  bite  their  arms,  and  cut  themselves  with  knives  and  swords,  be- 
\\.ii!inv:  thtir  sins  with  moan  and  shriek  and  anon  prophesying,  the  dancing 
''.♦r  i^ruuing  more  fierce  and  wild,  the  scourgings  more  bloody  and  dread- 
•  i'.  until,  resembling  beasts  at  a  slaughtering,  and  exhausted,  or  uncon- 
><i"u>,  the  worshipers  fell  to  the  earth,  whereupon  the  eunuch  priests 
i'«i>H(l  among  th**  crowd  soliciting  alms  and  gifts  for  the  goddess  and  her 
trt.iMiry.  upon  which,  when  the  ceremonies  had  ended,  they  lived  and 
••'■H<il.  Such  were  Jezebel's  priests  which  the  proplul  r>lijah  slew  at 
^l'»'ini  Carmel.  Such  were  the  inhabitants  of  Palestine  whom  Moses  and 
,V^hiM  were  connnanded  to  destroy.  ^'et  there  are  sentimental  souls  w  ho 
th;nk  that  >U(  h  commands  wt*re  cruel.  The  cruelty  lay  in  sutfering  them 
^•"urx-  tilt*  earth  witli  their  dreadful  crimes  against  nature  and  (lod. 

Thr  student  of  history,  making  his  weary  way  through  the  fc-arful 
>i"uvrh  of  human  degradation,  is  com|)elled  to  admit.  whate\<r  his  j)redilec- 
fJ^'fH.  that  Paul's  terrific  indictment  of  the  heathen  world  is  far  from  being 
o^ffdrawn.      The  knowledge  of    nature   that  should    ha\e  emiobled  man, 



became,  through  the  worship  of  nature,  the  great  instrument  of  licentious- 
ness and  of  robbery  and  oppression  and  fearful  debasement  of  all  mankind. 

For  four  thousand  years,  the  life  and  thought  of  men  and  women  of 
this  earth  was  as  unlike  our  modern  ways  as  if  they  had  been  inhabitants 
of  another  world. 

Outside  the  temples  there  was  no  social  life  for  women.  If  her  husband 
or  father  was  rich,  she  was  shut  up  in  the  harem.  If  of  the  middle  or 
lower  class,  her  life  was  but  little  elevated  above  that  of  the  slaves  her  hus- 
band owned  and  with  no  greater  privileges  than  they. 

Yet  these  people  were  not  ignorant  and  mere  savages.  Many  of  the 
arts  and  some  of  the  sciences  were  known  to  them  and  in  daily  use  in  the 
earliest  times  after  the  Flood.  But  the  intellect  and  the  whole  nature  was 
overpoweringly,  superstitiously,  religious  ;  and  it  was- gross,  debasing,  sen- 
sual, and  cruel,  because  their  conception  of  the  gods  was  such.  It  was 
then,  for  thousands  of  years,  as  in  India  in  more  recent  times,  a  case  of 
religiosity  gone  to  seed  and  withering  on  its  stalk. 

With  the  expansion  of  the  race  westward  to  Europe  in  the  later  centu- 
ries, some  improvement  in  the  condition  of  woman  appears,  particularly  in 
Greece  and  at  Rome,  where  Plutarch  says  that  for  five  hun- 

Hnrope  dred  years  after  Rome  was  founded  it  was  not  scandalized  by 
a  singlp  divorce  ;  an  Edenic  condition  of  married  life  that 
seems  to  have  been  followed  by  its  opposite  when  wives  were  divorced  for 
every  whim,  and  could  also  divorce  themselves  when  they  pleased.  For 
the  historians  tell  of  one  woman  who  had  taken  to  herself  eight  different 
legal  husbands  within  a  period  of  five  years,  and  of  another  matron  who  con- 
tinued her  marital  experiences  through  a  list  of  twenty-three  divorced  hus- 
bands, her  last  partner  of  marifal  joys  having  himself  had  twenty-one  legal 
wives,  from  whom  he  had  been  divorced.  The  Christian  Father  Tertullian, 
so  late  as  A.  D.  200,  said  of  the  Roman  women,  that  "  they  married  to  be 
divorced,  and  were  divorced  in  order  to  marry  again."  Ovid,  two  hun- 
dred and  twenty-five  years  earlier,  had  said  of  them,  that  every  w'oman  had 
her  price.  Nevertheless,  in  the  foulest  days  of  Rome  there  were  some  vir- 
tuous women,  though  it  must  be  confessed  that  worship  of  the  unclean  gods 
had  sunk  both  women  and  men  very  low  indeed.     Husbands,  under  Roman 



law,  as  under  ancient  Chaldea.  had  absolute  ownership  of  the  wife,  even  to 
taking  life. 

But  outside  of  Judea,  and,  possibly,  the  earlier  Persian  Empire  times, 
whatever  of  advance  in  the  education  of  woman,  religiously  or  otherwise,  is 
seen,  was  confined  to  the  quickening  of  the  intellect  of  a  few  women  only, 
and,  it  must  be  confessed,  not  to  the  moral  or  social  elevation  of  the  sex. 
Indeed,  what  hope  was  there  for  woman,  when  even  that  kingliest  Man-soul 
of  all  the  heathen  world,  great  Socrates,  so  far  forgot  what  was  due  to  him- 
self, and  to  the  immeasurable  dignity  of  womanhood,  as  to  invite  that 
splendid  courtesan,  Aspasia,  to  consult  with  him  as  to  the  best  method  of 
making  her  traffic  more  remunerative  ? 

Turning  eastward  to  India  and  China,  the  next  great  homes  of  civiliza- 
tion, we  find  that  India,  a  country  as  large  as  Europe,  and  with  nearly  as 
India        many  people,  was  originally  settled  by  the  tribes  of  Japheth, 
aiMl  the  third   son  of  Noah,  the  country    possessing  many  cities 

and  petty  kings  and  great  riches,  at  the  time   of  Alexander 
the  Great's  invasion. 

According  to  Sanskrit  scholars,  the  rites  and  ceremonials  of  this  people, 
that  are  contained  in  what  is  known  as  the  Brahmanas,  go  back  to  B.C.  700, 
or  alx>ut  fourteen  hundred  years  after  the  time  of  Abraham  ;  while  the 
Co<Ie  of  Manu,  that  established  castes  in  India,  goes  to  about  B.C.  500. 

Here  in  India,  as  in  the  earliest  years  of  Chaldea  and  of  E^ypt,  we  meet 
with  the  remarkable  fact  that  their  early  beliefs  seem  to  have  been  in  the 
txi^tence  of  one  Supreme  Being  only,  and  that  then  their  lives  were  cor- 
respondingly pure.  But  the  priests  early  took  advantage  of  the  religious 
instincts  in  man  to  advance  their  own  ends,  thus  securing  j^osition,  influ- 
<-ncc.  and  money.  A  degrading  form  of  worship  of  the  solar  system 
ap|x*ared.  and  soon  its  rites,  ceremonies,  oblations,  and  penances  made  the 
u  h*"*!*-  life  of  the  people  one  of  religion  only. 

While  the  oldcn>t  \'eda  teaches  a  Supreme  (iod,  later  it  alludes  to  thirty- 
three  gods,  whose  numbers  were  ere  long  ra|)idly  multiplied,  until  the 
Hindu   Pantheon   is  now  said  to  contain   no  less  than  33,ooo,(Xx^  gods. 

About  B.  C.  600  we  meet  with  that  awful  thing  that  so  rent  the  hearts 
r»f  mothers,  the  first  record  of  human  sacrifices  to  the  gods  in  India. 



In  a  land  where  polygamy  prevailed  and  where  the  same  debasement 
of  woman  to  the  sacred  harlotry  that  is  noted  in  Chaldea  and  elsewhere  in 
connection  with  the  temple  services  has  prevailed  for  thousands  of  years, 
and  yet  continues  in  spite  of  modern  missionary  effort,  the  condition  of 
these  hundreds  of  millions  of  women,  mothers  and  daughters  of  India, 
cannot  be  understood  in  its  horrors,  without  reference  to  that  other  strange 
teaching  of  those  Hindu  Scriptures  that  was  peculiar  to  themselves,  namely, 
the  suttee  or  burning  alive  of  widows  on  the  funeral  pyre  of  their  dead  hus- 
bands.    This   practice   was    known    to    history   over  two    thousand  years 

ago,  and  Raja  Radhakant  Deb,  of  Calcutta,  a  native  Hindu, 
Suttee       ^"^^  ^"^  ^^  ^^  foremost   of  living  Sanskrit  scholars  of  the 

world,  says  it  was  practiced  by  their  early  kings  and  sages 
centuries  previously,  and  that  it  is  taught  in  their  sacred  books,  of  which  he 
gives  several  citations.  In  case  the  widow  refused  the  suttee  she  was  con- 
sidered to  have  dishonored,  her  relatives,  whereupon  the  disgraced  family 
made  her  life  so  full  of  torture  and  shame  that  she  fled  to  the  fire  in  prefer- 
ence. If  during  the  burning  she  sought  to  escape  from  the  flames,  her 
relatives  considerately  thrust  her  back  to  be  consumed.  This  hideous  cus- 
tom prevailed  in  India  for  two  thousand  five  hundred  years,  and  it  is  said 
that  -even  now,  nothing  but  the  strong  hand  of  the  English  government 
prevents  the  revival  of  the  practice. 

The  Code  of  Manu  divides  the  populace  into,  first,  the  Brahmans,  who, 
having  originally  proceeded  from  the  mouth  of  the  god,  are  the  most  holy 

Caste        ^^  "^^'^  ^"^  must  not  be  taxed  by  the  king  or  enraged,  else 

In  their  curse  would  destroy  his  armies  and  retinue  ;  secondly, 

India        ^^  Kshatriya  or  military  and  kingly  caste,  who  issued  from 

the  god's  arms  ;  third,  the  Vaisya  or  agricultural  caste,  coming  from  his 

thighs  ;  and  the  servile  Sudra  caste,  proceeding  from  the  feet  of  the  god. 

The  first  three  are  '*  twice  born."  The  Brahman  child  receives  the 
investiture  of  the  sacred  thread  in  his  eighth  year,  the  Kshatriya  in  his 
eleventh,  the  Vaisya  in  his  twelfth,  with  great  ceremonies,  this  constituting 
the  second  or  spiritual  birth,  while  the  Sudra  child  does  not  get  it  at  all, 
the  last  being  born  but  once.  But  this  last  is  as  proud  of  his  caste  and  as 
particular  as  any  of  the  higher  orders  and  will  not  intermarry  with  them. 



for  in  such  case  their  children  would  not  be  even  Sudras,  and  so,  even  to 
this  day,  the  person  who  dresses  your  hair  in  India  will  not  brush  your 
clothes,  nor  the  table  waiter  deign  to  carry  your  umbrella,  for  the  caste  is 
as  sacred  to  them  as  religion,  and  is  religion. 

While  in  the  early  times  women  seem  to  have  had  a  certain  degree  of 
freedom  and  social  equality,  yet  for  thousands  of  years  the  condition  of 
woman  in  India  has  been  one  of  abject  submission  to  her  lordly  husband  or 
lather.  The  Sacred  Books  say,  "  Day  and  night  must  women  be  made  to 
feel  their  dependence  on  their  husbands  "  ;  * '  Let  not  a  husband  eat  with 
his  w  ife,  nor  look  at  her  eating  "  ;  "  Women  have  no  business  to  repeat 
texts  of  the  Veda,  thus  is  the  law  established"  ;  '*  As  far  as  a  wife  obeys 
her  husband,  so  far  is  she  exalted  in  heaven  "  ;  '*  A  husband  must  be  con- 
tinually revered  as  a  god  by  a  virtuous  wife." 

And  yet  in  the  Mahabharata  of  these  Hindu  Scriptures  occurs    these 
truthful,  noble  words,  concerning  woman  :. — 

**A  wife  is  half  the  man,  his  truest  friend, 
A  loving  wife  is  a  perpetual  spring 
Of  virtue,  pleasure,  wealth.     A  faithful  wife 
Is  the  best  aid  in  seeking  heavenly  bliss. 
A  sweetly  speaking  wife  is  a  companion 
In  solitude;  a  father  in  advice; 
A  mother  in  all  seasons  of  distress; 
A  rest  in  passing  through  life's  wilderness." 

Throughout  all  agc^  and  everywhere,  religion  is  seen  to  be  as  j^ersistent 
«ij.ia  in  the  history  of  mankind  as  marriage  is,  and  has  had  as  much  or 
"^♦'rc  influence  on  woman's  condition.  And  in  seeking  to  account  for  the 
^ideand  long  continued  dominance  of  such  horrid  faiths  as  ha\e  been  here 
^'Oliced,  faiths  that  made  woman  but  a  chattel,  and  unsiK'akably  tortured 
ami  (jfjrraded  her  for  thousands  of  years  tln-oughout  all  the  ancient  world, 
'^inusi  he  confessed  that  their  great  secret  lay  in  that  awful  future  of  which 
^^' claimed  to  have  the  e.\clusi\  e  knowledge. 

With  the  later  Hindus,  who  were  transmigrationists,  all  who  die  go  to 

the  moon,  which  to  them  was  the  gate  to  the  heavenly  world. 
migration    There  a  threefold  alternative  was  offered   the  soul.      If  good- 
ness   had    characterized    its    earth  life,    it   would    pass  in  its 


transmigrations  through  the  deities.  If  it  had  been  ruled  by  passion,  it 
must  then  pass  through  men.  If  a  life  of  sin  had  distinguished  its  earthly 
career  (and  transgressions  of  or  neglect  of  religious  ceremonies  and  offenses 
against  the  priests  were  far  worse  sins  than  any  violations  of  the  moral 
law),  it  must  pass  through  beasts  and  plants;  each  of  these  degrees  having 
also  three  sub-degrees,  with  8,400,000  births,  and  continuing  through 
twenty-one,  or,  as  some  of  the  sacred  books  say,  twenty-eight,  hells  or  pur- 
gatories, each  more  furious  and  awful  than  a  Dante  could  ever  dream,  and 
requiring  a  "  kalpa "  or  two  billion  one  hundred  and  sixty  millions  of 
years  to  pass  through  them  all. 

With  such  fearful  destiny  before  them,  how  was  it  possible  for  mortals 
not  to  make  the  worship  of  the  gods  of  destiny  the  one  great  concern  of 
their  life,  as  they  have  been  doing  for  thousands  of  years  in  that  ancient 
land  of  India? 

And  as  these,  their  gods,  were  licentious,  intriguing,  and  warring  with 
each  other  in  the  heavens,  what  wonder  that  the  worshiper  on  earth  fol- 
lowed their  example? 

In  the  Hindu  poem,  the  Mahabharata,  "  The  Great  War  of  Bharata,*' 
is  to  be  found  the  highest  Hindu  conception  of  woman's  truth  and  purity 
and  loving  devotion  to  her  husband,  equal  to  anything  to  be  found  in  any 

But  at  that  early  time  we  find  the  marriage  custom  or  system  of  poly- 
andry prevailing  even  in  their  court  circles,  while  gross  licentiousness, 
gambling,  and  drunkenness  characterized  the  wealthy  classes  everywhere. 

Throughout  the  whole  history  of  that  great  country  the  condition  of 
woman  has  been,  to  our  modern  thought,  most  degrading  and  sorrowful 
and  bitter  in  the  extreme. 

One  half  of   the  people  now  on  earth  are    Mongolians.      Their   tribes 

have  covered  or  influenced  more  than  half  the  land  surface  of  the  globe, 

east,   west,   north,   and  south.       Their  original  home  is  now 

within  the  Russian  Empire  and  covers  an  area  as  large  as  the 

United  States  exclusive  of  Alaska.      Their  most  important  modern  country 

is  China,  that  present  great  home  of  more  than  a  third  of  the  human  race. 

The   Chinese   are  the  only  stereotyped  nation  on  the  globe.     While,  for 



instance,  their  present  vessels  and  tonnage  exceed  in  number  that  of  all  the 
other  nations  of  the  world,  yet  they  use  the  same  junks  and  tackle  now  as 
their  people  did  before  the  birth  of  Christ,  and  money  is  weighed  in  scales 
as  in  Abraham's  day.  The  manners  and  customs  of  their  forefathers  four 
thousand  years  ago  are  their  present  customs  and  manners. 

They  claim  their  written  language  was  given  by  the  philosopher  Fou- 
hee  (supposed  by  some  to  be  Noah),  B.  C.  3200,  or,  according  to  others, 
B.  C.  2800,  who,  they  say,  taught  them  agriculture  and  how  to  make  cloth- 
ing, furniture,  and  other  arts  of  life,  and  gave  the  marriage  laws  to  his 

Another  tradition  names  the  philosopher  Tsang-ki,  B.  C.  2800  or  B.  C. 
2500,  as  the  author  of  writing  in  Clfina,  of  which  there  are  thirty  different 

There  are  fragments  of  Chinese  literature  (calendars  or  local  events 
only)  as  ancient,  it  is  supposed,  as  B.  C.  2000,  but  very  little  authentic  his- 
tory before  the  fifth  century  before  Christ,  the  days  of  the  reformer  and 
moralist  Confucius  (B.  C.  551-479),  who  sought  to  revive  the  ancient 
usages  and  morals.  He  left  a  compilation,  the  Shu- King,  or  Book  of 
Annals,  covering  the  ancient  times  to  B.  C.  560,  and  more  than  any  other 
has  made  China  what  it  has  been  for  ages  past.  Those  Annals,  however, 
are  a  mere  jumble  of  ancient  names,  legends,  ceremonies,  and  sayings,  and 
accf»rding  to  no  interpretation  history  in  our  modern  sense. 

His  code  of  rites,  the  Li-ki,  a  compilation  of  ancient  usages,  still'  regu- 
lates the  Chint^se  manners.  These  ceremonial  usages,  estimated  at  three 
thousand,  are  interpreted  by  one  of  the  bureaus  at  Pekin,  the  Board  of 

The    primitive    Chinc*se    religion    was    very    simple,    the    worship    of    a 

Supreme  Being.      Later,   they  worshiped,  as  now,   the  wise  men  of  olden 

'TeAclBlnKM  ^""^*^  *^"^  the  souls  of  their  ancestors.      Rut  Confucius  taught 

of  that  from  this  Original  Being  came  Vang,  the  Perfect,  includ- 

coMToelas    j^^^   **  heaven,    sun,    day,    heat,    manhood,"   and    Yen,    the 

Imperfect,    comprising    "moon,    earth,    night,    cold,    womanhood,"    which 

crude  philosophy  has  been  the  principle  of  government  and  of  religion  for 

ihe  past  two  thousand  three  hundred  years  in  China,  and  sheds  much  light 



upon  the  sad  condition  of  women  in  that  vast  empire.  For  thousands  of 
years  she  has  been,  like  her  sex  in  other  ancient  lands,  little,  if  any,  better 
off  than  the  most  abject  of  slaves,  this  perfect  creature,  man,  in  China, 
literally  owning  the  imperfect  being,  woman,  and  selling  her  or  beating 
her  as  he  wished. 

Polygamy  was  anciently  and  is  yet  openly  tolerated,  secondary  wives 
being  common,  especially  if  the  first  is  childless. 

While  those  ancient  morals  compiled  by  Confucius  were  excellent,  they 
have  not  made  China  moral.  The  obedience  to  and  reverence  for  parents, 
superiors,  and  rulers,  that  he  declared  the  sages  of  old  had  taught  men, 
soon  degenerated  into  a  despotic  form  of  government,  and  into  a  supersti- 
tious reverence  for  parents.  Their  religion,  their  morals,  their  wisdom, 
begin  in  words  and  end  in  words. 

China,  in  short,  is  the  gray  ages  of  the  times  of  Abraham  projected  into 
our  modern  days  ;  the  stagnant  sea  of  humanity  yet  unvivified  by  the 
heralds  of  the  twentieth  century  civilization. 

The  historian  Lecky  has  somewhere  said  that  Christianity  introduced 

two  new  ideas  into  the  world  —  the  brotherhood  of  man  and  the  sacred- 

ness  of  human  life.      It  did  far  more,  it  created  a  new  wo- 

Rcaren-  ^an  wherever  it  regenerated  a  man.  At  its  coming,  three 
quarters  of  the  immense  population  of  Rome,  the  then  great 
capital  of  the  world,  were  paupers,  and  much  more  than  that  proportion 
were  dissolute  in  morals  and  life,  while  it  was  far  worse  outside  of  Rome. 
But  thereafter,  wherever  the  Christian  faitii  was  accepted  and  lived,  whether 
by  individuals  or  conununities,  it  became  synonymous  with  purity,  its  first 
cardinal  virtue.  If  purity  had  hitherto  been  found  among  men  and  w^omen, 
and,  thank  God,  it  had,  it  existed,  not  because  of  their  religions,  but  in 
spite  of  them.  Thereafter,  religion  was  to  mean  purity,  and  the  elevation 
and  ennobling  of  woman,  wherever  its  influence  was  rightly  understood 
and  it  was  permitted,  in  freedom,  to  exercise  its  beneficence. 









is  ' 


RfpriKliuril  tri'in  the  jjaintinK  «)f  I'ranz  von  DefrcKjjer; 
cxhibittd  al  \hr  HvrUn  (tnlenary  Exhibition. 



"  * 

rrlO  this  woman  was  given  the  honor  of  being  the  mother  of  the  one 
-L       concerning  whom  Christ   sjiicl  :     ' '  Among   them    that  are  born  of 
w-imen  there  hath  not  risen  a  greater  than  John  the  Baptist." 

Her  husband  was  Zacharias,  a  priest.  The  j^riests  were  divided  into 
twenty-four  courses  and  served  in  turn  at  the  temple.  The  hill  country 
near  Hebron  was  probably  the  home  of  Elizabeth  and  her  husband.  They 
were  both  well  advanced  in  years,  and  childless.  This  was  counted  one  of 
the  greatest  of  calamities  by  the  Jews. 

While  Zacharias  was  in  the  temple  offering  incense  and  praying,  an 
angel  appeared  to  him  and  promised  that  a  son  should  be  born  to  them, 
notwithstanding  their  old  age.  The  special  characteristics  of  this  son  were 
to  be  greatness  in  the  sight  of  the  Lord  ;  abstinence  from  wine  and  strong 
drink  ;  and  fullness  of  the  Holy  Spirit.  In  his  work  he  would  turn  back  to 
the  Lord  many  of  the  sons  of  Israel  and  make  ready  the  people  for  the 
Lord's  coming. 

There  is  a  charm  about  the  couple  set  forth  in  a  single  vi  rse  :  "  And 
ihey  were  both  righteous  before  (iod.  walking  in  all  the  commandments 
.ind  ordinances  of  the  Lord,  blameless." 

We  have  but  one  glimj)se  of  John's  childhood  and  young  manhood. 
"The  child  grew  and  waxed  strong  in  s|)irit  and  was  in  the  dtsirts  till  tin- 
fiay  of  his  showing  unto  Israel. "  He  was  gathering  |)ow('r  lo  be  in  faith 
and  fearlessness  the  Lord's  forerumier  and  make  ready  His  ways.  Blood 
will  tell  and  so  will  training.  John  had  his  mother  and  the  mountains  and 
'lo^J.  His  father  was  alsf>  his  teacher  in  the  inter\als  of  his  absiiiei.'  from 
V  nice  at  the  temple. 

Theirs  wa^  probably  an  isolated  home  and  John  was  .icen>tome(l  to  soli- 
v.nie.  but  here  was  formed  that  rugged  character  \\lii<h  inabled  him,  like 
F.!:\'ih  cif  old,  to  denounce  people  an<l  princes  for  their  sins  and  call  them 
■'■»  k  to  (iod. 




WHKN  the  Son  of  God  came  to  earth,  he  came  not  as  an  angel,  but 
was  born  into  our  humanity.  To  be  the  true  mediator  between 
God  and  man  he  must  be  both  human  and  divine.  The  human 
heart  feels  the  need  of  this,  to  have  one,  who,  from  experience,  knows  our 
needs  and  nature,  and  at  the  same  time  has  absolute  and  unlimited  access 
to  God.  One  born  in  the  order  of  nature  would  not  be  to  us  the  divine- 
human  Saviour.  This  is,  in  part,  the  reason  which  lies  back  of  the  super- 
natural conception  of  Jesus  Christ. 

But  we  do  not  claim  his  Divine  Sonship  on  the  basis  of  the  account  of 
his  birth,  merely.  His  life  and  teachings  and  the  kingdom  he  founded,  are 
the  proofs  which  attest  his  supernatural  and  divine  conception. 

Mary  of  Nazareth  was  the  one  honored  of  God  to  be  the  mother  of  the 
world's  Saviour. 

Before  the  birth  of  Christ,  but  after  the  divine  announcement  had  been 
made,  Mary  journeyed  to  the  hill  country  to  visit  her  kinswoman,  Elisa- 
beth, who  was  to  become  the  mother  of  John  the  Baptist.  In  Luke  i  : 
46-55,  we  have  the  song  of  Mary  which  begins  :  — 

**  My  soul  doth  magnify  the  lx)rd, 
And  my  spirit  hath  rejoiced  in  God  my  Saviour. 
For  he  hath  looked  upon  the  low  estate  of  his  handmaiden  : 
For  behold  from  henceforth  all  generations  shall  call  me  blessed.** 

This  is  known  in  literature  as  the  Magnificat.  It  shows  a  mind  thor- 
oughly imbued  with  the  spirit  and  substance  of  Hebrew  poetry,  and  at  once 
marks  Mary  as  a  woman  of  superior  intellect  and  deep  piety. 

The  birth  of  Jesus  in  the  Bethlehem  stable  *'  because  there  was  no  room 
for  them  in  tlie  inn,"  touches  the  deepest  emotion  of  every  mother's 
heart.  The  flight  into  Kgypt  because  of  the  murderous  decree  of  the  in- 
sanely jealous  Herod  touches  the  hearts  of  all  fathers  and  mothers,  the 
natural  guardians  of  babes. 



At  twelve  years  of  age  Jesus  visits  Jerusalem  with  Joseph  and  Mary  and 
a  great  company  of  their  kinsfolk  and  acquaintances.  Upon  their  return 
he  is  missing,  and,  after  long  search,  is  found  in  the  temple  in  the  midst  of 
the  doctors  of  the  law.  To  Mary's  words,  **  Thy  father  and  I  have  sought 
thee  sorrowing,'*  he  replies:  "Wist  ye  not  that  I  must  be  about  my 
Father  5  business?  '*  We  cannot  say  whether  Mary  had  yet  told  him  of  his 
divine  parentage,  but  he  evidently  knows  it  now  and  recognizes  that  his  life 
»ork  is  to  do  his  Father's  will. 

F"or  eighteen  years  there  is  silence.  We  are  told  that  "  the  child  grew, 
and  waxed  strong  in  spirit,  filled  with  wisdom."  We  learn  from  later 
re\elation  that  he  worked  at  the  trade  of  a  carpenter  in  Nazareth.  But  he 
was  at  the  same  time  training  for  the  memorable  three  years  of  ministry  — 
the  central  years  of  the  world's  history. 

His  public  ministry  did  not  begin  with  a  sudden  impulse,  but  was  pre- 
pared for  by  his  whole  life.  The  consciousness  of  his  di\  ine  nature  and 
|K)wer  grew  and  ripened  and  strengthened  until  the  time  of  his  showing 
unto  Israel. 

When  that  ministry  began  and  during  much  of  its  continuance,  Mary 
*as  with  her  son  and  his  disciples,  and,  with  other  motherly  women,  min- 
i>tere<l  to  this  band  of  young  men. 

Then- was  the  year  of  obscurity, —  the  year  of  j)ul)lic  fa\or,  —  and  the 
vt-ar  of  opposition.  And  that  mother  in  hoi)e,  or  joy,  or  anguisli,  kept 
"•arhim.  I'pon  one  or  two  occasions  he  was  obliged  to  i^^^eiUlv  put  aside 
•Vr  loving  and  o\eran\ious  interference,  for  he  must  l)e  directed  from 
'^'''•vt.  never  from  about  him. 

When  there  came  that  dark  and  awful  tragedy  of  Cahary,  Mary  was  at 
the  cross.  It  was  there  that  Jesus  provided  for  his  mother  while  he  was 
'^yinjr.  Looking  upon  her  and  his  belo\  ed  (li>eii)lc,  John,  he  uttered  two 
><-nl»'nces  :  '*  Behold  thy  son,"  "  Behold  thy  niotlur."  l)y  this,  de^ii^nating 
John  a>  the  one  who  should  lovinj^ly  care  for  his  mother. 

.Mar\'  is  again  mentioned  in  Aets  1:14,  where  we  ha\e  the  picture  (»f 
]'->us'  followers,  after  his  resurrection  and  as(cnsioii.  leathered  in  an  ui)i)er 
r-K^m  in  Jeru>iilem  engaged  in  prayer,  and  waiting  for  the  Pentecostal  out- 



A.  D.  32. 


XT  is  Strange  how  the  painter's  brush  can  lie  and  be  guilty  of  a  vile 
¥  slander.  Again,  the  vitality  and  self-propagating  power  of  a  lie  is 
T       marvelous. 

The  name  of  Magdalene  is  chiefly  associated  in  the  popular  mind  with 
the  picture  of  a  voluptuous  though  sad  woman,  and  with  places  of  refuge 
for  fallen  women. 

There  is  not  the  slightest  evidence  in  the  gospel  narratives  or  in  the 
writings  of  the  early  church  fathers,  that  Mary  Magdalene  had  ever  been  a 
woman  of  ill  repute.  She  had  been  possessed  of  seven  demons*,  and  Jesus 
cast  them  out,  freeing  her  from  the  awful  malady.  It  would  be  unspeak- 
ably cruel  in  these  days  to  assume  that  every  insane  woman  was  an 
abandoned  character.  Insanity  does  often  come  as  a  result  of  sin,  but  in- 
sanity is  not  proof  of  sin. 

Demoniacal  possession  in  the  days  of  Christ  was  more  than  insanity. 
The  powers  of  darkness  seem  to  have  been  let  loose  when  the  Son  of  God 
came  to  earth.  The  special  manifestation  of  God's  benevolence  was  met  by 
the  special  manifestation  of  demoniacal  malignity. 

Mary  had  probably  been  a  poor,  wild,  raving  creature  like  the  Gadarene 
demoniac,  and  the  terrible  affliction  resulted  in  an  emaciated  form  and  a 
face  with  scars  and  deep  lines.  When  she  was  cured,  every  drop  of  blood 
in  her  veins  went  out  in  gratitude  to  her  Deliverer  and  she  followed  him, 
with  Mary,  his  own  mother,  and  ministered  to  him  of  her  property.  She 
was,  no  doubt,  a  woman  of  mature  years,  like  the  mother  of  Jesus,  and  next 
to  her  is  the  most  prominent  female  character  in  the  New  Testament.  She 
was  last  at  the  cross,  last  to  leave  the  tomb,  first  to  visit  it  on  the  resur- 
rection morning,  and  first  to  carry  the  news  that  Christ  had  risen. 

Christ's  work  for  Mary  Magdalene  and  her  loving  ministration  to  him 
constitute  the  type  of  the  elevation  of  woman  to  the  rank  of  friendship 
with  man.  She  is  no  longer  his  slave,  but  his  co-worker  and  equal,  capa 
ble  of  accepting  ecjual  responsibilities  and  sharing  equally  in  the  results. 



A.  D.  31. 



r^ERODIAS  is  the  Jezebel  of  the  New  Testament.  First  she  married 
P/  her  uncle,  Herod  Philip.  Antipas,  half-brother  of  Philip,  came  to 
Rome  to  receive  his  investiture  as  a  Tetrarch  and  was  entertained 
by  Philip.  The  hospitality  was  basely  rewarded  by  the  intrigues  of  Hero- 
dias  and  Antipas.  Ambitious  and  shameless  she  agreed  to  come  to  him 
upon  his  return  and  after  he  had  divorced  his  wife.  This  was  accom- 

John  the  Baptist  fearlessly  told  Herod  that  it  was  not  lawful  for  him  to 
have  his  brother's  wife.  Herodias  was  furious  and  swore  vengeance  upon 
]ohn.  Antipas,  though  a  tyrant,  feared  John  and  for  a  time  stood  between 
the  prophet  and  the  woman  who  thirsted  for  his  blood.  Nothing  but  the 
death  of  the  Baptist  would  satisfy  the  resentment  of  Herodias.  Though 
ioiled  once  she  continued  to  watch  her  opportunity. 

There  was  a  great  banquet  at  Machaereus  in  honor  of  Herod's  birth- 
day.   While  the  drunken  revelry  was  at  its  height,  Herodias  sent  in  her 
dauirhter  Salome  as  a  ballet  dancer  for  the  revelers.      They  were  charmed, 
ind  Herod  in  his  drunken  delight  promised  to  give  anything  she  asked, 
even  to   the  half  of    his  kingdom   (though  he    could    not    give  away   the 
smallest  village  without  permission  from  Rome).      Tlie  royal  dancer  retired, 
insulted  with  her  mother  and  returned,  demanding  the  head  of  John  on 
one  of  the  great  platters  of  the  banquet  table. 

Herod  was  shocked  into  soberness  and  sought  to  extricate  himself  and 
5ave  John,  but  he  could  neither  face  the  laugh  of  his  guests  nor  the  wrath 
of  Herodias,  and  the  ghastly  gift  was  brotight. 

Herod's  fortunes  soon  declined.  Urged  on  by  Herodias,  he  sought  the 
title  of  king,  from  Oesar.  The  jealousy  of  Agrippa  was  aroused  ;  charges 
mere  brought  against  him,  he  was  stripped  of  his  power  and  banished.  His 
tfuilty  companion  followed  him  and  they  both  died  in  exile.  The  only  re- 
deeming feature  in  this  woman's  character  is  that  she  evidently  loved 
Antipas  and  voluntarily  chose  exile  with  him. 



A.  I>.  10-51). 


"^^ERO  was  a  monster  of  iniquity.      His  reign  was  a  carnival  of  crime. 
r^/  Who  and  what  was  the  mother  of  this  man?     She  was  born  in  a 

te  Roman  camp  on  the  shores  of  the  Rhine.  Germanicus  was  her 
father,  and  Agrippina  the  Mrst,  her  mother.  Her  fiery  and  ambitious 
spirit  was  probably  stimuhited  by  her  father's  conquests.  After  the  death 
of  her  father  she  was  driven  into  exile  by  her  brother,  Caligula,  who  accused 
her  of  conspiracy. 

After  some  years,  Agrippina  married,  for  her  second  husband,  her  uncle 
Claudius,  who  Iku!  become  emperor.  She  ruled  him  absolutely,  and  when 
she  thoui^ht  he  had  lived  lonj^  enough  caused  him  to  be  poisoned  in  order 
that  she  might  (jbtain  the  throne  for  her  s<^n  Xcro.  Claudius  had  a  son, 
Hritannicus,  by  his  first  wife,  Nk'ssalina,  who  was  therefore  the  rightful  heir 
of  the  throne.  He  was  put  out  of  the  way  as  his  father  had  been,  by 
whose  hand  we  cannot  say. 

Agrippina  was  inc^rdinately  ambitious  for  her  son  Nero.  She  was  in 
many  resj)ects  a  woman  of  ability  in  aflfairs  of  state.  Her  ambition  was  at 
at  last  gratified  in  seeing  her  son  j)roclaimed  emperor.  But  she  could  not 
readily  reliiupiish  her  power,  and  so  there  arose  jealousy  l>etween  mother 
and  son.  She  was  warned  of  danger,  but  exclaimed,  "  Let  me  perish,  but 
let  Nero  reign  !  " 

The  son  who  had  rctaclied  the  throne  by  his  mother's  crimes,  turned 
against  Iier  and  j)lolte(l  lier  deatli.  He  caused  a  boat  to  be  so  constructed 
that  it  would  easily  fall  to  ])ieces  in  a  slight  storm.  This  occurred  as 
.Agrijjpina  was  crossing  the  (lulf  of  Haiie.  Instead  of  drowning  she  swam 
ashore,  and  later  was  brutally  murdered.  Her  unscrupulous  ambition  for 
her  son  had  its  grim  recompense. 

P\>r  ten  years  she  was  the  virtual  ruler,  that  is,  for  the  last  five  years  c 
Claudius'  life  and  the  first   five  years  of  Nero's  occupation  of  the  thron' 
and  her  reign,  though  marked  by  domestic  crimes,  was  a  prosperous  O' 
for  the  state. 






RBprDLlucBri  frnin  the  CBlahratBd  painting  by 
Gustav  IVerthBlrnBr.  (Sbb  "  i^ntany  and  CIbd- 
patra."  ) 





IC^OT  Martha  versus  Mary,  but  Martha  and  Mary.  They  were  very 
I  /  unlike,  but  each  was  the  complement  of  the  other  and  both  were 
the  friends  of  Jesus  and  helped  to  make  the  home  in  Bethany  a 
restful  place  to  which  he  could  come  from  the  murderous  plottings  of  the 
priests  and  Pharisees. 

Martha  was  probably  the  elder  of  the  two,  a  vigorous,  matronly,  bus- 
tlinj^  housewife,  over-careful  about  a  multitude  of  unimportant  details  of  the 
household.  She  was  no  doubt  proud  of  her  perfectly  ordered  home,  but 
she  had  by  degrees  become  tjie  slave  of  her  ambition  to  have  the  best  kept 
house  in  Bethany. 

Mar)',  on  the  other  hand,  was  of  a  contemplative  mind  and  had  more  of 
ahunijering  for  spiritual  things.  When  Christ  came  to  their  home  she 
t'H-k  the  opportunity,  not  to  entertain  him,  but  to  learn  of  him.  "  For  the 
^nof  Man  came  not  to  be  ministered  unto,  but  to  minister,"  and  he  was 
h'M  pka^ed  when  people  received  from  him.  He  commended  Mary  and 
t"M  Martha  that  she  was  unnecessarily  burdening  herself  with  ()\  er-careful- 
nt-'S  and  much  serving.  Her  zeal  was  honored  in  its  turn,  liowever,  and 
>ht  shared  e(|iially  in  the  Lord's  affection. 

WV  a^L^ain  see  the  sisters  when  bereavement  has  come.  Their  brother 
La^arus.  the  loved  friend  of  Jesus,  is  dead.  They  send  word  to  Jesus.  He 
C"nK*s  lo  Bethany.  Martha  is  first  to  meet  him  and  hear  the  wonderful 
»or<lr,f  rr^mfort,  **  I  am  the  Resurrection  and  the  Life."  Their  brother  is 
r^ti.rcd  to  them,  the  broken  circle  is  made  wliole. 

Shortly  before  the  death  of  Christ  we  see  him  again  in  Bethany  in  the 
house  <.f  Simon  the  leper,  where  a  banquet  is  gi\en  in  his  honor.  Martha 
^^^'>  at  the  table,  lovingly  ministering  to  tlie  j)hysica]  comfort  of  the 
K^^ls.  NLiry  brings  an  alabaster  box  of  ointment  and  anoints  the  head 
Md  feet  of  Je*sus  in  a  manner  fit  for  royalty.  Thus  the  two  sisters,  each  in 
btrown  way,  show  their  devotion  to  Christ. 



A.  I>.  87. 


/1\  HE  Scripture  notice  of  this  woman  is  confined  to  a  few  verses  in  the 
JL       ninth    chapter  of  Acts,   hut   her  name  to  this  day  stands  for  the 
benevolent  use  of  the  needle.      Her  example  has  been  an  inspira- 
tion to  women  in  all  these  years  of  church  history. 

Her  home  was  at  Joppa.  She  was  associated  with  a  little  band  of 
Christians,  most  of  whom,  like  herself,  were  poor.  The  words  of  Jesus  had 
no  doubt  been  the  movinjiif  power  in  her  soul.  ' '  For  I  was  an  hungred 
and  ye  gave  me  meat,;  I  was  thirsty  and  ye  gave  me  drink  ;  I  was  a 
stranger  and  ye  took  me  in  ;  naked  and  ye  clothed  me  ;  I  was  sick  and  ye 
visited  me  ;  I  was  in  prison  and  ye  came  unto  me."  And  "  Inasmuch  as 
ye  have  done  it  unto  one  of  the  least  of  these,  my  brethren,  ye  have  done 
it  unto  me." 

She  "was  full  of  good  works  and  almsdeeds  which  she  did.'*  Her 
piety  was  eminently  practical.  It  was  a  sad  blow  to  the  little  band  when 
Dorcas  died.  They  at  once  sent  for  Peter,  who  was  in  the  neighboring  city 
of  Lydda. 

When  he  came  he  found  the  people  grief-stricken.  The  widows  pre- 
sented an  eloquent  eulogy  on  the  life  and  character  of  Dorcas  by  showing 
some  of  the  many  coals  and  garments  which  she  had  made.  Here  were 
aged  widows  whose  hands  were  too  feeble  to  hold  the  needle  and  too  poor 
to  pay  others  for  the  work.  They  showed  the  warm  garments  Dorcas  had 
made  to  protect  them  from  the  cold  winds  which  often  swept  in  from  the 
Mediterranean.  And  here  were  younger  widows  with  little  children  who 
had  been  clothed  by  Dorcas.  How  could  they  ever  find  another  such 
friend  ? 

But  Dorcas  was  given  buck  to  them.  Life  was  restored  by  a  great 
miracle.  Peter  knelt  down  and  prayed.  Then  turning  to  the  body,  he 
said,  **Tabitha,  arisel"  "And  slie  opened  her  eyes;  and  when  she  saw 
Peter  she  sat  up. "  The  mourners'  tears  were  wiped  away  and  the  work 
of  the  Lord  grew  mightily. 



A.  D.  50. 


Inj/ HEY  were  Jewesses,  living  among  a  people  who  worshiped  the  gods 

®  I  fe     of  Greece.     Eunice  had  married  a  Greek,  and  to  them  was  born  a 

son  whom  they  named  Timothy. 

Coming  to  Lystra  on  his  second  missionary  tour,  Paul  found  the  young 

man  highly  spoken  of  by  the  little  group  of  Christians.      He  was  of  such 

e\ident  ability  and  promise   that   Paul   made  him  his  missionary  helper. 

Where  he  was  converted  we  cannot  say,  but  we  conclude  that  Paul's  first 

visit  to  Lystra  had  much  to  do  with  it.      At  that  time  Paul  and  Silas  healed 

a  lame  man,  and  the  heathen  population  became  so  enthusiastic  that  they 

called  them  Jupiter  and  Mercury,  and  the  priest  of  Jupiter  was  about  to  offer 

sacrifice  unto  them  as  gods.     But  soon  after,  the  Jews  stirred  up  the  people 

and  Paul  was  stoned,  dragged  out  of  the  city,  and  left  by  the  wayside  for 

dtad.     But  he  recovered  and  bravely  comforted  the  few  who  had  become 


Timothy  must  have  known  about  iill  this,  possibly  he  saw  botli  the 
attempteil  worship  and  the  stoning.  Then,  or  later,  he  became  a  follower 
of  the  Saviour  whom  Paul  preached,  and  was  ready  to  be  a  pupil  and 
hdptrr  of  Paul  when  he  returned. 

When,  yt^ars  later,  Paul  lay  in  the  prison  at  Rome  awaitini^  trial  and 
execution,  he  writes  his  second  letter  to  his  beloved  helper,  calling  to 
rcmtmbrance  the  faith  Timothy  had  shown,  and  reininclint^  him  that  this 
^mQ  faith  was  first  in  his  grandmother  Lois  and  his  mother  Eunice. 
•Vain,  he  says  to  Timothy,  "  From  a  child  thou  hast  known  the  holy 

Grandmother  and  mother  had  no  doubt  Ixen  his  teachers.  His  fit- 
nttss  i(\  be  the  companion  and  co-worker  of  Paul  fnuls  its  exi)lanation 
lar)^ely  in  the  home  training  and  pious  example  i^iven  him  by  these  two 
noHe  women.  It  was  from  them  also  that  the  youth  derived  his  first  im- 
pressions of  Christian  truth  ;  for  Paul  calls  to  rememi)rance  the  unfeigned 
iaith  which  first  dwelt  in  them. 



A.  D.  58. 


§ER  native  place  was  Thyatira  on  the  borders  of  Lydia  in  Asia  Minor. 
Her  city  was  celebrated  in  ancient  times  for  its  purple  dyes  and 
fabrics.  Among  the  ruins  of  the  city  has  been  found  in  recent  years 
an  inscription  relating  to  the  *'  Guild  of  Dyers,*'  showing  the  accuracy  in 
unimportant  details  of  this  scripture  narrative. 

She  may  have  borne  a  different  name  at  home,  but  among  strangers  she 
was  known  as  Lydia  or  the  Lydian.  She  was  a  business  woman,  dealing 
in  coloring  matter,  or  more  likely  goods  already  dyed.  The  color  purple 
was  highly  prized  among  the  ancients. 

Lydia  had  settled  in  the  city  of  Philippi,  which  was  a  miniature  Rome. 
Here  she  carried  on  her  business,  surrounded  by  her  household,  which 
seems  to  have  included  many  servants. 

She  was  not  a  Jewess  by  birth,  but  had  come  to  a  knowledge  of  the  true 
God,  and  was  a  proselyte  and  a  devout  worshiper. 

Philippi  was  the  scene  of  the  first  labors  of  Paul  in  Europe.  One  Sab- 
bath day  he  found  a  company  of  Jews  worshiping  outside  the  city,  near  a 
river.  He  preached  to  them,  and  Lydia' s  heart  was  opened  to  receive  the 
truth.  She  at  once  urged  the  missionaries  to  make  her  house  their  home. 
Paul  hesitated  to  do  this,  as  he  made  it  a  rule  not  to  be  dependent  on  any- 
one, but  he  finally  accepted  her  hospitality. 

For  having  cured  a  poor,  half-crazed  slave  girl,  who  brought  her  mas- 
ters much  gain  by  fortune  telling,  Paul  and  Silas  were  cruelly  beaten  and 
cast  into  jail. 

By  means  of  a  mighty  earthquake,  the  prisoners  were  released  from 
their  bonds,  and  the  jailer  was  converted.  On  the  following  day  the  mag- 
istrate dismiss(fd  Paul  and  Silas.  A  farewell  meeting  was  held  at  the  home 
of  Lydia,  and  we  may  suppose  that  the  converted  jailer  was  one  of  the 
company.  Paul  then  departed  to  carry  the  gospel  to  other  cities  of 
Europe.  His  most  loving  epistle  was  written  from  the  prison  in  Rome  to 
the  church  at  Philippi. 



A.  D.  40-78. 


4— jOf — h      

¥^^ER  husband  was  Julius  Sabinus.  He  pretended  to  be  a  descendant 
£  #  of  Julius  Caesar  and  laid  claim  to  the  throne  when  several  others 
^  were  seeking  the  same  prize.  He  was  defeated  and  a  large  reward 
was  offered  for  his  capture.  He  declared  his  intention  of  committing 
suicide  by  burning  his  own  house  and  perishing  in  the  flames.  The  house 
UHs  burned  and  his  friends  and  enemies  supposed  him  dead. 

Under  his  house  there  was  a  ca\'ern  to  which  he  betook  himself  instead 
0!  dying,  and  the  secret  was  communicated  to  but  one  friend,  Martial. 

Eponina,  who  was  absent  at  the  time,  heard  of  his  death  and  was  so 
overcome  with  grief  that  for  many  days  she  would  eat  nothing,  and  was  in 
danger  of  sacrificing  her  own  life.  Martial  at  last  communicated  to  her  the 
iact  that  Sabinus  was  not  dead,  but  hidden  in  the  cave  under  the  ruins  of 
their  villa. 

She  was  conducted  to  his  hiding  place  by  night,  but  returned  before 
morning.  She  was  advised  by  Martial  to  keep  up  the  appearance  of  grief 
i'^rsome  months,  which  she  did. 

For  nine  years  the  husband  lived  in  this  cave,  visited  as  often  as  possible 
by  h\>  devoted  wife. 

Sii>picions  were  at  last  aroused  and  Sabinus  was  discovered  and  l)rought 
More  the  emperor.  The  death  sentence  was  passed  ui)()n  him.  Kponina 
prtKirait-*!  herself  before  the  emperor  and  im|)lore(l  him  to  s|)are  her  hus- 
Wl  after  hi>  nine  years  of  imprisonment,  but  he  was  ine\oral)le.  She 
chf»M-  to  shan-  the  fate  of  her  husband. 

When  thev  were  led  to  execution,  I\poniiia  turned  indignantly  to  the 
^•mjK'ror  and  said  :  **  Learn,  X'espasian.  that  1  ha\  e  cnjoyi-d  more  haj)- 
\>\m^^  in  the  performance  of  my  duties  and  in  j)rol()ngin^  thr  life  of  your 
'•K^tim.  though  but  in  the  rude  n-cessc-s  of  an  oi)scurc  (  a\<  rn,  than  you  will 
hf-no-forth  e\er  enjoy  amidst  the  splendors  th  it  surround  y(»ur  throne." 

The  sympathies  of  the  Roman  j)eo|)le  were  with  llponina,  and  her  heroic 
Melity  was  a  theme  upon  which  they  dwelt  with  |)ride. 



A.  D. 54. 


)  QUI  LA  and  Priscilla,  a  noble  Christian  couple,  had  been  driven 
from  Rome  by  the  decree  of  Claudius  Caesar.  A  large  Jewish  col- 
ony dwelt  at  Rome  in  a  crowded  quarter  on  the  banks  of  the  Tiber. 
Suetonius,  a  Roman  historian,  has  a  statement  which  exactly  fits  the  words 
of  Acts  XVIII  :  2.  He  says,  "  Claudius  banished  the  Jews  from  Rome,  who 
were  constantly  making  disturbances,  at  the  instigation  of  one  Chrestus.** 
Christianity  had  no  doubt  been  introduced  into  Rome  by  some  of  the  Jews 
who  were  converted  at  Jerusalem  on  the  day  of  Pentecost.  These  Chris- 
tians were  no  doubt  persecuted  at  Rome,  as  elsewhere  by  the  Jews,  and, 
for  the  disturbances,  the  whole  Jewish  colony  was  banished. 

During  the  early  decades  of  Christianity  the  Romans  did  not  distinguish 
between  Jews  and  Christians.  Suetonius'  statement  about  '^Chrestus" 
shows  an  ignorance  that  is  amusing.  He  evidently  had  heard  the  name  of 
Christ  connected  with  the  disturbances. 

Aquila  and  Priscilla  were  already  Christians,  but  suffered  banishment 
with  the  others.  They  were  tcntmakers  by  trade  and  finally  settled  in 
Corinth,  which  was  a  great  center  of  commerce,  culture,  and  especially  of 
iniquity,  for  here  was  a  temple  to  Venus  with  a  thousand  abandoned 
women  as  attendants. 

Paul  on  his  second  missionary  tour  came  to  Corinth  and,  finding  Aquila 
and  Priscilla,  made  his  home  with  them.  They  were  attached  by  a  three- 
fold tie  :  they  were  Jews  by  birth,  Christians  by  profession,  and  tentmakers 
by  trade,  and  Paul,  while  he  worked  as  a  missionary,  worked  with  his 
friends  at  their  trade. 

He  was  so  successful  in  his  missionary  work,  that  at  the  end  of  a  year 
and  a  half  the  Jews  raised  such  a  persecution  that  the  three  tentmakers 
were  driven  from  the  city,  to  Ephesus,  where  Paul  left  his  friends  and 
sailed  to  Syria,  visiting  Jerusalem  and  Antioch. 

Some  time  after  Paul's  departure,  there  came  to  Ephesus  a  learned  and 
eloquent  man  of  Alexandria,  Apollos  by  name,  who  had  heard  and  accepted 



A.  D.  60. 


|^>^EXCHREA  was  the  seaport  of  Corinth.  A  Christian  church  had 
^Jj^  been  established  here  by  Paul.  While  working  in  Corinth  he  wrote 
his  famous  letter  to  the  Romans  and  sent  it  by  the  hand  of  Phoebe. 
In  the  1 6th  chapter  her  name  stands  at  the  head  of  a  long  list  of  noble 

Phtebe  is  called  a  "  servant  *'  of  the  church,  but  the  word  in  the  origi- 
nal is  "diakonos,"  from  which  we  derive  our  word  deacon.  So,  while  she 
is  called  '*  servant"  of  the  church,  the  term  evidently  refers  to  an  official 

She  seems  to  have  been  a  business  woman  and  to  have  had  some  affairs 
oi  her  own  to  attend  to  in  Rome,  for  Paul  urges  the  Christians  at  Rome  to 
be  of  any  possible  assistance  to  her.  A  high  tribute  is  paid  to  her  as  "  a 
succorer  of  many  and  of  myself  also."  By  her  means  and  in  person  she 
had  ministered  to  the  sick  and  distressed. 

PrtHclUa  continued, 

S"me  things  of    the  Christian    religion    and    was   working  enthusiastically 
among  his  own  people,  the  Jews. 

Thf  tentmakers  heard  him  and,  while  rejoicing  at  his  ability  and  zeal, 
thry  >aw  that  he  had  but  part  of  the  truth.  He  was  invited  to  their  abode 
^'i  learned  of  them  more  fully  the  truth  of  Christianity.  The  tentniakei-s 
Had  become  teachers,  and  the  name  of  the  wife  is  placed  first. 

A  ft-w  years  later  they  evidently  returned  to  Rome,  for  l^uil  in  his  letter 
!'■  the  Ronians  sends  them  greeting  (Rom.  xvi  :  4 ).  In  this  single 
•  ersewe  learn  that  he  remembered  them  as  his  "helpers"  in  the  gospel 
^'»rk.  hf  was  no  doubt  thinking  of  the  days  in  Corinth.  .Aj^ain,  he  says 
J-^.it  {or  his  life  thev  laid  down  their  own  necks.  SoinelK)w,  th(*\'  had  sax'ed 
"^  lift-  at  the  risk  of  their  own.  And,  l.istly,  he  spiaks  of  "  the  church 
^h;<-h  is  in  their  house."  Their  home  had  become  tin-  meeting  place  of 
the  Christians  in  Rome  at  a  time  when  it  was  neither  jK)ssible  nor  safe  f(<r 
th*-ni  to  have  a  special  house  of  worshijx 



Died  A.  D.  6S. 


J^OADICEA  was  wife  of  Prasutaj^as,  king  of  the  Iceni,  a  tribe  of  east- 
l2r     cm  Hritain. 

It  is  the  old  story,  evt?r  repeated,  of  imperial  rapacity  and 
cruelty.  The  Romans  had  invatled  Britain  on  the  pretext  that  they  helped 
the  Gauls.  Kiuir  IVasuta^as,  in  order  to  appease  the  emperor  and 
protect  his  family,  Kft  half  of  his  threat  fortune  to  Nero  and  the  remainder 
to  his  wife  and  daughters.  The  Roman  officers,  on  the  pretext  that  Boadi- 
cea  had  conce.iled  a  ])art  of  the  property,  seized  the  whole.  The  queen 
protested  against  such  high  handed  proceedings.  The  officers  in  revenge 
caused  her  to  be  stripped  and  scourged  and  her  daughters  were  given  to 
the  soldiers.  This  treatment,  worst*  than  death,  roused  the  queen  and  peo- 
ple to  desperation.  She  assembled  the  Britons  and  with  spear  in  hand  and 
the  passionate  and  i)athetic  elocpience  of  wronged  womanhood,  recounted 
their  sufferings  at  the  hands  of  the  Romans  and  called  upon  them  to  repel 
the  invaders.  Boaditea  led  the  attack  in  person  and  the  Romans,  seventy 
thousand  in  number,  were  slaughtered.  Tlu:  noble  queen  and  her 
daughters  had  been  avenged. 

The  Roman  general,  who  had  been  absent  from  the  first  batde,  returned 
with  ten  thousand  soldiers  and  for  a  time  shut  himself  up  in  London  in 
doubt  whether  to  give  battle  to  the  vast  host  who  followed  the  queen.  At 
length  he  came  forth.  Boadicea  in  her  chariot,  accompanied  by  her 
daughter,  urged  the  Britons  to  con([uer  or  die.  "  Is  it  not  much  l>etter  to 
fall  honorably  in  defense  of  liberty,  than  be  again  exposed  to  the  outrages 
of  the  Romans?  Such  at  least  is  my  resolution  ;  as  for  you  men,  you  may, 
if  you  i)lease,  live  and  be  slaves  !  " 

The  result  was  a  total  defeat  and  dreadful  slaughter  of  the  brave 
Britons.  Kighty  thousand  were  left  dead  on  the  field.  The  queen  died, 
either  of  des])air  or  poison,  in  62,  looking  for  the  prophecy  of  the  Druid 
priest  to  be  fulfilled,  '*  Rome  shall  perish  —  write  that  word  in  the  blood  that 
she  has  spilt  ;  —  perish,  hopeless  and  abhorred,  deep  in  ruin  as  in  guilt.'* 





REprDciucBd  from  en  Etching  of  the  statue  ai 
Bnadicea  by  J,  Thnmas,  a  Welsh  sculptor  and 
painter.  Thcmas  was  a  pupil  of  Chantrey,  and  an 
Exhibitor  at  the  .Royal  Academy,  London,  for 
many  years.  Anion.q  his  portrait  statues  and 
busts,  "  Music,"  "  P.acket  Flayer,"  "  Statue  of  the 
Marquis  of  3ute,"  and  "  Statue  of  "^Bllinc;ton," 
sra  the  most  promiuBnt, 


A.  D.  65. 


^      HE  study  of  the  career  of  this  woman  brings  us  into  acquaintance 
\[j  ^     with  a  number  of  important  historic  characters. 

T  Bernice  was  the  daughter  of  Herod  Agrippa  I.  and  the  sister  of 

Agrippa  H.,  before  whom  Paul  preached  (Acts  xxv-:  13,23  and  xxvi  :3o). 

She  first  marrieii  her  uncle,  Herod,  King  of  Chalcis,  and  by  him  had  two 

sons.     After  his  death  she  went  to  live  with  her  brother  Agrippa,  and  was 

under  suspicion  of  sustaining  immoral  relations  to  him.     To  hush  up  this 

sandal  she  proposed  marriage  to  Polemon,   king  of  Cilicia,  on  condition 

that  he   adopt  the  Jewish  faith.     This  he  did.      But  after  a  few  years  she 

wearied  of   him  and  went    back  to  her  brother,   aiul    Polemon  renounced 

Judaism,  his  adopted  faith. 

Abf)ut  65  A.  I).,  she  went  to  Jerusalem  and  interceded  with  the  Roman 
K^vemor  for  the  Jews,  at  the  risk  of  her  own  life,  for  he  was  at  this  time 
earning  on  a  cruel  persecution  of  the  Jews.  She,  with  her  brother,  sought 
to  dissuade  the  Jews  from  rebellion.  This  lulpetl  to  secure  tlieir  own 
^Akiy  and  the  favor  of  the  Romans. 

.\fter  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem,  Bernice  and  Agripjxi  made  a  journey 
tf' Rome,  where  she  further  gained  the  good  will  of  the  emperor  W-spasian 
by  her  gifts  and  won  his  son  Titus  by  her  i)eauty.  Titus  was  about  to 
•Tiarry  her,  but  the  protest  of  the  Romans  pre\  ented  him.  She  was  ac- 
C'-niinj^ly  sent  away  with  the  promise  that  he  would  call  her  back  when  the 
tumuh  had  ceased. 

Bernice  was  very  scrupulous  about  religious  observances,  but  to  matters 
^•*  morality  she  ga\e  little  heed. 

At  the  time  of  Paul's  noted  speech  before  Agrippa,  which  is  ^Wm  in 
At"t>  \x\  I.  Brrnice  was  present.  .She  and  Agri])pa  had  cnmv  with  great 
F»^'nip  to  pay  a  visit  to  Festus.  the  goxcrnor  at  Ca'san-a.  It  was  Aj^rippa 
•Ahosaid.  sarcastically  or  otherwise,  **  Almost  thou  prrsuadest  nw  to  be  a 
^"hnstian. ' ' 


B  LAN  DIN  A. 

A.  I>.  177. 


^(HE  was  one  of  the  forty-eight  martyrs  of  Lyons  who  perished  durin 
}<^     the  terrible  religious  persecution  under  the  emperor  Marcus  Aurc 

In  the  Ecclesiastical  History  of  Eusebius  (260-339)  i^  given  a  lei 
ter  which  records  the  sufferings  of  the  Christians  at  Lyons.  First,  the 
were  excluded  from  houses,  baths,  and  market  places,  so  that  nothin 
belonging  to  them  could  appear  in  public.  They  bore  all  patiently,  '*Es 
teeming  what  was  deemed  great  but  little,  they  hastened  to  Christ,  showin 
in  reality  that  the  sufferings  of  this  time  are  not  worthy  to  be  compared  wit 
the  glory  that  shall  be  revealed  in  us.  And  first  they  nobly  sustained  a 
the  evils  that  were  heaped  upon  them  by  the  populace  ;  clamors  and  blows 
plundering  and  robberies,  stonings  and  imprisonments,  and  whatsoever 
savage  people  delight  to  inflict  u])on  enemies." 

Pagan  slaves,  fearing  lest  they  should  be  included  in  the  persecutions 
sought  to  protect  themselves  by  charging  their  Christian  masters  with  gros 
crimes.  The  pagan  populace  and  magistrates  fell  upon  the  Christians  an» 
dragged  them  to  death.  Among  them  was  Blandina,  herself  a  poor  slav 
girl,  but  a  Christian  who  honored  her  sex  and  her  religion  by  her  constanc 
and  courage. 

The  ancient  letter  from  the  Church  in  Lyons  has  this  to  say  :  '*  Whil 
we  were  all  trembling,  and  her  earthly  mistress,  who  was  herself  one  of  th 
contending  martyrs,  was  apprehensive,  lest,  through  the  weakness  of  th 
flesh,  she  should  not  be  able  to  make  a  bold  confession,  Blandina  was  fiUe 
with  such  ])ower,  that  her  ingenious  tormentors,  who  relieved  and  succeede 
each  other  from  morning  till  night,  confessed  that  they  were  overcome  an 
had  nothing  more  that  they  could  inflict  u])on  her.  They  were  amaze 
that  she  continued  to  breathe  after  her  whole  body  was  pierced  and  tor 
asunder.  In  the  midst  of  her  sufferings,  as  she  for  a  moment  revived,  sh 
repeatedly  exclaimed,  '  I  am  a  Christian  ;  no  wickedness  is  carried  o 
by  us!"' 



Martyred  A.  D.  202. 



^HHE  fifth  general  persecution  of  the  Christians  was  raised  by  Septimius 
^Ife    Severus  in  202.      Among  the  Christians  seized  at  Carthage  were 
the  two  above  named.     Their  martyrdom  is  among  the  most  touch- 
ing events  of  church  history. 

Perpetua  was  a  lady  of  rank.  Her  father  was  a  pagan,  but  had  a  deep 
affection  for  his  daughter,  though  she  had  become  a  Christian.  He  visited 
her  in  prison  and  pleaded  with  her  to  renounce  her  faith.  He  knelt  weep- 
ing at  her  feet  and  besought  her  to  have  pity  on  his  gray  hairs  and  her 
own  babe  which  she  held  to  her  breast.  Though  deeply  moved,  she  would 
not  turn  from  Christ.  When  she  was  brought  before  the  judge  he  en- 
treated her  to  **  sacrifice  for  the  posterity  of  the  emperors."  "  I  will  not," 
she  answered.  ''Are  you  then  a  Christian?"  "I  am,"  was  the  firm 

Sentence  was  passed  upon  her  and  Felicitas.  They  were  to  be  exposed 
to  the  wild  beasts.  On  the  way  b^k  to  prison,  Perpetua  asked  for  her 
•^behut  the  father  refused  her. 

The  festival  of  (ieta  was  approaching,  at  which  time  shows  were  given 
^or  the  amusement  of  the  soldiers.  The  condemned  Christians  were  kept 
^'•r  that  (lay.  At  the  time  appointed,  Perpetua  and  Felicitas  left  the 
pn.son  for  the  amphitheater.  Perpetua  sang  as  one  who  has  concjuered. 
1  hey  were  stripi)ed,  put  into  nets,  and  exposed  to  a  wild  cow.  But  even 
thebruUil  audience  counted  this  indecent.  The  executioner  witluirew  them 
^"ni  the  arena,  gave  them  loose  garments  and  led  them  hack  again.  After 
^hey  had  been  tossed  and  torn  by  the  wild  creatures  they  were  dragged  to 
^"^gate  to  be  dispatched.  The  bloodthirsty  crowd  called  for  them  to  hi- 
Nain  in  the  sight  of  all.  They  were  again  led  to  the  arena.  Lady  and 
^*^\Q  jr^\^  each  other  the  kiss  of  peaci'.  They  were  sisters  because 
Christians.  The  executioner's  sword  ended  their  earthly  existence,  but 
n^t  their  influence.  In  after  time  a  yearly  festi\al  was  held  in  their  honor 
^t  Canhage. 



A.  D.  295. 


Julia   MAMM^A,   afterwards  famous  as  Julia  Domna,   became   the 
I       wife  of  Lucius  Scptimius  Severus  between   185  and  190  A.  D.     She 
^^       had  two  sons,  Alexander  (known  as  Caracalla)  and  Geta.     The  for- 
mer succeeded  to  the  throne  after  the  murder  of  Elagabalus. 

Julia  trained  her  son  for  the  throne  and  did  it  well,  for  he  proved  to  be 
a  ruler  of  noble  character  and  administrative  ability.  His  reign  of  thirteen 
years  was  a  calm  in  the  storm,  an  oasis  in  the'  desert,  a  pure  breeze  in  a 
fetid  atmosphere,  a  pause  in  the  downward  rush  of  Roman  degeneracy,  and 
for  most  of  this  the  world  is  indebted  to  his  mother,  Julia.  Hers  was  the 
power  behind  the  throne. 

Under  the  counsel  of  his  mother,  Alexander  encouraged  a  general  reform 
in  all  departments  of  his  government.  To  the  shame  of  Rome  be  it  related 
that  one  of  the  causes  leading  to  his  death  was  the  enmity  aroused  by  his 
attempt  to  eliminate  corruption  from  civil  and  military  circles.  He  con- 
ciliated the  professors  of  Christianity  by  adopting  the  golden  rule  and  hav- 
ing it  inscribed  in  letters  of  gold  in  many  parts  of  his  palace. 

In  his  private  cliapel  he  had  statues  of  the  virtuous  and  great  of  all  times 
and  countries,  to  which  he  offered  divine  honors  ;  Abraham  and  Jesus  were 
among  these. 

He  was,  of  course,  not  a  Christian,  for  he  openly  professed  the  religion 
of  the  state,  which  was  pagan.  It  is  uncertain  whether  Julia  was  a  Chris- 
tian, though  she  was  much  interested  in  the  person  and  work  of  Origen,  the 
famous  Christian  scholar. 

Alexander  and  his  mother  were  assassinated  while  on  a  campaign  in 
(icnnany  to  drive  back  the  invaders.  The  mother  tried  to  save  her  son  as 
the  assassins  entered  the  tent  to  slay  him.  She  received  the  death  blow, 
but  it  did  not  save  him.  As  \\q  have  intimated,  they  were  the  martyrs  of 
the  reforms  they  instituted.  The  corrupt  soldiery  was  unaccustomed  to  the 
leadership  of  a  pure  and  wise  sovereign. 



A.  B.  SA0^S7. 


—- »— *-- €^- 

^^HE  varied  and  romantic  career  of  this  woman  has  in  it  the  materials 
®l  fe  for  a  most  interesting  historical  novel.  She  was  the  daughter  of  an 
obscure  innkeeper;  but  of  her  nationality  nothing  certain  is  known. 
Constantius  Chlorus  met  her,  loved  her,  and  married  her.  Constantine 
was  born  to  them  about  272,  probably  in  Britain. 

Constantius  became  co-emperor  by  appointment  of  Diocletian,  and  by 
him  was  comf>elled,  for  political  reasons,  to  divorce  Helena  and  marry  the 
daughter  of  Maximilian.  By  this  cruel  act  Helena  was  repudiated  and  sent 
back  from  the  court  splendors  to  an  obscure  and  lonely  life. 

In  time,  the  co-emperors  died,  and  her  son  Constantine  won  his  way  to 
the  throne,  and  dispensed  with  any  imperial  colleagues.  He  sought  out 
his  mother,  restored  to  her  the  imperial  dignity,  gave  her  the  title  oi 
Augusta,  and  caused  her  to  be  received  at  court  with  all  the  honor  due  the 
rooiher  of  an  emperor. 

The  conversion  of  Constantine  marks  an  epoch  in  the  world's  history. 
He  adopted  Christianity  as  the  religion  of  state,  a  mar\  clous  contrast  to 
^he  attempt  of  his  predecessor,  Diocletian,  to  utterly  extc-rniinate  it.  Pef- 
'H.'cutions  were  now  at  an  end.  Constantine,  by  circular  letter,  urged  his 
^ub]t*cts  to  follow  the  example  of  their  sovereign,  and  become  Christians. 
He  did  not  forbid  paganism,  but  he  sought  by  ridicule  and  neglect  to  cause 
j^^  dedine. 

HLs  mf)ther,  Helena,  became  a  Christian,  and  was  e\erywhere  loved  for 
"^rlilKTality.  During  a  pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem,  she  claimed  to  have  dis- 
<^overtd  the  holy  sef)ulchre  and  the  true  cross.  She  relit  ved  the  poor,  the 
*:dfms,  and  the  orphans,  built  churches,  and  showed  herself  the  worthy 
niother  of  a  great  son. 

At  her  death  he  paid  her  the  highest  honors.  Her  hodx-  was  siiU  to 
R^^me  and  placed  in  the  tomb  of  the  emperors.  He  made  her  native  vil- 
^^J^e  a  monument  to  her  memory  by  raising  it  to  the  rank  of  a  city,  and 
^ve  it  the  name  Helenopolis. 



A.  D.  «73. 


PALMYRA,  the  ''City  of  Palms,"   was  situated    in   an   oasis  of   the 
Arabian  Desert  at  the  junction  of   two  caravan  routes  and  was  a 
community  of  merchant  princes.     The  wealth  of  the  city  was  ac- 
cordingly great,  and  its  architecture  of  unusual  splendor. 

Odenatus,  the  husband  of  Zenobia,  had  taken  up  arms  for  the  Roman 
government  and  had  defended  the  frontier  against  the  aggressions  of  the 
Persian  monarch.  For  this  he  was  recognized  as  a  colleague  of  the  Roman 
emperor  and  was  given  the  title  of  Augustus. 

Odenatus  was  afterwards  slain  and  Zenobia  assumed  the  reins  of  gov- 
ernment. She  is  described  as  "of  great  beauty,  unblemished  virtue,  lofty 
ambition,  and  having  the  power  of  ruling  her  subjects  with  combined  mild- 
ness and  justice."  She  was  herself  a  worshiper  of  one  God,  but  all  forms 
of  religion  were  tolerated  by  her;  Christian,  Jew,  Pagan,  and  Mazdean  lived 
together  in  peace. 

For  her  prime  minister  she  chose  Longinus  the  Greek  philosopher, 
who  was  the  leading  literary  man  of  the  Greeks  in  this  century. 

Zenobia  aspired  to  be  a  ruler  independent  of  the  Roman  emperor.  She 
already  ruled  Egypt  and  half  of  Asia  Minor,  but  she  was  willing  to  be 
subordinate  to  no  one.  She  and  her  subjects  revolted.  Aurelian  marched 
against  Palmyra.  The  forces  of  Zenobia  were  defeated  in  two  battles  and 
then  the  city  was  besieged  and  taken.  The  people  were  shown  no  mercy, 
but  fell  as  the  victims  of  their  queen's  ambition. 

Zenobia  was  taken  to  Rome  as  a  captive.  She  was  obliged  to  walk 
in  the  triumphal  procession,  her  beautiful  figure  fettered  by  ponderous 
manacles  of  gold.  She  was  held  by  chains  of  gold  so  heavy  that  it  was 
necessary  for  a  slave  to  walk  by  her  side  and  support  them.  Her  con- 
queror rode  behind  her  in  a  triumphal  car  drawn  by  four  elephants. 

Later,  by  a  most  unusual  leniency,  she  was  allowed  to  have  a  splendid 
dwelling  of  her  own,  where  she  reared  her  children  and  sought  to  imitate 
the  virtues  of  Cornelia,  the  Roman  matron. 



Martyred  A.  D.  303. 


YTTHIJE  Diocletian  was  noted  as  an  organizer  and  ruler,  he  became 
\j^  notorious  as  the  instigator  of  the  "tenth  persecution."  By  his 
order,  in  303,  churches  were  torn  down,  sacred  writings  were 
ordered  to  be  given  up  and  destroyed,  all  assemblies  of  Christians  were 
prohibited,  Christians  in  public  office  were  remox  ed  from  their  positions, 
•indall  were  subject  to  torture.  The  emperor's  purpose  was  to  exterminate 
the  Christian  religion. 

Ajjnes  and  Anastasia  were  two  of  the  many  who  suffered  death  as  a 
n->uli  of  the  bloody  edict.  Agnes  was  a  young  maiden  of  wealth  and 
^^<iuty.  and  many  of  the  young  noblemen  sought  her  in  marriage,  but  she 
rehbed  them  all  on  the  ground  that  she  had  devoted  her  life  to  the  service 
^»i  Christ.  Her  suitors  accused  her  to  the  governor,  expecting  that  threats 
and  torture  would  cause  her  to  give  up  her  religion.  She  was  entreated 
and  threatened  by  the  judge,  and  the  instruments  of  torture  were  shown 
"fr.  She  was  then  commanded  to  sacrifice  to  the  idols,  i)ut  she  steadfastly 
rf!!iNe<I.     yiie  enraged  judge  then  ordered  her  to  hv  beheaded. 

Apastasia's  father  was  a  pagan,  but  her  mt)ther  was  a  Christian.  The 
Strath  of  her  mother  was  a  sad  blow.  Her  father  compelled  her  to  marry  a 
K'an.  Her  husband,  finding  that  she  was  a  Christian,  treated  her  cruelly 
•ind squandered  her  property.  In  a  few  years  he  (Ii(xl,  and  .\nastasia  de- 
^'>t(tj  htTMtlf  to  works  of  charity,  using  what  remained  of  her  fortune  in 
rdicvinir  the  poor  Christians,  many  of  whom  were  in  prison.  Her  works 
'•^citeil  suspicion.  .She  and  three  female  ser\ ants  were  arrested,  and  rom- 
"^ar.ded  to  s;icritice  to  idols.  This  they  refused  to  do.  The  servants  were 
'^ecuted  at  once.  Anastasia  was  banished  for  a  time,  init  subsequently 
'*a5hrought  back  to  Rome  and  burned  alive. 

Christians  died,  but  Christianity  li\ed  r)n  and  j^rew  under  persecution. 
I^odetian  abdicated  in  305.  In  311  was  issued  the  edict  ol  universal 



A.  D.  330. 


^^  REGORY  was  a  great  theologian,  a  poet  of  much  ability,  and  the 
1®^  greatest  orator  the  Eastern  Church  produced.  He  was  a  champion 
of  the  orthodox  faith,  and  was  made  Bishop  of  Constantinople  in 
the  reign  of  Theodosius  the  Great. 

In  his  earlier  years  his  friends  sought  to  prevail  upon  him  to  settle  at 
Athens  as  a  teacher  of  eloquence,  but  he  gave  all  his  powers  to  the  service 
of  Christ,  renounced  the  usual  enjoyments  of  life,  lived  on  the  plainest  fare, 
filled  the  day  with  labor,  and  the  night  with  praying,  singing,  and  holy 

To  the  mother,  Nona,  is  due  much  of  the  credit  of  the  great  and  noble 
life  of  Gregory.  By  her  prayers  and  holy  life  she  brought  about  the  conver- 
sion of  her  husband,  who,  without  faith,  simply  worshiped  a  supreme  being. 
Like  Hannah  of  old  she  consecrated  her  son  to  the  service  of  God  before 
his  birth.  **She  solved  the  difficult  problem  of  uniting  a  higher  culture 
and  strict  exercise  of  devotion  with  the  practical  care  of  her  household." 

She  had  unbounded  confidence  in  the  power  of  believing  prayer,  and 
she  exercised  the  power  most  diligently.  Gregory  says  of  his  mother, 
that  '*  by  prayer  she  attained  such  control  over  her  spirit,  that  in  every 
sorrow  she  (Micountered  she  never  uttered  a  plaintive  tone  before  she  had 
thanked  God."  The  loving  son  also  celebrates  her  extraordinary  liberality 
and  self-denying  love  for  the  poor  and  sick. 

At  a  great  age,  in  the  church  which  her  husband  had  built  almost 
entirely  with  his  own  means,  she  died  holding  fast  to  the  altar  with  one 
hand,  while  with  the  other  raised  to  heaven  she  exclaimed,  "  Be  gracious  to 
me,  O  Christ  my  King  !  "  Great  was  the  sorrow,  especially  among  those 
whom  she  had  l>efriended. 

Gregory,  in  one  of  his  poems,  praising  her  life  of  piety  and  victorious 
death,  writes  :  — 

*'  Bewail,  O  mortals,  the  mortal  race;  ^ 

But  when  one  dies,  like  Nona,  prayiuj^^  then  weep  I  not." 





ReprDducBd  frnrn  the  painting  of  Ary  Schef- 
Ibt,  the  eminent  historical  and  portrait  painter, 
This  picture  was  executed  during  Scheffer's 
prime,  and  has  received  very  wide  cammenda- 
tinn  nn  account  of  Its  religious  significance,  ThE 
original  is  in  the  Lauvra,  Paris. 




A.  I>.  382-387. 


fTX  HIS   remarkable  woman  is  numbered    amon^  the   mothers  of  great 

-1-       men.     Her  son,  St.   Augustine,  became  the  fr»remost  of  the  Latin 

Fathers.     The  church  and  the  world  owe  to  Monica  a  great  debt,  for 

Hfiviiig  to  them  her  brilliant,  holy,  and  mighty  son.     There  were  long  years 

of  agonizing  heartaches  and  ceaseless  prayer,  but  the  victory  came  at  last. 

Monica  vras  of  Christian  parents  whose  home  was  at  Tagasta  in  north 

Africa.      She  was  married  to  Patricus,  an  idohiter,   who  pro\'ed  to  be  of 

violent  temper  and  licentious  habits.      But  he  never  heard  an  impatient  or 

reproachful  word  in  his  home. 

Sometime  before  his  death,  Patricus  forsook  his  evil  ways  and  became 
a  »ncere  Christian.  Thus  wen-  the  j)rayers  and  ])atience  of  Monica  re- 

But  there  was  another  burden  on  her  heart.  Her  son  Augustine,  whose 
Ktnius  had  kindled  the  fond  hr>pes  of  father  and  mother,  was  sent  t<^ 
Carthage  for  further  study.  His  mother  brgged  him  to  lead  a  jnuc  life  in 
the  midst  of  the  dangers  and  dissipations  of  a  vire.ii  city.  In  his  writings, 
Augustine  confesses  that  h<*  listened  impatiently  and  counted  it  mere  wo- 
nun  talk  which  he  would  hr  ashamed  to  heed.  Monica  mourned  o\er  him 
'*ilh  yearning  grief. 

L'pon  his  return  his  blasj)hemies  so  shocked  her  that  sh<r  could  no 
^'ngcr  allow  him  under  her  roof.  But  she  prayed  without  ceasini^.  A  cer- 
tain bishop  was  urged  by  her  to  come  and  argue  with  Ikt  son.  He  de- 
dined.  She  entreated  him  with  tears.  He  replied.  "  C'ontinur  as  you 
^vc  begun  ;  surely  the  son  of  so  many  tear-^  canii(»t   j»erish. " 

Augastine  at  thirty  had  exhausted  the  dissipations  «)f  Africa  and  went 
i'' Rome  to  find  new  forms  of  sin.  Monica  l«»lloW((l  him  and  aft<r  a  time 
■'und  him  a  changed  man.     The  struggle  had  bet  n  loniL^  ;nid  bitter. 

Monica's  closing  years  were  filled  with  joy  at  seeing  the  great  powers  of 
H*T  son  wholly  given  to  the  ser\  ice  of  God.  His  writings  bear  constant 
'estimony  to  her  character. 



A.  D.    347-404. 



/T\HIS  illustrious  saint  was  of  noble  Roman  birth,  being  descended  from 
JL       the  Scipios  and  the  Gracchi.     She  was  born  in  luxury  and  Hved  in 
great  magnificence,  being  considered  one  of  the  richest  women  of 
antiquity.     She  moved  in  the  very  highest  circles  of  society  in  an  aristo- 
cratic age.     She  is  said  to  have  owned  a  whole  city  in  Italy. 

Her  natural  gifts  and  education  were  in  keeping  with  her  fortune  and 
social  position. 

Christianity  had  become  the  religion  of  state,  having  been  made  such 
by  Constantine,  who  died  ten  years  before  Paula  w^as  born.  With  her,  the 
religion  of  Jesus  was  not  alone  of  the  state,  but  of  the  heart.  With  her,  it 
was  not  merely  a  form,  but  a  life,  an  enthusiastic  and  passionate  life.  The 
scholars  of  the  Church  made  her  palace  their  home.  She  became  the 
patroness  of  educational  and  philanthropic  work. 

Paula  is  known  to  the  world  as  the  disciple  and  friend  of  the  noted 
scholar  Jerome,  whose  monumental  work  was  the  translation  of  the  entire 
Bible  into  the  Latin  tongue.  This  version  is  known  as  the  Vulgate.  From 
it  the  modern  Catholic  Bible,  the  Douay  version,  is  translated. 

Upon  the  death  of  her  husband,  Toxotius,  Paula  put  aside  her  luxurious 
living  and  devoted  herself  rigidly  to  study,  prayer,  and  works  of  charity. 
She  lived  as  the  poorest  slave,  but  gave  as  a  princess.  Her  desire  was  to 
die  in  beggary  and  be  buried  in  a  shroud  which  did  not  belong  to  her. 

With  other  kindred  spirits  she  journeyed  to  Antioch,  Jerusalem,  and 
Egypt,  and  finally  settled  at  Bethlehem,  where  she  built  a  monastery,  hos- 
pital, and  three  nunneries.  Jerome  presided  over  the  monastery  and  carried 
on  his  literary  work. 

In  Paula  we  have  a  noble  example  of  the  Christian  friendship  of  woman 
for  man.  Jerome  and  Paula  renounced  and  despised  the  pleasures  and  even 
the  comforts  of  the  world.  Teacher  and  pupil,  they  were  co-workers  in 
promoting  monastic  life,  which  at  first  was  a  protest  against  the  indulgence 
and  corruption  of  the  age. 



A.  D.  391. 


OLYMPIAS  was  the  daughter  of  a  wealthy  lord  belonging  to  the  court 
of  Theodosius  the  Great,  and  was  married  to  the  emperor's  treas- 
urer. She  was  early  left  a  widow,  and,  owing  to  her  wealth  and 
beauty,  was  sought  in  marriage  by  many  of  the  noblemen.  She  refused 
them  all,  among  them  a  relative  of  the  emperor.  This  so  displeased  him, 
that  her  property  was  taken  from  her  and  placed  in  the  hands  of  a  city  offi- 
cial of  Constantinople,  with  orders  that  he  act  as  her  guardian. 

Her  calm  response  reveals  her  character.      ' '  Your  goodness  toward  me 

has  been  that  of  an  emperor  and  a  bishop,  in  thus  relieving  me  from  the 

heavy  burden  of  my  property.     Add    to  that   goodness  by   dividing   my 

wealth  between  the  poor  and  the  Church.      I  have  long  been  seeking  a  fit 

opportunity  to  avoid  the  vanity  of  making  the  distribution  myself,  as  well 

as  of  attaching  my  heart  to  perishable  goods  instead  of  keeping  it  fixed  on 

tbi?  true   riches."     The  emperor,  somewhat   ashamed    of   himself,  and  in 

admiration  for  the  noble  minded  woman,  caused  her  property  to  be  given 


She  was  a  princess  in  liberality.  The  sick,  the  prisoners,  beggars,  and 
wile>  were  as  her  children.  She  purchased  hundreds  of  slaves,  and  set 
them  free.  She  gave  not  only  her  means  but  herself  to  the  work  of  relief. 
She  was  a  devoted  friend  of  John  Chrysostoni,  the  greatest  commentator 
♦inil  preacher  of  the  Greek  Church.  Chrysostom  was  i)anis]ie(l  for  having 
roused  the  anger  of  the  empress  Rudoxia  by  his  unsparing  sermons.  She 
'•^as  young  and  l)eautiful,  despised  her  husband,  and  inckilged  her  passions. 
^hr\sostom  denounced  her  as  a  new   Herodias  thirsting  for  the  blood  of 

Many  of  Chrysostom' s  followers  also  suffered,  among  them  Olympias. 
^w  lost  all  her  pro[>erty,  was  grossly  insulted  by  the  soldiers,  dragged 
Wore  the  courts,  and  died  in  sadness  and  j)o\  crty. 

Chrysostom  addressed  to  her  many  letters.  One  of  these  contains  an 
<'Xtended  account  of  his  sufferings  and  faith. 



Martyred  A.  D.  416. 


rtjTYPATIA  stands  as  one  of  the  most  remarkable  women  of  antiquity, 
1  1  and  she  was  famous  in  an  unusual  line,  that  of  philosophy.  Her 
father,  Theon,  was  at  the  head  of  the  Platonic  school  at  Alexandria 
and  was  noted  for  his  philosophic  attainments,  but  his  fame  and  name  are 
preserved  to  us  more  on  his  daughter's  account  than  on  his  own.  She  was 
his  devoted  pupil  and  his  very  life  passed  over  into  hers.  She  made  as- 
tonishing progress  in  all  branches  of  learning  and  soon  surpassed  her  father 
and  all  other  philosophers  in  their  special  pursuits. 

She  succeeded  her  father  as  head  of  the  Alexandrine  school.  Pupils 
came  from  all  parts  of  the  Roman  empire  and  eagerly  listened  to  the  beauti- 
ful and  learned  woman. 

She  was  considered  an  oracle  of  wisdom,  and  magistrates  consulted  her 
on  many  important  cases.  Men  gathered  about  her  in  great  numbers. 
Probably  no  woman  was  ever  more  praised  and  petted  than  she.  In  the 
midst  of  it  all  she  maintained  a  modest  reserve.  Her  mind  was  too 
thoroughly  trained  to  lose  its  perfect  poise  through  vanity. 

Orestes  was  governor  of  Alexandria  and  Cyril  was  bishop.  Orestes 
frequently  consulted  Hypatia  as  did  other  leading  men  and  naturally 
admired  her.  The  bishop  disliked  Orestes  and  was  bitterly  intolerant  of 
Hypatia' s  philosophy.  He  is  credited  with  having  incited  the  mob  to  an 
attack  on  the  governor.  Feeling  became  so  intense  on  the  part  of  the 
bishop's  followers  when  it  was  rumored  that  Hypatia  had  prevented  a  rec- 
onciliation between  the  two  men,  that  some  conspirators,  headed  by  one 
Peter,  waylaid  the  noble  woman,  dragged  Ikt  from  her  carriage  into  a 
church,  stripped  her  naked,  killed  her  with  broken  tiles,  tore  her  body  in 
pieces  and  then  burned  the  remains  to  ashes.  Thus  was  Hypatia  a  martyr 
to  philosophy,  suffering  at  the  hands  of  a  mob.  Cyril  was  the  intolerant 
and  bigoted  instigator.  When  he  became  bishop,  one  of  his  first  acts 
was  to  lead  a  mob  and  drive  out  the  Jews  from  Alexandria,  though  for 
centuries  they  had  enjoyed  many  privileges. 



A.  D.  400-403. 


0F  Pulcheria,  Gibbon,  the  historian,  says  :  *  *  She  alone,  among  all  the 
descendants  of  the  great  Theodosius,  appears  to  have  inherited  any 
share  of  his  manly  spirit  and  abilities."  Her  father,  Arcadius,  died 
when  she  was  but  nine  years  of  age.  Theodosius  II.  was  about  one  year 
younger.  A  child  in  years,  she  soon  showed  herself  to  be  a  woman  in 
wisdom.  She  became  learned  beyond  the  women  of  her  time,  could  use 
the  Latin  and  Greek  tongues  with  elegance  and  effectiveness.  She  dressed 
simply,  lived  frugally,  and,  withal,  was  a  devout  Christian. 

She  and  her  brother   Theodosius  were  joint  rulers,  but,  owing  to  her 

superior  abilitic*s,  she  governed   both  the  state  and  him.     She  sought  to 

give  him  the  best  possible  instruction,  but  she  could  not  give  him  taste  or 

capacity.     He  could  hunt,  paint,  carve,  and  transcribe  manuscripts,  but  for 

the  science  of  government  he  cared  little. 

She  sought  a  wife  for  her  brother  and  found  one  in  the  person  of 
Athenais,  daughter  of^a  heathen  sophist  of  Athens.  He  had  left  his  for- 
tune to  his  sons,  declaring  of  his  daughter,  that  "  her  learning  and  beauty 
*trtin  themselves  a  sufficient  fortune." 

Driven  out  by  her  brothers,  she  came  to  Constantinople  and  appealed 
to  the  empress.  Pulcheria  was  so  impressed  with  her  accom|)lishments, 
tliat  she  decided  upon  her  for  a  sister-in-law.  The  beauty  of  Athenais 
^^'iptivated  Theodosius,  as  her  ambition  had  Pulcheria.  She  became  a 
^^.ristian  under  Pulcheria's  instruction,  was  married  to  Tlieodosius  in  421, 
^n^i  was  raised  to  the  rank  of  Augusta.  She  was  gi\en  the  new  name  of 

Her  brothers  she  not  only  forgave,  but  raised  to  the  dignity  of  consuls 
and  prefects. 

She  paraphrased  in  verse  the  first  eight  books  of  the  Old  Testament, 
*^  the  prophecies  of  Daniel  and  Zechariah.  In  428  she  made  a  pilgrim- 
^^  to  Jerusalem  marked  by  showy  magnificence.  In  Jerusalem  she 
^*came  infected  with  the  Eutychian  heresy,  and  through  her  influence  it 



made  considerable  progress  in  Syria,  but  the  misfortunes  of  her  daughter 
Licinia  led  her  to  obtain  a  reconciliation  with  the  Church.  At  Antioch 
she  delivered  an  oration  seated  on  a  golden  throne.  Her  return  to  Con- 
stantinople was  a  triumph. 

Her  influence  superseded  that  of  Pulcheria  over  Theodosius.  He  paid 
no  heed  to  affairs  of  state.  He  did  not  even  read  the  state  documents 
which  he  signed.  His  sister,  to  rouse  him  from  indolence,  prepared  a 
document,  which  he  signed  without  reading,  in  w^hich  he  sold  to  her  his 
wife.  The  emperor  soon  afterward  sent  for  his  wife,  who  was  in  his  sister* s 
apartment.  Pulcheria  refused  to  allow  her  to  come,  and  showed  him  the 
paper  in  which  he  had  sold  to  her  his  wife,  to  be  a  slave.  The  lesson  did 
not  please  the  emperor,  and  greatly  offended  his  wife. 

Pulcheria  was  at  length  banished,  and  Eudocia  sought  to  rule  the 
empire,  but  disorder  followed.  Theodosius  became  jealous  of  his  wife,  and 
publicly  separated  from  her.  The  cause  of  his  jealousy,  it  is  said,  was  on 
account  of  his  observing  a  beautiful  apple  which  he  had  presented  to  her 
in  the  hands  of  Paulinus,  his  master  of  the  offices.  The  execution  of  Pau- 
linus  did  not  appease  the  anger  of  the  emperor,  but  Eudocia  was  stripped 
of  her  royal  honors,  and  degraded  in  the  eyes  of  the  nation. 

She  made  a  second  pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem,  where  she  died.  With 
latest  breath  she  protested  that  she  had  never  transgressed  the  bounds  of 
innocence  and  friendship  with  her  supposed  favorites. 

Pulcheria  was  restored  to  her  old  place  and  power.  Theodosius  died  in 
450,  and  his  sister  was  unanimously  proclaimed  Empress  of  the  East. 

After  the  death  of  her  brother,  she  married  Marcianus,  not  from  choice, 
but  for  the  good  of  the  empire,  and  raised  him  to  the  rank  of  Augustus. 
Pulcheria  still  held  the  reins  of  government,  although  Marcianus  was  the 
nominal  emperor. 

She  is  said  to  have  been  ' '  the  first  woman  to  whose  publicly  recognized 
sway  the  Romans  submitted."  Gibbon,  the  historian,  says  of  her  :  *'  The 
piety  of  a  Christian  virgin  was  adorned  by  the  zeal  and  liberality  of  an 
empress."  With  all  the  cares  of  the  empire,  she  was  a  mother  to  the  poor 
and  suffering,  and  at  her  death  she  left  her  possessions  to  be  used  for  them. 



A.  D.  423-fiOl. 


1^  ENEVlfeVE  has  the  honorable  distinction  of  having  saved  the  city  of 
^--A  Paris.  She  was  born  at  Nanterre,  near  Paris,  or,  according  to 
another  tradition,  at  Montriere. 

The  Huns  were  one  of  the  strange  and  savage  hordes  which  came 
from  central  Asia,  unforeseen  and  unaccountable  as  a  flight  of  locusts. 
Terror  was  before  them,  and  devastation  behind  them.  They  were  of  the 
Tartar  race,  small,  dark-hued,  and  hideous.  They  rode  small,  nimble 
horses  —  in  fact,  they  seemed  to  live  on  horseback. 

At  the  time  of  Genevieve,  Attila  was  their  leader.      For  some  years  they 
had  been  kept  beyond  the  Danube,  but  at  length  they  came  down  upon  the 
Western  world  like  a  deluge  of  death.     Attila  was  the  most  ferocious  of 
slayers  and    plunderers.      His  track  was  marked    everywhere  by  fire   and 
UockI.     He  made  no  pretension  to  building  anything.      He  had  no  desire 
10  set  up  a  government  of  his  owi^.      He  announced  himself  as  the  * '  Exter- 
minator of  Nations. ' '      He  fought  for  the  mere  lust  of  plunder. 

When  it  was  known  that  Attila  and  his  murderous  horde  were  approach- 
ing Paris,  the  people  were  panic-stricken,  and  as  by  a  common  impulse  were 
<ib«jut  to  tlee  from  the  city.  But  there  was  one,  and  that  one  a  woman,  who 
Had  no  fear.  She  plead  with  the  people  as  well  as  witli  God.  Her  faith 
^'<1  courage  calmed  them.      They  stood  by  their  city,  and  it  was  saved. 

Her  reputation  for  sanctity  was  so  great,  that  people  of  other  lands 
■n<|uir('d  concerning  her  of  every  one  who  came  from  Gaul. 

Her  death  occurred  in  501,  or  according  to  another  account  in  512. 
^<>vb.  465-511,  erected  the  church  of  St.  Genevieve  in  her  memory. 
T^e  famous  Pantheon  of  Paris  now  contains  her  tomb. 

It  Ls  related  of  her,  that  when,  in  her  earlier  years,  Childeric,  King  of  the 
Franks,  lx*sieged  Paris,  she  went  boldly  out  at  the  head  of  a  brave  little 
^(i.  to  procure  provisions,  and  brought  back  boats  laden  with  corn  for 
thestar\ing  citizens.  Childeric,  though  a  foe  and  a  heathen,  respected  the 
\Mfus  and  patriotic  maiden. 



d.  A.  D.  400. 


^  HIS  woman  was  not  noted  for  her  wealth  or  learning,  but  she  was 
\j^  wondrously  rich  in  good  deeds.  She  lived  in  a  city  of  Iuxur>'  and 
T  magnificence,  which  had  also  the  terrible  contrasts  of  want  and 
squalor.  The  rich  who  had  money  to  spend  for  the  people  provided  licen- 
tious amusements,  with  occasional  ostentatious  distributions  of  grain. 

Fabiola  gave    herself   untiringly  to  ministration   among  the   suffering 
She  dressed  wounds  and  sores  which  others  would  not  or  could  not  touch. 
No  ser\  ice  was  too  lowly.     She  had  caught  the  spirit  and  walked  in  the 
steps  of  her  Lord. 

It  should  be  related  also  of  her  that  her  first  husband  was  a  heathen, 
and  a  licentious  man.  From  him  she  was  divorced  and  married  another. 
After  the  death  of  her  second  husband,  she  was  told  that  her  second  mar- 
riage, though  legal,  was  contrary  to  the  teachings  of  Christ.  For  this,  she 
showed  the  deepest  penitence,  and  it  may  have  been  this  in  part  which  led 
her  to  forsake  the  world  and  devote  her  remaining  years  to  works  of  charity 
and  philanthropy. 

Toward  the  close  of  her  life  she  gathered  together  what  little  remained 
of  her  property,  and,  uniting  it  with  that  of  the  son-in-law  of  her  friend 
Paula,  they  erected  a  hos[)ital.      In  this  she  died  in  the  year  400. 

Jerome,  in  celebrating  her  virtues,  declared  that  **  she  was  the  praise  of 
the  Christians,  the  wonder  of  the  Gentiles,  the  mourning  of  the  poor,  and 
the  consolation  of  the  monks." 

As  soon  as  the  early  Christians  were  free  to  practice  their  religion 
openly,  they  began  to  build  charitable  institutions,  asylums  for  infants  and 
for  orphans,  hospitals  for  the  sick,  and  retreats  for  strangers,  especially 

The  hosj)itals  of  the  early  Church  were  divided  according  to  sex.  The 
male  portion  was  placed  under  the  charge  of  a  deacon,  and  the  women 
under  the  charge  of  deaconesses.  Deacon  and  deaconesses  went  out  and 
§ought  for  the  sick  of  all  classes,  and  brought  them  to  the  hospitals. 





ReproducBd  from  the  painting  of  the  Russiac 
artiet,  Hendrik  Siamiradzki,  "whnsB  "  Nbtd's 
Torches,"  "  Nubian  FnrtunB  TellBr/'  and"  Sward 
DancB"  mads  him  famnus.  SiBmiradzki  was  a 
pupil  nf  thB  St.  PstBrsburg  AcadBm/  and  also  of 
Piloty  in  Munich.  Kr  has  raceivBd  medals 
from  thB  ViBnna,  HBrliUi  and  Pans  Salans. 




TO    THE 



T  the  beginnin)^  of  what  we  call  the  Christian  era,  the  Roman  empire 

was  the  world,  and  Auj^ustus  Ciesar  was  the  political  master  of  that 

world.      He   was    not    anxious    to   make  a  display  of    monarchical 

power,  but  kept  up  the  forms  of  the  old   republican  govern- 

ment.      There  was  the  senate,  but  it  simply  voted  as  Auj^us- 

tus  wished,   and  magistrates  were  appointed  as  he  directed. 

He  had  the  substance,  if  not  the  show,  of  supreme  power. 

This  world  of  Augustus's  was  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  British  Chan- 
nel, the  North  Sea,  the  Rhine,  the  Danube,  and  the  Black  .Sea  :  on  the 
east  by  the  Euphrates  and  the  Desert  of  .Syria;  on  the  south  by  the  Desert 
of  Sahara,  and  on  the  west  by  the  .Atlantic  Ocean.  The  empire  was  nearly 
three  thousand  niik*s  in  extent  from  east  to  west,  and  one  thousand  miles 
from  north  to  south. 

The  divisions  c»f  the  empire  were  Italy,  and  tweiity-se\en  pro\  inces, 
Riled  by  the  appointees  of  the  emperor  or  the  senate. 

Two  languages  prevailed.  Local  dialects  remained,  but  theCireek  lan- 
guage was  the  language  of  conmierce  and  of  |)olite  intercourse  in  all  j)laces. 
The  Greek  language  and  (ireek  culture  were  the  pr«»|)ert\  of  all.  West  of 
the  Adriatic  the  Latin  was  more  generally  spoken  than  the  (ireek.  It  was 
the  language  of  the  courts  and  the  cam|)s.  for  the  laws  were  in  Latin,  and 
military'  officers  were  quite  generall\  fn»m  It.iiy. 

There  was  a  standing  army  of  ^^40. (hm).  which  .\ugustus  conmianded 
absolutely.  Decisions  of  peace  and  war  nsted  uitii  tin  t  niperor,  or  im- 
jxrrator,  as  he  was  called. 

'*  r)f  people  there  were  probably  ai>out  kh  ..«m  k  .,«)<h>  in  tin  \ast  empire 
ruled  by  Augustus,  and  not  less  than  50.(xx\«hw3  of  these  were  in  a  condi- 
tion of  slavery.  Of  the  (»ther  half,  but  a  small  j>orti(»n  enjoytii  tiie  rights 
of  '  citizens.'  " 



Rome  was  the  capital  of  this  empire,  a  city  of  2,500,000  population, 
inclosed  by  twenty  miles  of  massive  walls.  Augustus  boasted  that  he  found 
the  city  brick  and  left  it  marble. 

He  and  his  successors  erected  theaters,  public  baths,  and  provided  costly 
amusements,  and  caused  the  people  to  forget  that  they  had  lost  their  polit- 
ical liberty. 

But  the  Augustan  period  was  the  golden  age  of  Roman  literature.  Lit- 
erary men  were  patronized  by  the  rich,  who  collected  large  libraries,  and 
literary  works  were  the  topic  of  conversation  in  society.  Philosophers, 
poets,  historians,  and  law  writers  found  ready  sale  for  their  works.  Scribes 
who  multiplied  copies  of  the  works  were  found  in  great  numbers.  Travel 
from  part  to  part  of  the  empire  was  facilitated  by  the  splendid  Roman 
roads,  many  of  which  endure  to  the  present  time.  The  age  of  Augustus 
was  a  time  of  peace,  though  of  course  an   "  armed  peace.** 

From  the  time  of  Augustus,  the  history  of  Rome  is  not  that  of  the  peo- 
ple, but  of  the  emperors.  Of  the  sixty-two  from  Caesar  to  Constantine, 
forty-two  were  murdered,  three  committed  suicide,  two  abdicated  or  were 
forced  to  abdicate,  one  was  killed  in  rebellion,  one  was  drowned,  one  died 
in  war,  one  died,  it  is  not  known  how,  and  not  more  than  eleven  died  a 
natural  death. 

It  will  be  of  interest  to  sketch  briefly  a  few  of  the  men  succeeding  Au- 
gustus. None  of  the  early  emperors  was  followed  by  his  own  son,  but,  ac- 
cording to  the  Roman  law  of  adoption,  they  all  counted  as 
Hmperors  Caesars.  Nero  was  the  last  one  to  be  connected  with  Augus- 
tus, even  by  adoption,  though  the  emperors  continued  to  call 
themselves  Ccesar  and  Augustus,  throughout  the  existence  of  the  empire. 

Augustus  was  succeeded  by  his  adopted  step-son  Tiberius,  who  for  a 
time  ruled  with  comparative  mildness.  But  he  was  naturally  jealous  and 
cruel  and  these  traits  soon  broke  out  into  action.  He  had  a  bodyguard  of 
10,000  men  which  he  could  use  in  any  way  he  chose.  He  usurped  the 
right  to  put  to  death  without  trial.  Kvery  attempt  against  him  was  made 
high  treason.  A  word  could  be  construed  to  mean  hostility,  and  was  pun- 
ished by  the  confiscation  of  property  and  death. 

Tiberius  became  one  of  the  most  gloomy  and  vicious  tyrants.      He  at 



length  placed  the  government  in  the  hands  of  Sejanus,  commander  of  his 
bodyguard,  and  retired  to  Capreae,  where  he  gave  himself  up  to  the  most 
cruel  and  disgusting  debaucheries. 

Sejanus  killed  several  members  of  the  royal  household  at  Rome  and  was 
found  to  be  plotting  for  the  throne.  Tiberius  was  more  than  ever  filled 
with  terror  and  suspicion.  A  massacre  followed  in  which  hundreds  of  men, 
women,  and  children  perished.  But  the  world  at  last  breathed  freer  when 
the  profligate  monster  was  slain  by  a  member  of  his  own  household. 

Caligula  followed.  Mild  and  generous  at  first,  he  soon  became  a  verita- 
We  demon  of  cruelty  and  vice.  He  was  especially  fond  of  witnessing  the 
tortures  of  human  beings.  He  was  wildly  extravagant  and  quickly  drained 
the  public  treasury.  His  conduct  even  exasperated  his  soldiers  and  after 
reigning  but  four  years  he  was  killed  by  two  of  his  own  bodyguard. 

Qaudius,  the  next  emperor,  was  uncle  to  Caligula.      He  was  of  a  retir- 
ing and  studious  disposition,  but  was  most    unfortunate   in   his   marriage 
relations.     Other  emperors  had   robbed   noblemen    of   their 
ciAstftvs     wives,  but  Claudius's  wife  Messalina  added  a  new  feature  to 
the  sins  of  her  time.     She  caused  Caius  Silius  to  repudiate 
hb  own  beautiful  and  virtuous  wife  and  compelled  the  emperor  to  sign  a 
Cfjntract  sanctioning  her  own  union  with  the  "divorced"  man.      She  pro- 
ceixled  to  a  beautiful  villa  with  her  guilty  lover,  where,  with  a  courtly  train 
of  youths  and  maidens,  was  enacted  the  mythological   drama  of  the  union 
of  Bacchus  and  Ariadne,  with  all  its  licentiousness.     This  was  too  much  for 
e\en  the  degenerate  morals  of  Rome  and  both  Silius  and  Messalina  were 
>lain  by  the  soldiers.     The  death    of    Messalina    was   announced    to    the 
emperor  while  at  dinner,  but  he  did  not  allow  it  to  interrupt  his  gluttonous 
and  drunken  repast. 

The  next  matrimonial  venture  of  Claudius  was  the  union  with  his  niece 
Ajjrippina.  She  too  was  unfaithful  to  him  and  laid  plans  to  secure  the 
throne  for  Nero,  her  son  by  a  former  marriage.  (Her  character  and  career 
^^^  sketched  elsewhere  in  this  book.  )  She  took  care  to  secure  for  herself 
tHt:  support  of  the  army  by  courting  po|)ularity  with  the  soldiers.  In  mili- 
ary spectack»s  she  took  a  conspicuous  part  seated  by  the  emperor's  side 
^d  she  caused  her  face  to  be  associated  with  his  on  the  coinage.     When 



Agrippina  thought  he  had  lived  long  enough  she  caused  him  to  be  poi- 
soned with  mushrooms,  a  favorite  delicacy  of  his  table.  It  may  have  been 
an  overdose.  He  vomited  and  the  drug  failed  to  do  its  work.  Agrippina 
hastily  secured  the  services  of  a  physician  who  thrust  a  poisoned  feather 
down  his  throat  under  pretense  of  assisting  him.     So  died  Claudius. 

In  Latin  literature  there  is  a  burlesque  on  Claudius  by  Seneca,  which  is 
counted  the  wittiest  production  of  ancient  times.  It  opens  with  the  sup- 
posed arrival  of  Claudius  in  the  other  world  to  claim  the  family  honors  of 
being  enrolled  *  *  in  the  quiet  order  of  the  gods.  * '  He  is  ushered  into  the 
presence  of  the  assembled  deities,  and  announced  to  Jupiter  as  a  quidam^  a 
creature  of  extraordinary  and  bloated  size,  with  white  hair  and  shaking 
head,  dragging  his  right  foot  after  him,  and  muttering  only  confused  and 
incolierent  sounds.  When  asked  whence  he  came  he  answers  he  does  not 
know,  in  sounds  so  inarticulate  as  not  to  be  recognized  as  Latin,  Greek,  or 
any  other  known  tongue.  Jupiter,  completely  puzzled,  calls  Hercules,  who 
is  a  great  traveler  and  is  supposed  to  know  the  dialects  of  all  nations.  But 
he,  looking  upon  the  creature,  declares  it  a  monster,  a  product  of  the  sea. 
The  disgusting  ghost  is  at  length  recognized  as  the  emperor  Claudius. 

Jupiter  addresses  the  "Conscript  Father  of  Olympus"  on  the  advis- 
ability of  admitting  this  new  arrival  to  divine  honors.  He  jestingly  de- 
clares him  as  worthy  of  the  honor  as  many  of  his  predecessors,  and  he  is, 
at  least,  of  the  blood  of  Augustus.  This  brings  Augustus  to  his  feet,  who 
delivers  a  protest,  which  is  at  the  same  time  a  character  sketch  of  Claudius. 
"Conscript  Father,"  he  exclaimed,  "was  it  for  this  that  I  put  an  end  to 
civil  bloodshed,  and  gave  peace  to  the  world  ?  Was  it  for  this  that  I  recon- 
stituted Rome  by  my  laws  and  ornamented  it  with  my  works  ?  I  want 
words  to  express  my  indignation.  Here  is  a  wretch  without  the  courage  to 
drive  away  a  fly,  who  has  yet  dared  to  slay  men  as  lightly  as  he  would  fling 
the  dice.  This  creature,  who  so  long  has  thriven  beneath  the  luster  of  my 
name,  how  has  he  shown  his  gratitude  ?  By  murdering  the  two  Julias,  my 
nieces,  one  by  the  sword,  the  other  by  starvation,  and  by  killing  my  grand- 
son, Silanus.  Oh,  Jupiter,  take  good  care,  lest  by  making  this  wretch  a 
god,  you  adopt  his  crimes  as  your  own.  Look  at  him,  a  wretched  creature 
made  in  spite  !     If  he  can  speak  only  three  plain  words  consecutively,  Fm 



content  to  be  his  slave,  and  yet  he  forsooth  must  be  a  god.  Who  do  you 
think  will  worship  him  ?  Who  will  believe  him  ?  Or  who  do  you  suppose 
will  hereafter  acknowledge  your  own  divinities,  if  such  are  to  be  the 
specimens  of  your  manufacture?'* 

After  Claudius  came  the  rule  of   Nero,  whose  very  name  causes  us  to 
shudder.     But,  strange  as  it  may  seem,  the  first  five  years  of  his  reign  were 
characterized  by  mild  and  humane  deportment.     When  the 
warrant  for  the  execution  of  a  criminal  was  brought  him  to 
sign,  he  expressed  regret  that  he  had  ever  learned  to  write.     This  tender- 
heartedness did  not  long  continue.     First,  he  poisoned  Britannicus,  son  of 
Claudius,  and  therefore  his  step-brother.       Next  he  became  enamored  of 
Poppaea,  a  woman  of  fierce  ambition  and  as  devoid  of  moral  character  as  his 
own  mother.     He  repudiated  his  wife  Octavia  in  order  to  secure  Poppaea. 
He  «ras  further  obliged  to  send  her  husband  Otho  to  preside  over  a  distant 
province  to  get  him  out  of  the  way. 

Octavia  was  put  to  death  on  false  charges.  Poppaea  did  not  continue 
to  hold  the  affection  of  Nero,  though  she  sought  to  preserve  her  beauty 
b\  a  daily  bath  in  asses'  milk.  After  a  time  he  treated  her  brutally  and  she 
tlied  from  the  effects  of  a  kick  received  from  him. 

He  put  to  death  the  two  men  to  whom  he  was  most  indebted  for  his 
power,  Seneca  and   Burrus. 

.\lonj;  with  his  monstrous  cruelty  he  was  a  man  of  contemptible  vanity. 
He  put  himself  forward  as  a  musician  and  nothing  so  much  pleased  him  as 
thi*  applause  of  the  people.  He  wrote  poems  and  recited  them,  and  was 
bt^ide  himself  with  rage  when  he  found  himself  surpassed  by  others.  He 
delighted  to  Ik?  known  as  a  charioteer  and  constructed  a  circus  on  his 
^Tf.unds  where  he  could  show  to  the  assembled  people  his  skill  as  a  driver. 
Hf  at  length  l)ecame  so  insanely  greedy  f(^r  public  applause,  that  he  ap- 
pwe<i  r»n  the  stage. 

His  infamous  distinction  is  that  of  a  persecutor  oi  the  Christians.  A 
JjTeat  fire  which  consumed  a  large  part  of  Rome  was  said  to  have  been 
*ft  by  the  emperor's  own  hand  out  of  mere  wantonness.  While  the  city 
»a>  burning,  he  s;it  calmly  enjoying  the  spectacle,  while  he  sang  verses  to 
the  music  of  his  lyre. 



The  suspicion  that  he  was  the  incendiary  became  so  uncomfortable  that, 
to  divert  the  public  mind,  he  charged  the  crime  upon  the  Christians  and 
caused  great  numbers  to  be  put  to  death.  In  the  words  of  Tacitus,  the 
Latin  historian,  "Some  were  nailed  to  crosses,  others  were  sewed  up  in 
the  skins  of  wild  beasts  and  exposed  to  the  fury  of  dogs  ;  others,  again, 
smeared  over  with  combustible  materials,  were  used  as  torches  to  illuminate 
the  darkness  of  the  night.  The  gardens  of  Nero  were  destined  for  the 
melancholy  spectacle,  which  was  accompanied  with  a  horse  race  and 
honored  with  the  presence  of  the  emperor,  who  mingled  with  the  populace 
in  the  dress  and  attitude  of  a  charioteer. ' ' 

Christian  women  were  mixed  up  with  these  horrible  sports  and  name- 
less indignities  were  inflicted  on  them  as  a  part  of  the  festivities.  The 
heart  sickens  and  the  brain  reels  at  the  thought  of  these  inhuman  atrocities. 

Nero  rebuilt  the  city,  laying  out  broad  streets  and  erecting  handsome 
buildings  of  stone  in  place  of  wooden  or  brick  structures,  but  the  magnifi- 
cence of  the  city  could  not  atone  for  the  emperor's  atrocities. 

We  have  then  glanced  at  the  Roman  world  as  it  was  politically,  at  the 
beginning  of  the  period  with  which  this  book  is  occupied. 

Not  all  the  emperors  were  bad  and  bloodthirsty.  Some  were  notably 
good  and  their  reigns  were  peaceful  and  prosperous. 

We  now  enumerate  a  few  of  the  important  changes  in  the  empire  and 
point  out  some  of  the  causes  which  led  to  its  ruin. 

We  have  seen  that  in  the  days  of  Augustus,  few,  outside  Italy,   pos- 
sessed citizenship.      But  a  nation  of  Romans  was  gradually  formed  in  the 
provinces  by  introducing  colonies  and  by  the  expedient  of 
Causes  of   ^(^i,yji^^ing  the  most  deserving  of  the  provincials  to  the  rights 
of  Roman  citizenship. 

In  the  reign  of  Caracalla,  21 1-2 17,  the  old  distinction  between  Romans 
and  provincials  was  abolished  and  citizenship  was  given  to  all  free  men  of 
the  empire.  The  city  of  Rome  gradually  lost  a  measure  of  its  prestige 
when  it  ceased  to  have  a  monopoly  of  citizenship. 

Another  cause  which  led  to  the  loss  of  her  proud  position,  was  the  fact 
that  in  later  times  many  of  the  emperors  found  it  better  to  live  near  the 
frontier,  where  they  could  keep  watch  of  outside  foes. 



In  the  reigii  of  Diocletian  (283-305),  another  important  step  was  taken. 
He  found  the  empire  too  j^reat  for  one  man  to  gc)vern  successfully,  and  so 
elevated  one  of  his  ji^enerals,  Maxim ian,  to  equal  rank  with  himself  and 
^ave  to  him  the  dominion  over  the  western  part  of  the  empire,  while  he 
retained  the  eastern  portion.  In  addition  t<»  this,  each  look  a  sub- ruler, 
who  was  de>iji^ned  as  his  successor.  Constantine  was  one  of  these  sub- 
rulers  and  he  f)roved  stronj^  enou^^^h  to  q^overn  th<-  whole  empire.  He  was 
not  only  sole  ruler,  but  he  made  an  important  ( hanj^e.  entirely  abandoning 
Rome  as  a  caf)ital  and  establishinj^  the  seat  of  j^jovernment  at  the  old  (ireek 
city  of  Byzantium  on  the  Hosphorus.  He  called  the  city  New  Rome,  but 
the  name  Constantinople  (the  city  of  Constantine)  soon  attached  to  it  and 
continues  to  this  day. 

Theodosius  (  392-395  »  was  the  last  emperor  to  hold  toj^ether  the  old 
Roman  dominion.  At  his  death  the  empire  was  divided  between  his  sons. 
F-'rom  this  time  the  F^ist  is  entirely  lost  to  Rome,  there  are  two  distinct 
empires  instead  of  one. 

The  Western  empire  continued  to  exist  for  about  eij^hty  years.  It  is 
the  last  act  of  a  j^reat  <lrama  —  we  may  say,  trajL^edy. 

The  West  was  already  in  a  state  of  decay,  and  fell  a  prey  to  the  new  and 

vijiorous  Teutonic  or  (ierman  trilns  which  livt-d  in  the  forests  of   the  north. 

Some    twenty  years  before    the  division    of  the    empire,   the 
-^_..,^^.    (foths,  who  lived  across  the   I>anul)<\  found  themsehes  hard 

pressed  ^y  the  fierce   Hun>.  who  had  swarmed  in  from  Asia, 

and  they  asked  permi.ssion  to  cross  the  ri\er  and  sittle  on  Roman  territorv. 

They  were  told  that  this  would  br  v^ranted  on  conilition   that  they  jL^axe  up 

their  arms  and  their  children.      .So  ^reat  was  ihtir  tear  of  tlu-  in\aders  that 

they  readily  consented  to  the  conditit»ns,  and  <'n>s>fd  the  river  in  boats  pro- 

\i<Ie<l  by  the  Romans.      There  were  >aid  to  ha\<-  been  a  million  of  them. 

They  iifjreetl  to  j^uard  the  frontier  for   Rome  and  to  this  nui  they  must 

have  wea|K)ns.      These  were  j^jiven  them,  but   wen*  ^onn   used  .iv^ainsl  the 

Romans.      They  receiveil   a  check   under  Theodosius  theCireat.  and  many 

of  them  entere<i  the  Roman  army.      But  this  .1  downwanl  stip.  as  the 

ve^ult  proved. 

When  Theodosius  died,  and  the  empire  was  divided  between  his  two 



sons,  the  Western  Goths  or  Visigoths  revolted,  elected  their  chief  as  king, 
and  swept  down  upon  Italy.  They  captured  and  sacked  Rome  in  410. 
This,  however,  is  not  counted  the  fall  of  Rome.  Pieces  of  the  empire  began 
to  break  off.  Britain  was  lost  to  them.  Roman  troops  were  withdrawn, 
and  Germanic  tribes  (Angles  and  Saxons)  came  in.  These  tribes  pushed 
down  into  Gaul  and  Spain,  and  even  across  into  the  Roman  possessions  in 
Africa.  One  of  these  tribes  was  the  Vandals,  whose  deeds  of  destruction 
have  given  to  the  world  the  word  vandalism. 

These  Vandals  crossed  over  from  Africa,  captured  Rome,  and  for  many 
days  plundered  and  wrecked  the  stately  buildings  and  art  treasures  of  the 
once  imperial  city  (455).  The  poor  fragment  of  the  empire  continued 
under  feeble  rulers  for  another  score  of  years,  when  the  city  was  again  cap- 
tured, and  Odoacer,  a  chief  of  the  German^,  became  ruler.  Then,  **  when 
Odoacer  was  proclaimed  King  of  Italy,  the  phantom  assembly  that  still 
called  itself  the  Roman  Senate  sent  back  to  Constantinople  the  tiara  and 
purple  robe,  in  sign  that  the  Western  Empire  had  passed  away." 

During  all  the  time  when  the  Roman  Empire  was  declining  from  a  terri- 
tory one  thousand  miles  by  three  thousand  miles,  to  the  little  province  of 
Italy  ;  and  from  the  glory  of  the  golden  age  of  Augustus  to  the  barbaric 
brass  of  Teutonic  rule,  there  was  another  power  steadily  rising,  which  was 
designed  by  its  Founder  to  be  world  wide  in  its  sweep,  yet  not  of  this  world. 
And  that  Founder,  and  that  empire,  emancipated  woman.  We  refer  to 
Jesus  Christ  and  His  religion. 

Having  sketched  the  political  history  of  the  Roman  Empire  as  the  neces- 
sary background  and  foundation,  we  proceed  to  consider  the  moral,  social, 
and  religious  conditions  of  the  empire  and  their  relations  to  woman. 

During  the  days  of  the  empire,  marriage  came  to  be  looked  upon  as  a 

mere  civil  contract,  entered  into  for  the  happiness  of  the  contracting  parties. 

Either  party  might  dissolve  it  at  will,  and  the  dissolution  gave 
Conditions  ^^^^  parties  a  right  to  remarry.      This  system    treated  the 

obligations  of  marriage  with  levity,  and  almost  contempt. 
Cicero  repudiated  his  wife  Terentia,  because  he  wanted  a  new  dowry. 
Terentia  had  brought  him  a  considerable  fortune,  but  this  having  been  ex- 
pended, the  easiest  way  to  get  more  seemed  to  be  to  marry  a  new  wife. 



Maecenas,  the  great  statesman  and  patron  of  literature,  was  continually 
changing  his  wives. 

Sempronius  Sophus  repudiated  his  wife  because  she  had  once  been  to 
the  public  games  without  his  knowledge. 

Paulus  Emilius  put  away  his  wife  without  giving  any  reason,  simply 
saying,  *  *  My  shoes  are  new  and  well  made,  but  no  one  knows  where  they 
pinch  me.'' 

Roman  women  were  as  much  lost  to  shame  as  the  men.  Seneca  the 
philosopher  said  there  were  women  who  reckoned  their  years  by  their  hus- 
bands and  not  by  the  consuls.  Martial  speaks  of  a  woman  who  had  come 
to  her  tenth  husband.  Juvenal  tells  of  a  woman  who  had  eight  husbands 
in  five  years.  St.  Jerome  declared  that  there  was  a  woman  in  Rome  who 
was  married  to  her  twenty-third  husband,  she  herself  being  his  twenty-first 
wife.  Augustus  compelled  the  husband  of  Livia  to  repudiate  her,  that  he 
might  marr>'  her  himself.  Cato  gave  his  wife,  with  the  consent  of  her 
father,  to  his  friend  Hortensius,  and  remarried  her  after  his  death. 

There  were  faithful  wives  and  lifelong  marriages .  and  pure  love  and 
happy  households,  but  these  examples  show  the  base  depths  to  which  public 
opinion  and  moral  conditions  had  fallen. 

As  a  somewhat   natural  result  of  loose  and  frequent  marriages,  or  no 

marriages  at  all,  infanticide  was  fearfully  prevalent.      There  are  illustrations 

in  Latin  literature  of  the  prevalence  of   killing  or  exposing: 
laOuitlcltfe  *  SIS 

newborn  babes.      In  one  of  Terence's  plays  he  represents  a 

tather,  upon  going  away,  charging  the  mother  to  destroy  the  babe  if  it 
prove  to  be  a  girl.  The  mother  in  the  pity  of  her  heart  gives  it  to  an  old 
*'oman  to  be  exposed,  in  the  hope  that  some  one  might  take  it.  Upon  the 
iaiher's  return  he  upbraids  the  wife  for  being  not  only  disobedient,  but  un- 
rosonahle,  for  she  has  consigned  her  dauj^hter  to  a  life  of  shame. 

The  fact  is,  many  of  the  exposed  children  died,  but  at  length  they  be- 
c^nie  so  numerous  that  they  were  systematically  gathered  up  and  sold  by 
'speculators  to  be  educated  as  slaves  or  prostitutes.  Some  were  maimed 
^nd  trained  as  professional  beggars  whose  gains  went  to  the  purses  of  their 
>'ile  owners. 

We  shrink  from  looking  deeper  into  the  awhil  pit  of  Roman  iniquity. 



We  cannot  wonder  that  Rome  fell.  The  marvel  is  that  the  rotten  structure 
stood  so  long. 

Strange  as  it  may  seem,  the  morals  of  the  barbarians  who  conquered 
Rome  were  vastly  superior  to  those  of  the  Romans.  The  Teutonic  senti- 
ment in  woman's  favor  is  seen  in  very  stern  legislation  against  attempts  on 
her  chastity. 

A  law  of  the  Spanish  Visigoths  prohibited  a  surgeon  from  bleeding  any 
free  woman  except  in  the  presence  of  her  husband  or  some  near  relative  or 
other  properly  appointed  person. 

A  Salic  law  imposed  a  fine  of  fifteen  pieces  of  gold  upon  anyone  who 
improperly  pressed  a  woman's  hand. 

Slavery  was  a  prolific  source  of  Rome's  degradation.  As  we  have  seen 
elsewhere,  about  fifty  million  of  Rome's  population  were  in  bondage. 
Wealthy  men  counted  their  slaves  by  hundreds  or  even  thousands.  Many 
of  these  were  Greeks  and  highly  educated,  though  they  brought  Greek 
vices  with  them.  There  were  slaves  for  every  department  of  work  in  the 
houses  of  wealthy  Romans.  Each  was  a  specialist,  whether  cook,  waiter, 
or  scribe.  Horace,  the  Roman  poet,  boasts  of  the  simplicity  of  his  bachelor 
life,  that  he  was  waited  on  at  table  by  only  three  slaves. 

The  theatrical  performances  with  which  the  Romans  amused  themselves 
were  degrading  beyond  description.  Scenes  were  introduced  from  the 
licentious  stories  of  Greek  mythology.  The  pantomime  finally  came  to  be 
the  favorite  and  almost  exclusive  stage  amusement.  It  was  gross  and  often 

In  addition  to  the  corruption  of  the  people  of  leisure,  all  were  brutalized 

by  the  gladiatorial  games  Augustus  instituted,  games  in  which  ten  thousand 

joined  in  deadly  conflict.      He  also  gave  an  exhibition  on  a 

Games  ^*^^^  "^  ^^^^  gardens  of  a  sea-fight  in  which  3,000  soldiers  were 
engaged.  These  scenes  of  blood  and  cruelty  could  but  have 
the  effect  of  hardening  the  hearts  of  all  and  causing  them  to  think  lightly  of 
taking  human  life. 

With  stately  palaces  and  works  of  art,  splendid  bridges  and  aqueducts, 
and  highways  and  vast  wealth  —  with  all  her  splendor  of  civilization,  Rome 
was  unspeakably  corrupt  and  growing  rapidly  worse.      In  such  an  atmos- 



pKere,  womanhood  and  virtue   were   lighdy   esteemed  and  even   held  in 

Christianity  was,  in  fact,  greatly  helped  by  the  barbarians  in  elevating 
t\\e  morals  of  the  empire.  It  should  be  stated,  however,  that  multitudes  of 
ihem  had  become  Christians,  through  the  missionary  work  of  the  early 
church,  before  they  crossed  the  borders  and  invaded  the  empire. 

In  order  to  witness  the  effects  of  Christianity  in  the  elevation  of  woman, 
we  turn  to  the  time  of  Constantine  and  his  successors.  For  more  than 
three  centuries,  Christianity  had  been  at  work,  though  under  ridicule, 
opposition,  and  persecution.  At  least  ten  great  persecutioifc  are  enumer- 
ated by  historians  ;  and  women  were  among  the  bravest  of  the  martyrs. 

The  changes  wrought  in  the  reign  of  Constantine,  especially  in  legisla- 
tion, seem  sudden,  but  they  were  simply  the  fruit  which  had  been  ripening 

since  the  days  of  Christ  and  the  apostles. 
ijtg%^gm»!^wk        ^"  ^^^  women  were  granted  the  same  rights  as  men,  to 

the  control  of  their  property,  except  in  regard  to  the  sale  of 
Unded  estates. 

Out  of  regard  for  their  modesty  they  were  exempt  from  summons  to 
appear  before  a  public  tribunal. 

In  390  Theodosius  I.  allowed  mothers  for  the  first  time  a  certain  right 
'•i  j^iardianship  over  their  children.  In  439  Theodosius  II.  sought  to 
>tamp  out  the  vile  trade  of  Lcnones^  who  lived  by  prostituting  women. 
Criminal  assault  of  a  woman  was  made  punishable  by  death.  .Says  Gibbon, 
"The  dignity  of  marriage  was  restored  by  the  Christians."  There  had  been 
^"oundless  liberty  of  divorce  since  the  time  of  Augustus,  and  this,  as  we 
have  seen,  vastly  hastened  the  decay  of  public  morals.  The  Christians  and 
the  church  had  recognized  and  followed  the  teaching  of  Christ,  that  there 
could  be  divorce  on  one  ground  only,  namely,  adultery. 

The  Christian  emperors  sought  to  legislate  for  the  restriction  of  divorce 
•*nd  the  protection  of  the  dignity  and  sanctity  of  marriage.  The  pagan 
P"pulation  protested  with  utmost  vigor  against  the  Christian  standards  and 
the  legislation  was  but  partially  successful.  From  the  time  of  Constantine, 
^ncubinage  was  prohibited  and  adultery  was  punished  as  one  of  the  gross- 
^t  crimes. 



Under  the  old  Roman  law,  fathers  held  the  power  of  life  and  death  over 
their  children.  They  could  be  sold  as  slaves  or  killed  by  him,  and  in  this, 
of  course,  the  mother  had  no  voice.  The  wife  in  a  general  way  occupied 
the  rank  of  sister  to  her  own  children  and  was  thus  absolutely  subject  to 
her  husband. 

Under  Alexander  Severus,  restriction  had  been  placed  upon  the  power 
of  fathers  over  their  children,  and  Constantine  carried  the  work  still  farther. 
At  last  the  Romans  were  educated  or  legislated  up  to  recognize  that  the 
killing  of  a  child,  even  though  but  an  infant,  was  murder. 

Christianity  taught  that  all  Christians  were  brothers  and  sisters.     This 

had  its  effect  upon  the  vast  institution  of  slavery.     Slaves  were  accounted 

as  having  a  spiritual  equality  with   their  masters,  and  were 

Kqaaiity     treated  as  capable  of  the  same  virtues,  blessings,  and  rewards. 
So,  while  there  was  no  social  revolution,  in  this  line,  the 
attitude  of  the  Christians  put  human  bondage  in  the  way  of  being  greatly 
ameliorated,  and  steps  were  taken  towards  its  final  extinction. 

Women  learned  that  they  were  human  beings  and  not  mere  creatures ; 
that  they  had  souls  capable  of  eternal  happiness  ;  that  they  were  entitled  to 
be  associated  with  man  in  the  service  of  God  and  humanity,  and  that,  more- 
over, they  had  a  right  to  expect  that  the  other  sex  would  protect  and  assist 
them,  rather  than  betray  and  debase  them  to  the  level  of  the  brute  creation. 

Women  became  the  most  devoted  workers  in  charitable  and  philan- 
thropic lines,  and,  when  persecutions  raged,  went  to  the  stake  or  the  arena 
as  victors,  absolutely  refusing  to  deny  Christ.  They  recognized  (if  some  do 
not  now)  that  Christ  had  taken  woman  by  the  hand  and  raised  her  up  to 
be  the  friend  and  fellow-worker  of  man.  Women  were  among  his  follow- 
ers ;  he  was  their  Champion,  and  became  their  Saviour. 

The  early  Christian  Church  held  steadfastly  to  the  standard  Christ  had 
given  in  relation  to  woman.  Rome  had  trampled  womanly  virtue  under 
foot,  and  Rome  perished.  Christianity  honored  woman.  Godly  wives  and 
mothers  influenced  husbands  and  sons,  and  lived  for  the  good  of  the  race 
and  the  glory  of  Him  who  had  emancipated  them,  and  thus  Christianity 
rose  upon  the  ruins  of  Rome. 







500  TO  1100  A.  D. 






Reproduced  from  an  etching  after  the  original  paintinir.. 


A.  I>.  534-613. 


BRUNEHAUT,  or  Bninehild,  was  the  daughter  of  AthanagiIHe,  king 
of  the  Visigoths  of  Spain,  and  married,  in  A.  1).  565,  Sigebert, 
king  of  the  Franks  of  Aiistrasia.  Although  contrary  to  the  cus- 
tom, Sigebert  had  resolved  to  have  but  one  wife,  and  to  choose  her  from  a 
royal  family  ;  his  choice  fell  on  Brunehaut,  who  fully  justified  his  prefer- 
ence. She  was  beautiful,  of  regal  bearing,  modest  and  dignified  in  her 
conduct,  and  conversed  not  only  agreeably,  but  with  a  great  deal  of  wis- 
dom*    Her  husband  soon  became  very  much  attached  to  her. 

Chilperic,  king  of  Neustria,  brother  of  Sigebert,  ha\  ing  married  Gal- 
suinda,  daughter  of  Athanagilde,  abandoned  and  murdered  her  at  the 
instigation  of  his  mistress,  Fredegonda,  whom  he  had  made  queen. 
Brunehaut,  to  avenge  her  sister's  death,  persuaded  Sigebert  to  make  war 
upon  hb  brother.  The  invasion  was  successful,  but,  while  besieging  Tour- 
^y^  Sigebert  was  assassinated  in  575  by  emissaries  of  Fredegonda. 

As  soon  as  Brunehaut  heard  of  this  tragedy,  she  hastened  to  save  her 
little  son  Childebert«  heir  to  the  kingdom  of  Aiistrasia.  She  hid  him  in  a 
\)asket,  which  was  let  down  from  a  window  of  the  ])ala(H-  she  orcujiied  in 
Piiris«  and  confided  him  to  a  servant  of  the  .\ustrasian  duke  (londebald, 
*lu)  carried  him  on  horseback  to  Metz,  where  he  was  ])roelaime(l  king  on 
Christmas  day,  575.  When  Chilperic  and  I'redegonda  arrived  at  Paris, 
the)- found  only  Brunehaut,  with  her  two  <laught<  is  and  the  royal  treasure. 
Her  property  was  Uiken  from  her.  her  danghtei^  were  exiled  to  Meaux. 
^d  she  was  sent  to  Rouen. 

During  the  few  days  that  Brunehaut  had  reinainetl  in  Paris,  >he  had  in- 
spired Meroveus,  Chilperic's  second  son,  with  a  \inK'nt  j)<ui,  so  thai 
^^T^  after  she  reached  Rouen,  he  aban<lonrd  tin-  tmojjs  his  fatlur  had 
placed  under  his  charge,  and  hastenetl  l«>  i«»in  her  Tlie)  wrre  married  by 
'he Bishop  of  Rouen,  although  it  was  (ontrary  to  the  eaimn^  r.f  the  church 
•"unite  a  nephew  and  aunt.  Chilperic.  t^lri^»n•^  at  thi^  ^u\k  came  with 
CTcat  haste  to  separate  them  ;  but  they  l^nk  refuse  in  a  little  church,  ami 



the  king,  not  daring  to  violate  this  asylum,  was  at  last  obliged  to  promise 
with  an  oath,  that  he  would  leave  them  together. 

Reassured  by  this  solemn  promise,  Meroveus  and  Brunehaut  left  their 
asylum  and  gave  themselves  up  to  .Chilperic.  At  first  he  treated  them 
kindly,  but  in  a  few  days  returned  to  Soissons,  taking  his  son  with  him  as  a 
prisoner,  and  leaving  Brunehaut  under  a  strong  guard  at  Rouen.  Mero- 
veus, after  having  dragged  out  a  miserable  existence  as  a  prisoner  for  thir- 
teen months  and  having  in  vain  attempted  to  escape  to  join  Brunehaut,  was 
killed  by  one  of  his  servants  ;  some  say  by  his  own  request  and  others  by 
order  of  Fredegonda. 

Meanwhile,  Childebert  had  demanded  and  obtained  from  the  king  of 
Normandy  his  mother's  release,  and  Brunehaut  had  returned  to  her  son's 
court,  where  she  commenced  that  struggle,  which  afterward  proved  fatal  to 
her,  against  the  nobles  of  Austrasia.  At  one  time,  her  own  party  and  that 
of  the  nobles  were  drawn  up  in  battle  array  against  each  other,  when  she, 
seeing  that  the  combat  would  be  a  bloody  one,  and  that  her  own  side  was 
the  weaker,  boldly  rushed  between  them  and  demanded  that  they  desist. 
*'  Woman,  retire,"  exclaimed  one  of  the  dukes  ;  *'you  have  reigned  long 
enough  under  the  name  of  your  husband  ;  let  that  suffice  you.  Your  son 
is  now  our  king  ;  Austrasia  is  under  our  guardianship,  not  yours.  Retire, 
directly,  or  our  horses'  feet  shall  trample  you  to  the  earth." 

But  the  intrepid  Brunehaut,  unmoved  by  this  savage  address,  persisted, 
and  at  last  succeeded  in  preventing  the  combat.  Although  obliged  to  yield 
to  her  turbulent  subjects  for  a  short  time,  Brunehaut  soon  regained  her 
authority,  which  she  used  with  great  cruelty.  In  her  anger  she  spared  no 
one,  but  put  to  death  or  exiled  all  persons  of  rank  who  fell  in  her  power. 

She  also  raised  an  army  which  she  sent  against  Clotaire,  the  young 
son  of  Fredegonda  ;  but  she  was  defeated,  and  Fredegonda  took  advantage 
of  the  intestine  commotion  in  Austrasia  to  regain  all  that  her  husband  had 

After  the  death  of  Childebert  in  596,  the  nobles  prevented  her  from  rul- 
ing in  the  name  of  her  grandson,  Theodebert  II. ;  but  another  of  her  grand- 
sons, Thierry  II.  of  Burgundy,  made  her  mistress  of  his  affairs.  She 
quickly  kindled   a  war  between  the  two  brothers.     Theodebert  was  van- 



A.  D.  408-53A. 

^  ♦  »  4- 

/|f  MALASONTHA,  daughter  of  Theoderic  the  Great,  king  of  the 
^1  Ostrogoths,  was  born  in  498,  and  died  in  535.  She  was  the 
mother  of  Athalaric  by  Eutharic.  She  inherited  her  father's  pos- 
sessions, as  guardian  of  her  son  ;  but  by  endeavoring  to  educate  him  in  the 
manners  and  learning  of  the  more  polished  Romans,  she  offended  her 
nobles,  who  conspired  against  her,  and  obtained  the  government  of  the 
young  prince.  Athalaric  was  inured  by  them  to  debauchery,  and  he  sunk 
under  his  excesses  at  the  early  age  of  seventeen,  in  the  year  534.  The 
afflicted  mother  knew  not  how  to  support  herself  against  her  rebellious  sub- 
jects but  by  taking  as  her  husband  and  partner  on  the  throne  her  cousin 
Theodatus,  who,  to  his  everlasting  infamy,  caused  her  to  be  strangled  in  a 

»»A.  535. 

For  learning  or  humanity,  she  had  few  equals  in  her  time.  She  received 
and  conversed  with  ambassadors  from  various  nations  without  the  aid  of  an 

The  emperor  of  Constantinople  sent  an  army  against  her  murderer, 
under  the  celebrated  general  Belisarius,  who  defeated  and  dethroned  him. 

Brunelittut  continued, 

quished  at  Toul  and  at  Tolbiac,  and  slain  with  his  family  in  612.  Thierry 
suddenly  died  soon  after,  and  Brunehaut  seemed  about  to  ascend  the  throne 
•^Rain,  when  she  was  opposed  by  Clotairc  II.,  son  of  PVedcgonda,  at  the 
^€ad  of  an  army  of  Burgundians  and  Aiistrasians.  She  encountered  the 
^nemy  on  the  banks  of  the  Aisne,  but  her  troops  refused  to  tij^lit,  and 
^ninehaut  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  son  of  Kredegonda,  who  reproached 
"^rwith  having  caused  the  death  of  ten  kings  or  sons  of  kint^s,  exposed  her 
''>r  three  days  to  torture  and  to  the  insults  of  tlie  soldiers,  and  then  hound 
^er  by  a  foot  and  an  arm  to  the  tail  of  a  wild  horse.  Her  remains  were 
thtn  burned,  and  the  ashes  scattered  to  the  winds. 

Brunehaut  has  been  diversely  judged  by  historians,  being  by  some 
accused  of  monstrous  crimes,  and  extravagantly  praised  by  others. 



A.  D.  Sixth  Century. 



RADEGONDE,  or  Radegunda,  daughter  of  Berthar,  a  prince  of  Thu- 
ringia,  flourished  in  the  early  part  of  the  sixth  century.  Having 
been  carried  as  a  prisoner  to  France  in  the  twelfth  year  of  her  age 
by  Clotaire  V. ,  at  that  time  king  of  the  district  whose  capital  is  now  called 
Soissons,  she  was  educated  in  the  Christian  religion,  and  when  she  reached 
a  maturer  age  was  induced,  very  reluctantly,  to  become  his  wife.  Her  own 
wish  having  been  to  become  a  nun,  her  married  life  was  in  great  measure 
given  up  to  works  of  charity  and  religion,  and  Clotaire  complained  that 
he  "  had  married  a  nun  rather  than  a  queen." 

Radegonde  spent  six  years  in  this  way,  during  all  which  time  Clotaire 
obstinately  refused  to  let  her  go  into  a  convent.  A  brother  of  the  young 
queen  had  been  taken  prisoner  at  the  same  time  and  as  he  grew  up  he 
showed  so  much  of  the  pride  and  temper  of  his  race  that  Clotaire  had 
him  put  to  death.  This  was  too  much  for  Radegonde  to  endure,  and 
Clotaire,  not  wishing  to  be  annoyed  by  her  grief,  allowed  her  to  go  to 
Medard,  bishop  of  Noyon,  whose  reputation  for  sanctity  had  extended 
throughout  all  France,  for  consolation.  When  she  arrived  at  Noyon  she 
found  Medard  in  his  cathedral,  and  immediately  exclaimed  :  "  Priest  of 
God  !  I  wish  to  leave  the  world,  and  consecrate  myself  to  the  Lord."  At 
these  words  the  guard  who  accompanied  her  crowded  around  her,  and 
protested  against  such  an  act.  While  Medard  hesitated  as  to  what  course 
he  should  take,  Radegonde  fled  to  the  sacristy,  threw  the  dress  of  a  nun 
over  her  royal  apparel,  and  returning  said  to  Medard,  **  If  you  refuse  to 
receive  me,  if  you  fear  man  more  than  God,  you  will  have  to  answer  for  it 
before  the  Shepherd  of  the  flock." 

These  words  put  an  end  to  the  uncertainty  of  the  bishop.  He  annulled, 
on  his  own  authority,  the  forced  marriage  of  the  queen,  consecrated  her  to 
God,  and  sent  away  the  soldiers,  who  could    offer  no  further  opposition. 

Radegonde  went  to  Tours  for  greater  safety,  and  when  Clotaire,  still 
ardently  attached  to  her,  sent  to  reclaim  her,  she  fled  to  Poitiers.      Here 



A.  1>.  Sixth  Century. 


yj      HIS  noted  woman  was  the  daughter  of  Cherebert,  king  of  Paris.     She 
V  ^     married    Ethelbert,   king   of    Kent,    who    succeeded  to  the  throne 
*^        about  the  year  560.     Ethelbert  was  a  pagan  in  religion,  but  Bertha 
was  a  Christian,  and  in  the  marriage  treaty  she  stipulated  for  the  free  exer- 
cise of  her  religion,  and  took  with  her  a  French  bishop.     By  her  influence 
Giristianity  was  introduced  into  England  ;  for  so  exemplary  were  her  life 
and  conduct  that  she  inspired  the  king  and  his  court  with  a  high  respect  for 
her  personally  and  likewise  for  the  religion  by  which  she  was  influenced. 
The  pope,  taking  advantage  of  this,  sent  forty  monks,  among  whom  was  St. 
Aug;ustine,  to  preach  the  gospel  and  further  the  work  of  Christianization. 
Under  the  protection  of  the  queen  they  soon  found  means  of  communication 
«^ith  the  king,  who  finally  submitted  to  public  baptism. 

Christianity  proved  the  means  of  promoting  knowledge  and  civilization 
w  England,  and  this  convert  king  enacted  a  body  of  laws  which  was  the 
fot  written  code  promulgated  by  the  northern  conquerors.  Thus  largely 
to  the  influence  of  the  pious  queen  Bertha  was  due  the  impulse  of  redeem- 
»ng  England  from  paganism  ;  and  moreover  to  her  belongs  the  glory  of 
planting  the  first  Christian  church  in  Canterbury.  She  was  later  canonized 
hy  the  church. 

Kadegond©  coatiaued. 

tHe  energetic  remonstrance  of  Germain,  bishop  of  Paris,  obliged  him  to 
leave  her,  and  he  allowed  her  to  found  a  convent  there,  which  she  did  about 
550.  where  she  passed  the  rest  of  her  life.  She  was  at  first  abbess  of  this 
convent,  but  after  it  was  firmly  established  she  gave  up  her  authority  to  a 
younjjer  woman,  whom  she  called  Agnes,  and  lived  for  the  remainder  of 
"^  life  as  a  simple  nun.  Her  convent  held  a  high  reputation  in  that  age 
lorthe  devotif)n  of  its  members  to  religion,  and  also  for  their  cultivation  of 
literature  and  the  arts. 

Radegonde  died  at  Poitiers,  August  13,  587.  She  was  afterwards  can- 



A.  D.  Sixth  Century. 


GHRODIELDE  was  a  nun,  inmate  of  the  convent  founded  by  Rade- 
gonde  at  Poitiers,  who  caused  the  temporary  dispersion  of  this 
powerful  community.  Soon  after  Radegonde's  death,  in  587, 
Chrodielde,  who  pretended  that  she  was  the  daughter  of  the  late  king 
Cheribert,  induced  many  of  the  nuns  to  take  an  oath  that  as  soon  as  she 
succeeded  in  forcing  the  abbess  Leubov^re  to  leave  the  convent,  by 
accusing  her  of  several  crimes,  they  would  place  her  at  their  head.  She 
then,  with  more  than  forty  nuns,  among  whom  was  Baslne,  daughter  of 
Chilperic,  went  to  Tours,  where  she  wished  to  place  her  companions  under 
the  care  of  Gregory,  bishop  of  Tours,  while  she  went  to  lay  her  complaint 
before  Gontran,  king  of  Burgundy. 

Gregory  advised  her  to  return,  but  in  vain  ;  and  Chrodielde  went  to 
make  her  petition  to  the  king,  who  promised  to  examine  into  the  cause  of 
her  dissatisfaction. 

Chrodielde  would  not  return  to  the  cloister,  but  went,  with  her  compan- 
ions, into  the  cathedral  of  St.  Hilary,  while  the  bishops,  whom  the  king 
had  sent,  were  investigating  the  affair.  Here  she  collected  around  her  for 
her  defense,  thieves,  murderers,  and  criminals  of  all  kinds,  who  drove  away 
with  violence  the  bishops  who  came  to  disperse  them. 

Childebert,  king  of  France,  sent  orders  that  these  disturbances  should 
be  repressed  by  force  if  necessary  ;  but  Chrodielde,  at  the  head  of  her 
banditti,  made  such  a  violent  resistance  that  it  was  with  difficulty  the 
king's  orders  were  executed. 

The  abbess  of  St.  Radegonde  was  tried  by  the  tribunal  of  bishops  on  the 
charges  of  severity,  ill-treatment,  and  sacrilege,  which  Chrodielde  had  pre- 
ferred against  her,  and  found  entirely  innocent  of  everything  but  too  g^eat 
indulgence.  Chrodielde  and  her  followers  were  excommunicated  on 
account  of  their  violent  conduct,  and  their  attack  on  the  convent  and  the 
abbess  Leubovere,  which  latter  they  had  drawn  through  the  streets  by  the 
hair,  and  afterwards  imprisoned. 



A.  D.  508-548. 


f  ■  \  HEODORA,  Empress  of  the  East,  the  wife  of  Justinian,  was  famous 
JL      for  her  beauty,   intrigues,  ambitions,  and  talents,   and  for  the  part 
she  acted  in  the  direction  of  affairs,  both  in  the  church  and  state,  in 
the  reign  of  her  husband. 

She  was  born  probably  in  Constantinople,  though  according  to  some  in 
Cyprus.  According  to  Procopius  she  was  the  daughter  of  Acacius,  a  bear- 
ieeder  of  the  amphitheater  at  Constantinople  to  the  Green  Faction. 

By  the  death  of  her  father  her  mother  was  left  destitute,  with  three 
daughters,  Comito,  Theodora,  and  Anastasia,  none  of  whom  was  over  seven 
years  of  age.  The  three  successively  appeared  on  the  stage  as  pantomimic 
dancers,  an  occupation  held  in  general  contempt.  In  the  Anecdota,  attrib- 
uted to  Procopius,  scandalous  stories  are  narrated  of  Theodora's  youth, 
which  it  is  impossible  to  verify  or  wholly  refute.  In  525,  she  married  the 
consul  Justinian,  who  had  obtained  from  his  uncle  Justin  I.  abrogation  of 
the  law  which  forbade  marriage  between  a  senator  and  a  woman  of  servile 
origin,  or  who  had  appeared  on  the  stage.  In  527  Justinian  succeeded  to 
the  throne,  and  she  was  made  co-regent. 

During  the  twenty- three  years  of  married  life  she  showed  herself  his 
wonhy  consr)rt.  Her  courage  and  judicious  counsels  prevented  his  deposi- 
tion al  the  revolt  of  the  Nika  in  532,  and  in  all  questions  of  administration 
^e  took  a  notable  share.  No  female  sovereign  manifested  larger  interest 
m  the  unfortunate  and  destitute  of  her  own  sex,  or  strove  more  earnestly  to 
^^viate  their  condition.  It  is  supposed  that  thus  she  sought  to  atone  for 
the  possible  faults  of  her  own  youth.  She  retained  her  ascendency  over 
the  mind  of  Justinian  to  the  last.  He  consulted  her  in  everything,  and 
allowed  her  to  interfere  directly  in  the  government  of  the  empire.  Her 
^'nly  child  by  him  was  a  daughter. 

Theodora  was  of  small  stature,  pale,  delicate,  vivacious,  graceful,  had 
''•^ressive  eyes,  and  was  fascinating  in  manner.  She  died  of  cancer  in 
M^,  at  Pythia,  near  Broussa,  whither  she  had  gone  for  the  baths. 



A.  D.  645-597. 


JjXREDEGONDA,  a  Prankish  queen,  and  rival  of  the  famous  Brune- 
-L  haut,  was  born  about  the  year  545  and  died  in  597.  She  was  maid  of 
honor  to  Audovera,  queen  of  Chilp6ric  I.  of  Neustria,  and  the  king 
being  captivated  by  her  beauty  made  her  his  concubine.  She  contrived  by 
a  trick  the  repudiation  of  the  queen,  but  was  disappointed  by  the  marriage 
of  Chilp6ric  with  Galsuinda,  a  Visigoth  princess  and  sister  of  Brunehaut, 
who  had  been  married  to  his  brother  Sigebcrt,  king  of  Austrasia. 

Attributing  this  marriage  to  the  influence  of  the  Austrasian  queen,  Fre- 
degonda  vowed  deadly  hatred  to  both  sisters.  She  removed  Galsuinda 
by  assassination,  became  her  successor,  and  brought  about  a  war  between 
the  two  brothers,  in  which  Sigebert  was  victorious,  but  soon  fell  by  the 
hands  of  assassins. 

Brunehaut,  who  became  her  captive,  escaped  death  and  returned  to  her 
own  country  ;  but  Meroveus,  the  son  of  Chilp^ric  by  his  first  wife,  who 
had  been  secretly  married  to  her,  fell  a  victim  to  the  revenge  of  his  step- 

A  series  of  atrocious  crimes  followed.  Pretextatus  was  treacherously 
murdered  ;  Clovis,  the  brother  of  Meroxcus,  was  executed  on  the  false  ac- 
cusation of  having  caused  the  death  of  Fredegonda's  three  children  ;  the 
mother  of  the  princes  was  strangled,  their  sister  outraged  and  confined  hi  a 
convent.  Finally  she  contrived  the  assassination  of  her  husband,  and 
assumed  the  government  in  the  name  of  her  son  Clotaire.  She  now  suc- 
cessfully renewed  the  war  against  Austrasia,  and  remained  in  power  until 
her  death,  which  occurred  suddenly  in  597.  She  was  buried  in  the  mon- 
astery of  St.  V^incent,  since,  St.  Germain-des-Pres. 

Half  the  cruelties  committed  by  this  woman,  whose  ambition  and  intel- 
lect seem  to  have  been  equaled  only  by  her  crimes,  have  not  been  related 
in  history.  She  tortured  and  murdered  without  the  slightest  remorse  all 
who  opposed  her  will.  The  only  womanly  affection  she  exhibited  was  her 
love  for  her  children. 


A.  D.  610-677. 


XJ>|YESHAH,  the  favorite  wife  of  Mahomet,  and  daughter  of  Abu-Bekr, 
^^J^     the  first  caliph,  was  born  at  Medina  about  6io  A.  D.     At  the  time 
of  her  marriage  to  the  Prophet  she  was  only  nine  years  of  age. 
She  had  no  children  but  his  affection  for  her  continued  until  death,  and  he 
expired  in  her  arms.     After  his  death,  she  was  regarded  with  great  venera- 
tion by  the  Mussulmans  as  filled  with  an  extraordinary  portion  of  Mahomet's 
spirit     They  gave  her  the  tide  of  **  Mother  of  the  Faithful,"  and  consulted 
W  on  important  occasions. 

Ayeshah  entertained  a  strong  aversion  for  the  caliph  Othman  ;  and  she 
W actually  formed  a  plot  to  dethrone  him,  with  the  intention  of  placing  in 
His  stead  her  favorite  Telha,  when  Othman  was  assassinated  by  another 
«i«ny,  in  a  sedition. 

The  succession  of  Ali  was  also  strongly  opposed  by  Ayeshah.  Joined 
l>y  Telha  and  Zobier,  at  Mecca,  she  raised  a  revolt,  under  the  pretense  of 
avenging  the  murder  of  Othman  ;  an  army  was  levied,  which  marched 
toward  Bassora,  while  Ayeshah,  at  its  head,  was  borne  in  a  litter  on  a  camel 
^>i  great  strength.  On  arriving  at  a  village  called  Jowab,  she  was  saluted 
^ith  the  loud  barking  of  the  dogs  of  the  place,  which,  reminding  her  of  a 
prediction  of  the  Prophet  in  which  the  dogs  of  Jowab  were  mentioned,  so 
intimidated  her  that  she  declared  her  resohition  not  to  advance  a  step.  It 
^^  not  till  a  number  of  persons  had  been  suborned  to  swear  that  the  vil- 
^'^  had  been  wrongly  named  to  her,  and  till  the  artifice  had  been  em- 
Myed  of  terrifying  her  with  a  report  of  Ali's  being  in  the  rear,  that  she 
*^  prevailed  upon  to  proceed. 

She  was  refuse^d  admittance  into  the  city.  In  the  end,  however,  her 
ir'^'Ops  j^ained  possession.  Ali  assembled  an  army  and  marched  against 
^'^^-  Ayeshah  violently  opposed  all  pacific  counsels,  and  resolved  to  pro- 
^^  to  the  utmost  extremity.  A  fierce  battle  ensued  in  which  Telha  and 
Zobier  were  slain.  The  combat  raged  about  Ayeshah' s  camel,  and  an  Ara- 
''iin  writer  says  that  the  hands  of  seventy  men  who  successively  held  its 



A.  D.  606-68S. 



BATIMA,  the  only  daughter  of  Mahomet,  and  mother  of  all  Arabian 
dynasties,  was  born  in  Mecca  about  606  A.D.  In  the  year  623  she 
married  her  cousin  AH,  who  afterwards  became  a  caliph.  Turkish 
writers  assert  that  the  archangels  Michael  and  Gabriel  acted  as  guardians  to 
the  bride,  and  that  seventy  thousand  angels  joined  the  procession.  Fatima 
died  a  few  months  after  her  father. 

The  Fatimites,  or  descendants  of  Fatima,  became  a  powerful  Arab 
dynasty  which  ruled  for  two  and  one  half  centuries  in  Egypt  and  Syria, 
while  the  Abbaside  caliphs  reigned  at  Bagdad.  They  first  attained  to 
empire  under  Abu  Mohammed  Obeidallah,  who,  A.  D.  909,  announced 
himself  in  Syria  as  the  director  of  the  faithful,  foretold  by  the  Koran,  and 
expected  as  the  Messiah  by  a  class  of  heterodox  Mussulmans.  Denounced 
by  the  caliph,  he  fled  to  Egypt,  and  traversed  the  whole  of  the  north  of 
Africa  to  Sedjelmessa,  where  he  was  imprisoned.  He  was  delivered  and  rec- 
ognized as  a  messenger  from  heaven,  by  Abu  Abdallah,  who  had  just  over- 
thrown the  African  dynasties.     He  made  himself  master  of  northern  Africa. 

On  the  death  of  Adhed  in  1171,  the  dynasty  of  the  Fatimites  was 
extinguished,  and  a  new  one  established  by  the  great  Saladin. 

^xeahetln.  continued, 

bridle  were  cut  off,  and  that  her  litter  was  stuck  so  full  of  darts  as  to 
resemble  a  porcupine.  The  camel,  from  which  this  day's  fight  takes  its 
name,  was  at  length  hamstrung,  and  Ayeshah  became  a  captive.  Ali 
treated  her  with  great  respect,  and  sent  her  to  Medina  on  condition  that 
she  should  live  peaceably  at  home,  and  not  intermeddle  with  state  affairs. 
Her  resentment  afterwards  appeared  in  her  refusal  to  suffer  Hassan,  the 
unfortunate  son  of  Ali,  to  be  buried  near  the  tomb  of  the  Prophet,  which 
was  her  property.  She  seems  to  have  regained  her  influence  in  the  reign  . 
of  the  caliph  Moawiyah.  She  died  A.  D.  677,  aged  sixty-seven,  having 
constantly  commanded  a  high  degree  of  respect  from  the  followers  of 
Mahomet,  except  at  the  time  of  her  imprudent  expedition  against  Ali. 


SALADIX,  TMK  M(  )IL\MMi:i  )AN  CoNtjlI  .K<  »K 


RepraducBd  frnni  the  painting  by  Gustava 
Enra,  a  native  of  Strasburg.  Dara  Bxcallad 
as  a  painter,  dasignar,  and  sculptor,  having 
astaunding  facility  of  hand  and  a  wealth  of 
ImaginatlDn.  His  "  Mountebank's  Family/' 
''Night  of  the  Crucifixion,"  and  "Dante  and 
■yirgil "  have  already  become  classic. 



m.  A.  D.  589.    d.  628. 


rHEODELINDA,    daughter   of    Garibaldo,    duke   of   Bavaria,    and 
queen  of  the  Lombards,  is  celebrated  because  of  her  instrumen- 
tality in  converting  the  Arian  Lombards  to  the  Roman  church. 
She  was  at   first  betrothed  to  Childebert,  son  of   the  haughty  Brune- 
Vuut,  but  was  rejected  by  her.     She  afterwards,   in  589,   married  Autari, 
king  of  the  Lombards,  with  whom  sh«  lived  in  great  affection  ;  neverthe- 
less he  died  in  590,  and  not  without  suspicion  of  having  been  poisoned. 

Theodelinda  became  the  mediator  between  the  Lombards  amd  the  Cath- 
olic church,  and  early  became  imbued  with  its  doctrines.  She  then  sol- 
emnly placed  the  Lombard  nation  under  the  patronage  of  St.  John  the 
Baptist,  and  at  Monza  she  built  in  his  honor  the  first  Lombard  church,  and 
the  royal  palace  near  it.  Under  her  direction,  too,  the  relics  of  St.  Augus- 
tine wea-  brought  to  be  placed  in  the  church  at  Pavia. 

The  people  were  very  much  attached  to  her  ;  but  that  turbulent  age 
5»etmedto  require  a  stronger  hand  than  that  of  a  young  girl  to  sway  the  rod 
'^l  the  empire.  She  therefore  found  it  expedient  to  contract  a  second  mar- 
na^'cuith  F"la\  ius  Agilulphus,  who,  as  her  husband,  was  invested  with  the 
cn^i^'ns  (,[  royalty  before  a  general  congress  at  Milan.  She  was  destined  to 
i**-' a  second  time  a  widow.  Agilulphus  died  in  615.  From  that  time  she 
assumed  the  government  as  regent,  which  she  maintained  with  vigor  and 

Theodelinda  encouraged  and  improved  agriculture  ;  endowed  charitable 
'Oundations,  and,  in  accordance  with  what  the  piety  of  that  age  required, 
''^'"t  monasteries.  What  was  more  extraordinary,  and  seems  to  have  been 
r»rely  thought  of  by  the  men  sovereigns  of  that  day,  she  reduced  the  taxes, 
'"*J  tried  to  soften  the  miseries  of  the  inferior  classes.  She  died  in  628, 
''^My  lamented  by  her  subjects. 

^eu  men  of  this  time  have  exhibited  powers  of  mind  so  well  balanced 
•^^ere  those  of  Theodelinda  ;  and  this  unusual  sense  of  the  just  and  true 
^tted  her  for  the  manifold  duties  of  government. 



d.  A.  U.  773. 



/  I  \  HE  life  of  this  queen  is  but  a  recital  of  her  misfortunes.     The  precise 
-L      date  of  her  birth  is  not  known.     She  was  the  daughter  of  Desiderio 
or  Didier,  as  he  is  generally  named  by  English  writers,  king  of  the 
Lombards,  and  his  queen  Ausa. 

Charlemaghe  ascended  the  throne  of  France  in  768.  Two  years  after, 
his  mother  Bertrade,  making  a  journey  into  Italy,  was  struck  by  the  flour- 
ishing state  of  Desiderio' s  kingdom,  as  well  as  by  the  beauty  and  attractive 
charms  of  his  daughter  Ermengarde.  She  then  formed  the  plan  of  a  double 
marriage  with  this  family,  allotting  Ermengarde  to  Charlemagne,  and  her 
own  Ciola  to  Adelchi,  son  of  Desiderio.  This  scheme  was  opposed  by  the 
existing  Pope,  Stephen  III.,  who  used  many  arguments  to  dissuade  France 
from  the  connection.  The  influence  of  Bertrade,  however,  prevailed,  and 
she  had  the  satisfaction  of  taking  home  with  her  the  young  princess,  for 
whom  she  cherished  a  warm  affection. 

At  first  everything  was  done  to  bring  pleasure  and  happiness  to  the 
young  queen.  The  particular  friendship  subsisting  between  her  and  her 
mother-in-law  has  been  commemorated  by  Manzoni  in  beautiful  and  touch- 
ing poetry.  A  terrible  reverse,  however,  awaited  her.  Charlemagne,  from 
causes  now  impossible  to  ascertain,  repudiated  her,  and  sent  her  ignomini- 
ously  back  to  her  family.  He  was  entreated  to  revoke  this  cruel  mandate, 
but  in  vain.  After  a  year  of  deceptive  happiness,  Ermengarde  returned  to 
the  court  of  Lombardy.  Her  father  and  brother  received  her  with  the 
utmost  tenderness. 

>  A  little  later,  Ermengarde  received  intelligence  that  her  faithless  hus- 
band had  just  united  himself  to  the  young  and  lovely  Ildegarde.  This  was 
to  her  a  death-blow.  She  retired  to  a  monastery  founded  by  her  parents, 
and  of  which  her  sister  was  abbess.  Here  her  existence  was  soon  termi- 
nated.    She  died  in  773. 

Adelard,  a  cousin  of  Charlemagne,  was  so  disgusted  with  the  unlawful 
marriage  of  his  sovereign,  that  he  became  a  monk. 



A.D.  75S-aOS. 


j^RENE,  the  famous  Byzantine  empress,  was  born  in  Athens,  about  752, 

T     and  died  on  the  isle  of    Lesbos,  August  15,  803.     She  was  an  orphan 

»      and  seventeen  years  of  age,  when  her  beauty  and  genius  attracted  the 

attention  of  the  emperor  Constantine  V. ,  who  destined  her  to  be  the  wife  of 

his  son  and  heir,  Leo.     Their  nuptials  were  celebrated  with  royal  splendor 

at  Constantinople,  in  769. 

Obliged  by  her  husband  to  abandon  the  worship  of  images,  to  which 
she  had  been  educated,  she,  however,  gained  his  love  and  confidence,  and 
vas  appointed  in  his  testament  to  administer  the  government  during  the 
minority  of  their  son  Constantine  VL,  then  ten  years  of  age.  She  imme- 
diately manifested  her  zeal  for  the  restoration  of  images.  For  this  object 
she  assembled  a  council  at  Constantinople  in  786,  which  was  interrupted  by 
the  gamson  of  the  capital.  In  the  following  year  she  called  another  coun- 
cil at  Nice,  in  which  the  veneration  of  images  was  declared  agreeable  to 
Scripture  and  reason,  and  to  the  fathers  and  councils  of  the  Church.  With 
the  iconoclastic  controversy  is  connected  the  struggle  between  the  mother 
and  the  son  for  supremacy. 

As  Constantine  advanced  toward  maturity,  he  was  encouraged  by  his 
lavontes  to  throw  off  the  maternal  yoke,  and  planned  the  perpetual  banish- 
njwtof  Irene  to  Sicily.  Her  vigilance  disconcerted  the  project,  and,  while 
the  two  factions  divided  the  court,  the  Armenian  guards  refused  to  take  the 
oath  of  fidelity  which  she  exacted  to  herself  alone,  and  Constantine  became 
w* fill  emperor.  Irene  was  dismissed  to  a  life  of  solitude  in  one  of  the 
"^perial  palaces,  but  her  intrigues  led  to  the  formation  of  successive  con- 
spirades  for  her  restoration. 

On  the  return  of  Constantine  from  an  expedition  against  the  Arabs  in 
797.  he  was  dispatched  by  assassins. 

Irene  succeeded  to  the  throne,  and  for  five  years  ruled  the  empire  with 
prudence  and  energy.  Intercourse  was  renewed  between  the  Byzantine 
c*Hirt  and  that  of  Charlemagne,  and  Irene  is  said  to  ha\  e  sent  ambassadors 



Klfchth  Century  A.  I>. 


QBASSA,  a  sister  of  Haroun  al  Raschid,  a  caliph  of  the  Saracens,  A.D. 
786,  was  so  beautiful  and  accomplished,  that  the  caliph  often 
lamented  he  was  her  brother,  thinking  no  other  husband  could  be 
found  worthy  of  her.  To  sanction,  however,  a  wish  he  had  of  conversing 
at  Xhe  same  time  with  the  two  most  enlightened  people  he  knew,  he  married 
her  to  his  vizier,  Giafar,  the  Barmecide,  on  condition  that  Giafar  should  not 
regard  her  as  his  wife.  Giafar,  not  obeying  this  injunction,  was  put  to 
death  by  order  of  the  enraged  caliph,  and  Abassa  was  dismissed  from  hb 

She  wandered  about,  sometimes  reduced  to  the  extreme  of  wretched- 
ness, reciting  her  own  stor)'  in  song,  and  there  are  still  extant  some  Arabic 
verses  composed  by  her,  which  celebrate  her  misfortune.  In  the  divan 
entitled  Juba,  Abassa' s  genius  for  poetry  is  mentioned  ;  and  a  specimen  of 
her  composition,  in  six  Arabic  lines,  addressed  to  Giafar,  her  husband, 
whose  society  she  was  restricted  by  her  brother  from  enjoying,  is  to  be 
found  in  a  book  written  by  Hen  Abou  Haydah. 

She  left  two  children,  twins,  whom  Ciiafar,  before  his  death,  had  sent 
privately  to  Mecca  to  be  educated. 

Irc*ri«^  continued, 

to  negotiate  a  marriage  between  that  emperor  and  herself,  and  thus  to  unite 
the  empires  of  the  Kast  and  the  West. 

As  her  golden  chariot  moved  through  the  streets  of  Constantinople,  the 
reins  of  the  four  white  steeds  wrrt-  IkIcI  by  as  many  patricians  marching  on 
foot.  Most  of  these  patricians  were  eunuchs,  and  by  one  of  them,  the 
great  treasurer  Nicephorus,  she  was  ensnared  to  her  ruin.  He  was  secretly 
invested  with  the  purple,  and  immediately  arrested  and  banished  Irene  to 
the  Isle  of  Kesbo^.  There,  deprived  of  all  means  of  subsistence,  she  gained 
a  scanty  livelihood  by  spinning,  and  died  <»f  ^rief  within  a  year.  Her  pro- 
tection of  ima^e  worship  has  caused  her  to  Ix-  enrolled  among  the  saints  in 
the  Greek  calendar. 




ReproducBd  fram  a  painting  by  J.  L.  GarDmB, 
ana  of  most  popular  French  artists,  and  a  pupil 
of  the  calabratBd  Paul  DalarnchB.  GaraniB  has 
palntad  a  variety  of  subjects,  ancient  and 
modern,  which  have  gained  him  a  foreniDst 
place  In  the  modern  French  school.  In  IBBS, 
at  the  Paris  Salon,  he  was  a  medaUst  of  honor; 
and  twenty  years  prior  to  that  time  had  bean 
made   a  Member   of  the  Institute. 



Ninth  Century  A.  1>. 


JUDITH,  the  second  wife  of  Louis  le  Debonnaire,  son  of  Charlemagne, 
I  was  a  (laughter  of  Welff,  Duke  of  Bavaria.  She  was  celebrated  for 
>J  her  beauty  and  intellectual  accomplishments,  and  succeeded  in 
obtaining  such  a  control  over  the  king's  affections  that  she  governed  not 
only  the  palace,  but  also  exercised  the  greatest  influence  in  the  govern- 

Her  eldest  son,  who  afterwards  reigned  under  the  name  of  Charles  the 
Bald,  was  bom  in  823  ;  but  as  the  king  had  already  divided  his  estate  be- 
tween the  sons  of  his  former  marriage,  there  was  nothing  left  for  him. 
Judith  immediately  exerted  herself  to  obtain  a  kingdom  for  her  child,  and 
consequently  by  the  consent  of  Lothaire,  eldest  son  of  Louis,  such  a  pos- 
session was  obtained. 

Pepin,  the  second  son  of  Louis,  having  convinced  Lothaire  of  his  folly 
w  yielding  up  his  possessions  at  the  request  of  Judith,  induced  him  to  unite, 
^ith  himself  in  a  rebellion  against  Judith  and  Louis.  In  829,  they  sur- 
rounded Aix,  took  Judith  and  her  husband  prisoners,  and,  accusing  Judith 
of  too  jrreat  intimacy  with  Bernard,  her  prime  minister,  forced  her  to  take 
^  ^eij,  in  the  convent  of  St.  Radegonde. 

*hey,  however,  permitted  Judith  to  have  a  private  interview  with  her 
husband  on  condition  that  she  should  urge  him  to  immediate  abdication. 
In^  she  promised  to  do  ;  but,  instead,  advised  Louis  to  yield  to  circum- 
'^tances  and  go  to  the  monastery  of  St.  Medard,  at  Soissons,  but  not  to 
abdicate  the  crown.  The  king  followed  her  advice,  and  in  830,  Lothaire, 
having  quarreled  with  his  brother,  restored  the  crown  to  Louis,  who  im- 
mediately recalled  Judith. 

The  pope  released  her  from  her  conventical  vows,  and  she  cleared  her- 
^  by  an  oath  from  the  accusation  of  adultery  that  was  brought  against 

^^  ^33i  the  emperor  was  again  betrayed  and  deposed  by  his  children, 
although  Judith  had  exerted  herself  in  every  way,  even  by  cruelty,  to  re- 



Ninth  Ontiirj  A.  D. 


fil NGELBERGA,  Empress  of  the  West,  wife  of  Louis  IL,  emperor  and 
^S^^  king  of  Italy,  is  supposed  to  have  been  of  illustrious  birth,  though 
that  is  uncertain.  She  was  a  woman  of  courage  and  ability  ;  but 
proud,  unfeeling,  and  venal.  The  war  in  which  her  husband  was  involved 
with  the  king  of  Germany  was  especially  rendered  unfortunate  by  her  pride 
and  rapacity. 

In  874,  Angelberga  built,  at  Plaisance,  a  monastery,  which  afterwards 
became  one  of  the  most  famous  in  Italy.  After  the  death  of  Louis,  Angel- 
berga remained  at  the  convent  of  St.  Julia,  in  Brescia,  where  her  treasures 
were  deposited.  In  881,  Charles  the  Fat,  of  France,  caused  Angelberga  to 
be  taken  and  carried  prisoner  into  Germany,  lest  she  should  assist,  by 
her  wealth  and  political  knowledge,  her  daughter  Ermengarde,  who  had 
married  Boron,  king  of  Provence,  a  relative  of  Charles.  She  was  released, 
however,  through  the  intervention  of  the  pope.  It  is  not  known  when 
she  died. 

Angelberga  had  two  daughters,  Ermengarde,  who  survived  her,  and 
Gisela,  abbess  of  St.  Julia,  who  died  before  her  parents. 

Jtadltli  continued. 

tain  for  her  weak  husband  the  power  he  could  not  keep  for  himself.  After 
a  year  of  confinement,  Louis  was  again  placed  on  the  throne  ;  and  by  the 
new  division  of  the  empire,  arranged  in  839,  Judith  had  the  satisfaction  of 
seeing  her  son  placed  in  })Ossession  of  a  large  ^hare  of  those  estates  from 
which  he  had  seemed  forever  excluded. 

Louis  the  Mild  died  in  840,  and  Judith  survived  him  only  three  years. 
She  died  at  Tours. 

In  her  heart  the  mother's  ambition  was  the  predominating  power.  All 
her  efforts  were  devoted  to  securing  what  she  deemed  to  be  an  equitable 
partition  of  the  royal  patrimony. 



d.  A.  n.  9aa» 

tt)  THELFLEDA,  eldest  daughter  of  Alfred  the  Great,  and  sister  of 
\2i  Edward  L,  king  of  the  West  Saxons,  was  wife  to  Etheldred,  Earl  of 
Mercia.  She  was  of  a  masculine  temperament  and,  after  the  birth 
«>t  her  first  child,  she  made  a  vow  of  chastity  and  united  with  her  husband* 
ID  his  profession  of  arms.  She  retained  a  cordial  friendship  for  her  hus- 
liandand  together  they  performed  numerous  acts  of  munificence  and  valor. 
T(jgether  they  assisted  Alfred  in  his  wars  against  the  Danes,  whom  they 
prevented  the  Welsh  from  succoring.  Not  less  pious  than  valiant,  they 
restored  cities,  founded  abbeys,  and  protected  the  bones  of  departed  saints. 
Alter  the  death  of  her  husband,  in  912,  Ethelfleda  assumed  the  gov- 
eniment  of  Mercia  ;  and,  emulating  her  father  and  brother,  commanded 
^i*s.  fortified  towns,  and  prevented  the  Danes  from  re-settling  in  Mercia. 
Tl)en.  canning  her  victorious  arms  into  Wales,  she  compelled  the  WY^lsh, 
attcr  several  victories,  to  become  her  tributaries.  In  918  she  t(X)k  Derby 
^'>m  the  Danc^  ;  and  in  920  Leicester  and  York.  Having  become  famed 
^'•r  her  spirit  and  courage,  the  titles  of  lady  and  (pieen  were  judged  in- 
•'*<iequatf  t(»  her  merit,  and,  in  addition  to  these,  she  received  those  of  lord 
and  kinjr. 

Her  courage  and  activity  were  em|)loyed  in  the  service  of  her  coimtry 
till  her  death,  in  922,  at  Tamworth.  in  Staffordshire,  where  she  was  defend- 
'"Js' 'ijs'ainst  the  Danes.  Her  body  was  interred  in  the  porch  of  the  monas- 
l«T\«.f  St.  IVter.  in  Gloucester,  which  she  had  in  concert  with  her  husband 
*'^*^it^l     She  left  one  daughter,  Klswina. 

T^he  death  of  Kthelfleda  was  deej)ly  regretted  by  the  whole  kingdom, 
^^P^iaily  by  her  brother  Edward,  to  whom  she  proved  equally  serviceable 
in  thv  cabinet  and  in  the  field.  Ingul|)hus.  the  historian,  speaks  of 
tne  extraordinary  courage  and  other  masculine  virtues  of  this  princess, 
^nd[>ays  just  tribute  to  her  diplomatic  skill  as  well  as  to  her  martial  quali- 



Tenth  Century  A.  D. 


^K  ERBERGE,  queen  of  Louis  IV.  of  France,  was  the  daughter  of 
l^Y  Henry,  who  became  king  of  Germany  in  918.  She  married  first 
Gislebert,  Duke  of  Lorraine,  who  was  drowned  in  the  Rhine.  In 
940  she  married  Louis  IV. ,  whose  crown  was  secured  to  him  by  Hugh, 
Count  of  Paris,  and  William,  Duke  of  Normandy.  Five  years  after  her 
royal  husband  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Normans,  while  endeavoring  to 
free  himself  from  the  tutelage  of  Hugh. 

Hugh  the  Great,  Duke  of  the  Franks,  wished  to  obtain  possession  of 
him  ;  but  the  Duke  of  Normandy  consented  to  give  him  up  only  on  condi- 
tion that  Louis'  two  sons  should  become  hostages  for  their  father.  Hugh 
sent  to  demand  them  of  Gerberge,  but  she  refused,  well  knowing  that  the 
race  of  Charlemagne  would  be  entirely  destroyed  if  the  father  and  children 
were  all  prisoners.  She  sent  only  the  youngest  son  with  a  bishop  ;  so, 
Louis  not  being  set  free,  Gerberge  sent  to  demand  aid  from  her  brother 
Otho,  king  of  Germany.  Louis  was  at  length  liberated,  by  Otho*s  assist- 
ance, and  he  confided  to  Gerberge  the  defense  of  the  town  of  Rheims,  in 
which  she  shut  herself  up  with  her  troops. 

In  954  Louis  died,  and  Gerberge  exerted  herself  eflectually  to  have  her 
eldest  son  Lothairc,  although  hardly  twelve,  placed  on  his  father's  throne. 
She  and  her  brother  Bruno,  Duke  of  Lorraine,  were  appointed  regents. 
She  marched  with  her  young  son,  at  the  head  of  an  army,  and  besi^ed 
Poitiers  ;  and,  in  960,  she  retook  the  city  and  fortress  of  Dijon,  which  had 
been  treacherously  given  up  to  Robert  of  Treves,  and  had  the  traitor  be- 
headed in  the  presence  of  the  whole  army. 

Lothaire  reigned  till  986,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Louis  V. ,  th^ 
last  of   the   Carlovingian  dynasty,  who  reigned  a  single  year  under  th 
protection  of  Hugh  Capet.     Louis   V.  was  poisoned  either  by  his  moth^ 
or  his  wife,   both  of  whom  were  dissolute  women,  and  was  succeeded  t — ^ 
Hugh,  the  founder  of  the  Capetian  dynasty. 



RaproducBd  frnni  a  painting  by  Edward 
Richtar,  a  Parisian  genre  and  portrait  painter, 
The  "  Jbtvbbs  of  MornccD/'  "At  the  Fnrtune- 
Teller's,"  "SalDme,"  and  the  "  Bazaar  in  Tunis," 
by  the  same  artist,  have  been  received  with 
much  favor. 






F'KOM   CAM)  TO  llOO  A.   D. 

^  HE  difficalty  of  tracinj^  any  wt-ll  (kfincd  line  of  development  during 
\  J  this  period  is  very  well  recognized  by  all  comj>etent  authorities. 
T  This  is  not  difficult  to  understand  when  the  chaotic  political  condi- 
tion of  Eun>pe  is  taken  into  accoiuit,  f<j]]owin^  closely  upon  the  disruption 
of  the  Roman  F-mpire,  and  extendinj^  down  to  the  time  of  the  first  Crusiide. 
Nevertheless,  a  number  of  elements  were  j)res(iit  and  j)Otent  in  giving 
woman  whatever  distinctive  impress  she  may  hav<-  had  during  this  sterile 
period, —  sterile,  it  must  be  remembered,  witli  nsptct  to  a  highly  organized 
social  order.  The  most  j>rominent  of  these  elements  or  forces  were  Chris- 
tianity, feudalism,  and  chivalry,  in  their  actual  relations  witli  domestic  life  ; 
and  in  order  to  measure  the  peculiar  influence  of  thes<-  institutions,  it  is 
desiraUe  to  invite  attention  to  them  separately. 

From  the  fall  of  the  Roman  Kmj)ire  till  the  death  of  Charlemagne,  A.  IX 
814,  various  attempts  were  made  to  re-establish  the  emj>ire,  but  the  warring 
of  i)etty  (iermanic  kings  and  the  conflicting  ambitions  of 
rival  aspirants  were  very  geiurally  effective  in  defeating  its 
restoration.  During  this  ])eriod.  a  great  revolution  had  taken 
place  in  the  condition,  social  and  political,  <)t  thr  dominions  of  the  Franks. 
The  dynasty  of  the  Merovingians,  by  its  own  discordant  character  and 
weakness,  had  fallen,  and  given  way  tt>  ant)ther  race  of  kings.  Charle- 
magne gave  to  the  royalty  of  the  Franks  a  new  character  :  he  jn^ssi-ssed  in 
a  high  degree  the  Roman  spirit,  and  for  a  while  In-  brought  back  into  exist- 
ence the  Roman  Kmi)ire,  with  all  its  powerful  centralizati(»n.  Hut  Charle- 
magne*s  influence  and  iK>wer  of  government  belonged  to  himself,  and  dis- 
appeared after  his  death,  and  thus  this  event  was  followed  very  tjuickly  by 
utter  disorganization  throughout  his  va^t  dominions,  rnder  the  terrible 
invasions  of  the  Northmen,  which  soon  follow r«|.  ib.t  only  all  »  entral  pt>WfT, 
Init  in  a  manner  all  power  whatever.  disa])|>eart  d. 

Out  of  this  confusion  aroM*  an  entirely  new   >t.ite  of  society,  which  we 
know  as  the  feudal  system. 



Under  feudalism,  alf  central  power  had  become  paralyzed,  and  the  great 

lords,  with  their  vast  territories,  had  by  the  existing  system  no  armed  force 

to  defend  them.     Under  these  circumstances  they  introduced 

*"  *       a  new  method  of  distributing"  their  lands,  which  was  by  grant- 
System  ^  ^  ^ 

ing  it  hereditarily  on  the  condition  that  the  tenant  was  bound 
not  only  to  cultivate  the  portion  of  land  he  held,  but  to  perform  certain 
military  services  according  to  its  extent ;  or,  in  other  words,  he  was  bound 
to  furnish  to  his  superior  lord  in  time  of  war  so  many  armed  men  for  so 
many  acres. 

Touching  the  bond  of  feudalism,  M.  Sismondi  makes  the  following 
observations  :  — 

*  *  The  essence  of  the  feudal  bond  was  the  military  service  ;  the  vassal 
cr^g^«^gc<i  himself  for  the  defense  of  his  lord,  towards  and  against  all,  to  ren- 
der fhis  service,  either  alone,  or  with  a  greater  or  lesser  number  of  knights 
and  followers  in  arms,  according  to  the  dignity  of  his  fief ;  this  service  was 
to  last  during  a  number  of  determined  days.  On  the  other  hand,  the  lord 
bound  himself  so  completely  to  protect  his  vassal,  that  he  engaged  himself 
to  entire  restitution  if  the  vassal  was  ejected  from  his  fief.  To  these  engage- 
ments, which  formed  the  essence  of  the  feudal  contract,  others  were  joined, 
the  nature  of  which  seemed  more  chivalric,  and  the  observation  of  which  was 
likewise  confided  to  the  guarantee  of  the  point  of  honor.  Thus  the  vassal 
was  bound,  if  his  lord  lost  his  horse  in  battle,  to  give  him  his  own  in 
exchange  ;  he  was  to  cover  him  with  liis  body  in  danger,  to  deliver  himself 
up  to  prison  for  him,  or  in  hostage,  to  keep  his  secrets,  to  reveal  to  him  the 
machinations  of  his  enemies,  to  defend,  in  fine,  his  honor,  and  that  of  all 
the  members  of  his  family.'' 

This  system  brought  with  it  new  institutions  and  new  forms  of  life. 
Under  it  the  landed  aristocracy  assumed  and  exercised,  each  with  his  own 

domains,  sovereign  power,  legislative,  judicial,  and  military. 
instltntions  and  thus  the  state  was  transformed    into  a  number  of  little 

sovereignties.  The  new  lords  of  the  land  formed  alliances 
among  themselves,  or  made  war  upon  each  other  at  their  own  will,  and 
their  whole  aim  was  to  keep  themselves  in  a  prominent  state  of  defense. 
The  old  residences,  which  had  consisted  in  a  confused  mass  of  buildings 



with  little  or  no  capability  of.  defense,   were  now  abandoned,   and  their 

places  were  supplied  by  almost  impregnable  fortresses.     The  castle,  indeed, 

is  become,  in  a  manner,  the  symlx)!  or  imajje  of  feudalism. 

In  this  fortri*ss,  placed  at  a  distance  from  all  social  life  without,  the  lord 

and  his  lady  lived  in  a  complete  state  of  isolation.     Without  occupation  in 

this  solitary  alnule,  lifi-  at  home  must  have  lx*en  so  weari- 
rtigtl^       some  that  the  jijreat  desire  <if  thr  male  part  of  the  household 

would  hf  to  be  absent  from  it  :  and  hence  we  find  the  jK)ssess- 
orsof  fiefs  passing  ihi-ir  tinu-  on  tht-  hi^h  road,  in  adventures  of  every  kind, 
wars,  plunderinjjs,  and  anythinj;  which  jiromised  violent  activity.  The 
coarseness  and  ferocity  which  arose  out  of  this  life  threw  a  new  inifiediment 
in  the  way  of  social  and  intellectual  improvement,  and  these  early  ag^es  of 
feudalism  were,  indeed,  aj^es  of  darkness.  Vet,  as  one  of  the  ablest  of  our 
modern  historians  has  observed,  "at  the  sune  time  that  castles  opposed  so 
strong  a  barrier  to  civilization,  whih*  it  had  so  much  difticiilty  in  penetrat- 
inj(  into  them,  they  were  in  a  certain  resj)ecl  a  princij)le  of  civilization  ; 
they  j)rotected  the  d<'\eloj)nienl  of  M-iiliments  and  manners  which  have 
acted  a  powerful  aii<l  salutary  part  in  modern  >ocieiy  ;  everyl)ody  knows 
that  domotic  life,  the  >j)irit  of  family,  and  particularly  the  condition  of 
woman  in  nn»dern  luirop<*  are  highly  (le\<lop<-d. 

"Amonj^the  causes  which    ha\<' contributed   to  this  dexelopment.   we 
must  reckon  life  in  the  castle,  the  situation  of  the  possessor  of  the  fief  in  his 

domains,  a>  one  of  the      \e\er.  in  an v  other  form 
***  *        of  societv,    lia>    the  familv  been    reduced   to   il»^  most   simple 

expiession.  tin-  husband,  the  \\if<  ,  .md  the  childnn.  an<i  In-en 
so  bound,  so  pre>sed  tov^tilur.  separattd  from  all  other  poutiful  and  rival 
relations.  In  tin-  varioii>  nther  statr-*  i»t  siuieiy.  thr  heatl  ••!  the  f.imily. 
without  quillini:  honn  .  nunuron>  ••<'ruj)ali«»n>  and  di\er>ion>.  which 
drew  him  from  tin-  int«  rinr  nf  hi>  dwt  llinu.  and  prevented  it  from  In-inj^  the 
center  f>f  his  lif<-.  llir  r»>ntrarv  wa^  th<'  ease  in  f«u(lal  s<u  iely.  So  lonjj  as 
he  remaine<l  in  his  i  astir,  the  po>MSM»r  of  the  fief  li\eil  there  with  \\\>  wile 
and  chihlrm.  ahnM>t  hi^  unly  e<jnals,  his  ttnly  intimate  and  jM-rmanent  com- 
pany. This  \h  inv:  «»blij^r<l  to  li\«*  habitnallv  in  the  boM)m  of  Iun  family  with 
his  wife  and  rliildnn  ir.ive  rise  to  domestic  ideas  of  j^re.U  influence." 



Moreover,  when  the  possessor  of  the  fief  left  his  castle  to  seek  war  and 
adventures,  his  wife  remained  in  it,  and  in  a  situation  wholly  different 
from  that  in  which  women  had  hitherto  always  been  placed.  She  remained 
mistress,  chatelaine,  representing  her  husband,  charged  in  his  absence 
with  the  defense  and  honor  of  the  fief.  This  elevated  and  almost  sovereign 
position,  in  the  very  bosom  of  domestic  life,  often  gave  the  women  of 
the  feudal  epoch,  a  dignity,  courage,  virtue,  and  a  distinction,  which 
they  had  not  displayed  under  other  circumstances,  and  contributed,  no 
doubt,  to  their  moral  development,  and  to  the  general  progress  of  their 

This  is  not  all.     The  importance  of  children  in  the  feudal  mansion,  of 

the   eldest   son   more    especially,  was  much  greater   than    anywhere    else. 

This  broueht  forth  not  only  natural  affection,  and  the  desire 

to  transmit  his  property  to  his  children,  but  also  the  desire  to 

transmit  to  them  that  power,  that  superior  position,  that  sovereignty  in- 
herent in  the  domain.  The  eldest  son  of  the  lord  was,  in  the  eyes  of  his 
father  and  all  his  people,  a  prince,  an  heir  presumptive,  the  depositor>'  of 
the  glory  of  a  dynasty. 

So  that  the  weakness  as  well  as  the  good  sentiments  of  human  nature, 
domestic  pride  as  well  as  affection,  combined  to  give  the  spirit  of  the  family 
more  energy  and  power. 

Add  to  this  the  influence  of  Christian  ideas,  which  we  have  merely 
noted  in  passing,  and  it  may  be  comprehended  how  this  life  of  the  castle, 
this  solitary,  gloomy,  hard  situation,  was  favorable  to  the  development  of 
domestic  life,  and  to  that  elevation  of  the  condition  of  woman  which 
holds  so  great  a  place  in  the  history  of  civilization. 

As  a  wife,  at  the  time  of  the  fullest  development  of  the  feudal  system, 
woman  had  become,  instead  of  the  slave  and  property  of  her  husband,  his 
AtfTance     ^Q"*^^  *^"^^  "^  most  of  the  relations  of   life,  an  independent 
of  agent.      She    had    become    capable    of    holding    independent 

Woman  pQ^y^^p  ^f  \^^y  own,  which  was  something  more  than  reflecting^ 
that  of  her  husband.  .She  was  now  an  heiress,  carrying  with  her  as  heir 
dower,  castles,  and  domains,  and  provinces,  with  numerous  vassals  ;  shc^ 
could  be  guardian  of  the   manor,   regent  of  the  state,  and  as  such,   sign 



deeds  and  share  in  all  obligations  imposed  by  peace  or  war.  Many  of  the 
great  ladies  of  the  middle  ages  ruled  over  extensive  territories,  and  took  a 
ver>'  active  part  in  political  affairs.  In  the  household  her  position  had  been 
equally  advanced,  and  she  was  looked  upon  with  a  different  kind  of  respect. 
Instead  of  serving  the  wine  to  the  guests,  she  sat  at  the  table,  and  hers  was 
the  place  of  honor,  by  the  side  of  her  lord.  When  her  lord  was  absent, 
the  lady  of  the  house  was  at  the  head  of  the  board.  The  lady  of  the 
castle,  too,  had  the  direction  and  control  of  the  whole  family,  which  was 
often  very  numerous,  and  entailed  large  responsibility. 

Under  these  circumstances,  there  arose  a  peculiar  form  of  sentiment 
between  the  two  sexes,  one  of  which  had  not  been  known  in  the  same  guise 

The  lady  of  the  casde,  as  the  head  of  the  household,  represented  wo- 
mankind in  full  consciousness  of  independence  and  self-consciousness,  arid 
this   consciousness    had    been    communicated    to     the    rest 
ciilTalry     ^^  ^^^^   ^^^  within  the  castle  walls.      When  woman    obtains 
this  position,  it  immediately  makes  itself  felt  upon  the  other 
sex,  and  under  it  the  harshness  and  ferocity  which  were  naturally  among 
the  first  characteristics  of  feudalism  were  gradually  exchanged  for  elegance 
of  manners  and  sentiments  which  were  new  to  society.      Out  of  this  state 
^>i  thinpi  arose  two  words  which  will  never  he  forgotten.      These  words  are 
fouriesy  and  chivalty.     Courtesy  meant  simply  the  manners  and  sentiments 
*hich  prevailed  in  the  feudal  household  :  and  was,  above  everything,  that 
*Hich  distinguished  the  society  inside  the  castle  from  that  without,  from  the 
l«ople  of  the  country,  and  it  is  universally  allowed  that  it  was  the  influence 
*>^  the*  female  sex  which  fostered  it.      Chivalry  arose  from   the  same  source, 
"Utiook  on  bolder  forms  and  addressed  itself  to  a  somewhat  different  task. 
ih«  knight  learned  to  look  upon  woman  as  his  patron  and  mistress  and 
"pon  himself  as  her  servant,  and  as  bound  to  offer  himself  in  her  defense, 
l^ut  though  all  the  princij)les  of  chivalry  and  gallantry  were  universally 
acknowledged  and  talked  of.   the    things  themselves  sank   into  forms  and 
'tatters  o|  show  and  ostentation, —  to  the  lonrnamenl  and  the  jonst, —  and 
"U  iheir  greatest  impress  on  romance  and  letters. 

Feudal  society  w;is,  in  comparison  to  what  had  gone  before  it,  polished 



and  brilliant,  and  presented  many  great  qualities,  but  under  the  surface  it 
Morals  ^^^  ^^^  ^"^^"^  being  pure.  The  whole  society  in  the  castle 
and  mixed  together  on  something  like  a  footing  of  equality,  and 
Amusements^,  1^^^^  the  lord  of  the  castle  appointed  one  of  the  young 
bachelors  to  serve  one  of  his  daughters,  it  might  and  according  to  the 
romances,  sometimes  did,  end  in  marriage.  During  a  considerable  portion 
of  the  day,  the  inmates  were  engaged  in  playing  together  at  different 
amusements  and  games,  and  we  can  perceive  in  the  descriptions  given,  that 
these  were  often  suggestive  of  anything  but  chaste  feelings,  while  the 
language  in  common  use  among  both  sexes  was  far  from  delicate.  All 
these  were  combined  with  an  extreme  intimacy  between  the  two  sexes,  who 
commonly  visited  each  other  in  their  chambers  or  bedrooms.  Thus  we 
may  easily  understand  how  all  these  customs  would  join  in  giving  great 
license  of  tone  and  character  to  female  society  during  the  feudal  period. 

It  has  been  stated  that  feudalism  raised  woman  to  a  higher  place  in 
domestic  life  ;  that  whereas  before  she  was  in  a  state  of  subjection,  under 
BieTation  ^^^  feudal  system  she  exercised  independent  power.  Un- 
of  doubtedly,  as  a  wife,  woman  was  a  gainer.     The  mantle  of 

*^*^'^*^*  authority  with  which  her  husband  was  invested,  fell  upon  her 
whenever  he  was  temporarily  absent.  The  management  of  a  feudal  house- 
hold certainly  gave  the  lady  of  the  house  a  dignity  and  imposed  upon  her 
responsibilities  which  secured  her  respect  and  gave  her  freedom  of  action. 
She  was  called  upon  to  direct  a  little  army  of  subordinates,  and  was  her 
husband's  partner  and  equal.  But  this  improvement  in  the  status  of 
woman  is  not  discernible  except  in  the  governing  classes.  The  women 
without  title,  rank,  position,  wealth,  the  women  of  everyday  life,  profited 
little.  They  shared  in  the  subjection  of  their  fathers,  brothers,  and  hus- 
bands, and  they  enjoyed  none  of  the  privileges  which  the  feudal  system 
conferred  on  their  more  highly  placed  sisters.  In  a  state  of  society  where 
the  mass  of  the  people  were  in  a  dependent  position,  it  is  not  likely  that 
any  special  freedom  would  be  granted  to  or  even  claimed  by  women. 
Under  feudalism  there  was  no  sort  of  independence  possible  to  women  who 
were  not  born  to  wealth  or  rank. 

Women  were  under  a  twofold  sovereignty  —  that  of  the  feudal  lord  and 



of  their  male  relatives.     No  woman  in  any  position  of  life  could  be  said  to 
be  a  free  agent. 
ilnto  ^^  ^^^  were  a  great   heiress,  she  was  disposed  of  in  mar- 

riage as  best  suited  the  king  and  his  council  without  regard 
to  her  wishes.  In  the  case  of  a  vassal's  daughter,  the  consent  of  the  feudal 
lord  must  be  obtained  to  her  marriage.  Every  tenant  paid  a  sum  of  money 
to  the  lord  on  the  marriage  of  his  daughter,  and  this  tax  was  even  levied  in 
the  case  of  granddaughters.  A  couple  could  not  be  betrothed  without  the 
permission  of  their  feudal  lord,  and  if  they  failed  to  obtain  his  consent  they 
were  subject  to  a  fine.  A  woman  living  on  the  estate  of  a  feudal  lord  was 
regarded  as,  in  a  manner,  his  property.  If  she  married  a  stranger  and  left 
the  manor,  the  lord  was  entitled  to  compensation,  as  being  deprived  of  part 
of  his  *  *  live  stock.  * ' 

Powerful  as  was  the  Church  in  these  ages,  it  was  not  able  to  protect 

women  outside  the  shade  of  the  cloister.     And  it  will  be  readily  understood 

PoaiUoB      ^^'^  great  was  the  influence  of  the  priest  in  an  age  when  the 

•rtlM       mass  of  the  people  were  so  little  able  to  think  and  judge  for 

^**'*'"       themselves,   in  an  age  when  the  supernatural    encompassed 

<ia3y  life  with  terrors,  when  the  common  laws  of  nature  were  dim  mysteries, 

^hcn  dise;ise  and  misfortune  were  ascribed  to  the  malevole'nce   of  witches 

•md  evil  spirits.     The  Church  was  the  supreme  arbiter,  and  to  question  her 

deatx-s  was  to  incur  the  risk  of  eternal  misery. 

The  |X)wers  of  evil  could  only  be  exorcised  by  holy  water  and  priestly 
iid.  and  lapses  into  sin  were  atoned  for  by  substantial  otTerings.  It  was 
^^y  to  persuade  women,  always  more  suscc|)tibli-  than  nu-n  to  the  emo- 
tional and  imaginative  side  of  religion,  that  their  drranis  and  fancies  were 
di\ine  warnings.      And  hence  they  fell  easy  })rey  to  ecclesiastical  tyranny. 

But  if  the  Church  tyrannized  over  tin-  people  and  took  advantage  of 
their  ijrnorance,  it  was  a  great  uplifting  and  civilizing  power  in  their  lives. 

But  lor  the  Church  the  middle  ages  would  have  been  one  dark  night  of 
unulumine<l  barbarism.  The  Church  summed  up  in  herself  all  that  existed 
'•f  knowledge  and  culture.  It  was  the  symbol  of  order,  j)rogre^s,  and  leani- 
Jn^.  In  time  of  war  it  was  a  haven  of  peace.  It  wa^  the  Church  that 
♦-rubied  women  to  live  secure,  sheltered  lives  in  the  midst  of  turmoils  and 



danger.     It  was  the  guardian  of  the  people's  consciences,  and  possessed 
over  them  a  power  of  life  and  death. 

Looked  at  from  a  lighter  side,  the  Church  was  a  potent  factor  in  every- 
day life.  Its  festivals  were  one  of  the  chief  recreations  of  the  people.  To 
ciiarGii  and  women  especially,  whose  diversions  were  fewer  than  those  of 
BTeryday  nien,  the  feast  days,  with  their  processions  and  ceremonials, 
were  welcome  excitements.  In  the  services  of  the  Church, 
woman  found  an  outlet  for  the  gratification  of  her  aesthetic  sense,  which 
nothing  else  afforded.  If  the  main  features  of  social  life  in  this  period  be 
remembered,  the  sordidness  of  the  dwellings,  the  absence  of  everything 
beyond  the  barest  necessities  in  the  majority  of  homes,  the  lack  of  indoor 
recreations,  and  of  all  the  resources  of  modern  times  afforded  by  the  means 
of  locomotion,  it  will  not  appear  strange  that  the  Church  as  a  social  force 
should  have  wielded  such  power. 

After  the  founding  of  the  Benedictine  order,  in  530,  regular  nunneries 
were  also  founded,  and  the  conventical  system  spread  rapidly  in  every  part 

of  Europe.     This  created  a  new  interest  for  women  of  all 

System  ranks  and  conditions.  It  is  related  in  the  annals  of  the  Eng- 
lish Heptarchy  that  no  fewer  than  thirty  kings  and  queens 
resigned  their  crowns  and  rank  to  live  and  die  in  religious  houses.  The 
veneration  in  which  they  were  held,  however,  soon  by  its  excess  engendered 
abuses.  As  numbers  of  the  feudalry,  when  past  the  age  of  enterprise,  or 
in  ill  health,  or  disgusted  with  the  world,  took  refuge  in  convents,  and  there 
ended  their  days,  it  was  usual  for  them  to  leave  large  bequests,  and  even 
give  their  whole  property,  for  the  maintenance  of  these  institutions,  and, 
when  nunneries  were  established,  numbers  of  noble  women  chose  a  clois- 
tered life.  From  these  and  other  causes,  a  tide  of  wealth  poured  in,  which 
caused  a  total  alteration  in  the  proper  character  of  a  system  commenced 
with  the  most  self-satisfying  asceticism. 

It  is  difficult  to  estimate  the  exact  result  of  the  influence  of  the  estab- 
lishment of  monasticism  upon  the  character  and  position  of  women.      In  the 
Influence  of  ^^^^'^'^  monasteries  of  England  the  two  sexes  lived  together 
Monasticism  in  the  same  building,  though  they  were  bound  to  strict  con- 
tinence and  chastity.     Corruption  however,  soon  introduced 


itself.  With  the  latter  part  of  the  eighth  century,  the  nuns  became  pro- 
verbially dissolute  in  their  character,  and  royal  wives  and  mistresses  were 
very  frecjuently  sought  in  the  convents.  Hut,  on  the  other  hand,  it  was  in 
the  nunneries  that  the  education  of  j^irls  of  all  classes  was  carried  on.  Con- 
vent schools  were  the  only  schools  either  for  rich  or  j)oor,  and  the  "sis- 
ters*' the  only  women  able  to  qualify  themselves  to  become  instructors. 
The  nuns,  again,  were  the  chief  dispensers  of  charity.  Their  duties  were 
by  no  means  confined  to  the  cloister  ;  but  they  went  about  among  the 
I>eople,  teaching,  advising,  consoling,  and  discoursing  on  subjects  with 
which  convent  sistrrs  are  supposed  to  have  litth*  acfjuaintance. 

It  is  fre<iuently  asserted,  and  with  much  force,  that  when  the  clergy 
lalK>re<l  to  emancij)ate  the  female  sex,  it  was  not  williout  self-interest.  They 
had  seen  how  the  gentleness  and  pious  sj)irit  <>f  the  sex  had  assisted  more 
than  anything  else  in  the  early  j)rogress  of  Christianity.  They  sought, 
therefore,  to  substitute  their  own  influence  ovrr  woman  for  that  of  the 
family.  The-  women  were  drawn  away  frf >m  earthly  marriages  to  be,  as  they 
expressed  it,  married  to  Christ  ;  that  is,  to  enter  the  monasteries,  and  be- 
come inms.  The  religious  houses  were  thus  filled  with  women  who  had 
either  sejjarated  from  their  husbands,  or  refused  to  accept  the  husbands 
designed  fur  them  by  their  fathers,  usually  under  the  pnnection,  if  not  under 
the  encouragement,  of  the  ecclesiastics. 

It  a|)j),-ars  that  a  man  could  divorce  himself  almost  at  pleasure  ;  and  if 
he  and  his  wife  aj^re^-d  to  separate,  each  was  ;rt  liberty  to  marry  again  with- 

out  publidv  as^ieninu  anv  cause  for  their  separation. 

This  view  of  marriage  was  attributable  very  largely  to  the 
influence  and  j)re(t'pls  of  the  Roman  law.  which  continued  to  persist 
throughout  the  Middlr  AjL^iS  as  a  IhkIv  of  mtv  j>receilents. 
.No  legal  j)roer>s  was  nMpiirfd.  although  the  abuse  of  tlu-  j)(»wer  of  divorce 
was  sometimes  punishe<l.  Not  until  the  time  of  Justinian  did  divorce 
by  ctuisenl  of  both  parties  become  subjtet  to  any  restrictions.  This 
famous  law  inakrr  wa^  instrumental  in  counteracting^  numerous  marital 
abuses,  witii  a  \  lew  nuiinly  to  jmblic  ilecorum  an<l  the  comfort  of 
individual^.  h  is  a  remarkable  illustration  of  the  Roman  view  of 
marriage  that,   in   view   of  what  must  have  Ix.'en  the  great  social  evil   of 



capricious  di\orce,  the  right  of  either  party  to  dissolve  the  marriage  was 
never  successhilly  questioned. 

The  matter  of  divorce  subsequently  passed  into  the  hands  of  the 
bishops,  who  not  only  assumed  the  right  of  giving  their  sanction  to  such 
separation,  but  of  annulling  a  marriage  at  their  own  will  for  any  cause  they 
chose  to  assign.  A  very  small  cause  of  dissatisfaction  was  oftentimes  con- 
sidered a  sufficient  reason  for  ecclesiastical  interference.  But  still  from 
the  pure  Roman  to  the  canon  law  the  change  was  great  indeed.  The 
ceremony  became  sacred,  the  tie  indissoluble.  Those  whom  God  hath 
joined  let  not  man  put  asunder,  was  the  first  text  of  the  new  law  of 
marriage,  and  against  such  a  prohibition  social  convenience  and  experi- 
ence pleaded  with  much  less  hope  of  success.  While  marriage  once  created 
became  indissoluble,  the  impediments  to  marriage  also  multiplied.  The  tie 
of  consanguinity  was  extended,  while  the  power  of  dispensing  with  disa- 
bilities and  the  power  of  annulling  marriage  on  the  ground  of  such  disabilities 
became  more  and  more  the  peculiar  prerogative  of  the  Church. 

So  the  Church,  while  with  one  hand  it  raised  woman  from  the  abasement 
into  which  she  had  been  cast  by  paganism,  lowered  her  with  the  other.  It 
was  ever  careful  to  impress  upon  her  its  sense  of  her  inferior  status.  The 
higher  conception  of  womanhood  was  an  ideal  only,  a  theme  for  poets,  a 
dream  of  saints  ;  the  lower  conception  was  the  guide,  the  basis  of  everyday 
teaching.  It  was  this  lower  conception,  which,  in  different  ways,  deter- 
mined woman's  position  in  the  social  fabric  of  European  life,  until  the 
dawn  of  a  new  light  many  centuries  after. 









1100  TO  1500  A.  D. 




A.  D.  1083-1148. 


»H  & :  C4- - 

PNNA  COMNENA,  daughter  of  the   Greek  emperor  Alexius  Com- 
nenus,  flourished   about   the   year  1118.     She   renounced   in   her 
youth  the  amusements  and  occupations  of  her  sex,  to  deliver  up 
hersdf  to  a  passionate  fondness  for  study  and  letters. 

After  acquiring  a  large  acquaintance  with  history  and  belles-lettres,  she 
made  marked  progress  in  philosophy,  notwithstanding  the  obscurity  in 
which  it  was,  in  those  times,  involved.  She  later  employed  her  acquire- 
ments in  composing  a  history',  in  fifteen  volumes,  of  the  life  and  reign  of 
her  father, —  a  work  which  she  entitled  The  Alexiad ;  eij^ht  of  these  books 
were  puUished  by  Haeschelius  in  1610  ;  and  the  whole  fifteen  with  a  Latin 
version  in  165 1.  In  1670  the  learned  Charles  du  Fresne  published  another 
edition  with  historical  and  philological  notes. 

Anna  Comnena  has  been  accused  of  partiality  in  this  work,  in  which 
tbe  actions  of  her  father  appear  to  greater  advantage  than  in  the  writings  of 
the  Latin  historians,  who,  it  is  not  impossible,  might  have  clierishcd  prej- 
udices s^inst  a  Greek  emperor.  The  trutli  is  probably  t(^  be  found  by 
^kii^  medium  ground.     The  Journal  drs  Sai'iDis  thus  speaks  of  Anna  in 

^^75:  — 

"The  elegance  with  which  Anna  Comnena  has.  in  htteen  books,  de- 
^1)«1  the  life  and  actions  of  her  fathcT,  and  the  strong  and  elo(juent 
"^nner  in  which  she  has  set  them  off,  are  so  much  above  tlie  ordinary 
capadty  of  women,  as  almost  to  excite  a  doubt  wluiher  >he  were  indeed 
^^aulhorof  the  work.  It  is  impossible  to  read  the  descriptions  she  has 
pven  of  countries,  rivers,  mountains,  towns,  sieges,  battles,  tlie  retleetions 
*he  makes  upon  particular  events,  the  judgment  slie  j)asses  u}>on  human 
actions,  with  her  digressions  on  various  occasions,  without  |)erceiving  tluit 
snt  must  have  been  skilled  in  grammar,  rhetoric,  philosophy,  and  mathe 
^tics;  nay,  e\'en  that  she  must  have  j)ossessed  some  knowledi^e  nf  law, 
P«>"^cs,  and  divinity  —  studies  very  rare  and  uncommon  in  her  sex." 



A.  D.  1101-1164. 



aELOISE,  who  has  been  immortalized  by  Rousseau,  as  well  as  ren- 
dered famous  by  her  unfortunate  love  for  Abelard,  was  born  about 
iioi,  and  died  in  1164.  Her  parents  are  unknown,  but  she  lived 
with  her  uncle,  Fulbert,  a  canon  of  the  cathedral  of  Paris.  Her  childhood 
was  passed  in  the  convent  of  Argenteuil,  but,  as  soon  as  she  was  old  enough, 
she  returned  to  her  uncle,  who  taught  her  to  speak  and  write  in  Latin, 
then  the  language  used  in  literary  and  polite  society.  She  is  also  said  to 
have  understood  Greek  and  Hebrew.  To  this  education,  very  uncommon 
at  that  time,  Heloise  added  great  beauty,  and  refinement,  and  dignity  of 
manner  ;  so  that  her  fame  soon  spread  beyond  the  walls  of  the  cloister, 
throughout  the  whole  kingdom. 

Just  at  this  time,  Pierre  Abelard,  who  had  already  made  himself  ver>' 
celebrated  as  a  rhetorician,  came  to  found  a  new  school  in  that  art  in  Paris, 
where  the  originality  of  his  principles,  his  eloquence,  and  his  great  physical 
strength  and  beauty  made  a  deep  sensation.  Here  he  saw  Heloise,  and 
commenced  an  acquaintance  with  her  by  letter  ;  but,  impatient  to  know 
her  more  intimately,  he  proposed  to  Fulbert  that  he  should  receive  him 
into  his  house,  which  was  near  Abelard' s  school.  Fulbert  was  avaricious, 
and  also  desirous  of  having  his  niece  more  thoroughly  instructed,  and 
these  two  motives  induced  him  to  consent  to  Abelard' s  proposal,  and  to 
request  him  to  give  lessons  in  his  art  to  Heloise.  He  even  gave  Abelard 
permission  to  use  physical  punishment  towards  his  niece,  if  she  should 
prove  rebellious. 

**  I  cannot,"  says  Abelard,  '*  cease  to  be  astonished  at  the  simplicity  of 
Fulbert  ;  I  was  as  much  surprised  as  if  he  had  placed  a  lamb  in  the  power 
of  a  hungry  wolf.     Heloise  and  I,  under  pretext  of  study,  gave  ourselves 
wholly  to  love  ;  and  the  solitude  that  love  seeks,  our  studies  procured  for 
us.     Books  were  open  before  us  ;  but  we  spoke  oftener  of  love  than  phi- 
losophy, and  kisses  came  more  readily  from  our  lips  than  words." 

The  canon  was  the  last  to  perceive  this  intimacy,  although  he  was  often 



told  of  it,  and  heard  daily  the  songs  that  Abelard  composed  for  Heloise 
sung  through  the  streets.  When  he  did  discover  the  truth,  he  was  deeply 
incensed,  and  sent  Abelard  from  the  house.  But  he  contrived  to  return, 
and  carr>'  off  Heloise  to  Palais,  in  Brittany,  his  native  country.  Here  she 
gave  birth  to  a  son,  surnamed  Astrolabe  from  his  beauty,  who  passed  his 
life  in  the  obscurity  of  a  monastery. 

The  flight  of   Heloise  enraged  Fulbert  to  the   highest  degree  ;  but  he 
was  afraid  to  act  openly  against  Abelard,  lest  his  niece,  whom  he  still  loved, 
might  be  made  to  suffer  in  retaliation.     At  length  Abelard,  taking  compas- 
sion on  his  grief,  sent  to  him,  implored  his  forgiveness,  and  offered  to  marry 
Heloise,  if  the  union  might  be  kept  secret,  so  that  his  reputation  as  a  relig- 
ious man  should  not  suffer.     Fulbert  consented  to  this,  and  Abelard  went 
to  Heloise  for  that  purpose  ;  but  Heloise,  unwilling  to  diminish  the  future 
fame  of  Abelard,  by  marriage,  which  must  be  a  restraint  upon  him,  refused 
to  listen  to  him.     She  quoted  the  precepts  and  the  example  of  all  learned 
men,  sacred  and  profane,  to  prove  to  him  that  he  ought  to  remain  free  and 
untrammeled.     She  also  warned  him  that   her   uncle's  reconciliation  was 
loo  easily  obtained,  and  that  it  was  but  a  feint  to  entrap  him  more  surely. 
But  Abelard  was  resolute  and  Heloise  returned  to  Paris.     There  they  were 
s^f>n  after  married. 

FuUxfrt  did  not  keep  his  promise  of  secrecy,  but  spoke  openly  of  the 
n^rriage,  concerning  which,  when  she  heard  of  it,  a  protest  came  from 
Hdoise  that  it  had  never  taken  place.  This  made  lur  uncle  treat  her  so 
<^elly,  that  Abelard,  either  to  protect  her  from  his  violence,  or  to  prove 
^hatihe  announcement  of  the  marriage  was  false,  took  her  himself  to  the 
<^'nvent  of  Argenteuil,  where  he  ordered  her  to  take  the  veil. 

Twelve  years  passed  without  Heloise  ever  having  mentioned  the  name 
"^Mxlard.  She  became  prioress  of  Argenteuil,  aiul  subsequently  lived  a 
''•i<^' of  complete  retirement.  Abelard,  hearing  of  her  homeless  situation,  left 
Brituny  and  went  to  place  Heloise  in  the  little  oratory  of  the  I^iraclete, 
which  had  been  founded  by  him.  Here  Heloise  exerted  herself  to  the 
*^^n^t  to  build  up  a  convent,  and  was  n  warded  with  unusual  success. 

She  rarely   appeared  in  public,    hut  devoted  lierself  almost  wholly  to 
prayer  and  meditation.     She  died  May  17,  1 164. 




Twelfth  Century  A.  D. 


HE  knights  who  had  returned  from  the  Holy  Land  spoke  with  enthu- 
siasm of  a  Countess  of  Tripoli,  who  had  extended  to  them  the  most 
generous  hospitality,  and  whose  grace  and  beauty  equaled  her 
virtue.  Geoffrey  Rudel,  a  gentleman  of  Blieux,  in  Provence,  and  one  of 
those  who  were  presented  to  Frederick  Barbarossa  in  1154,  hearing  this 
account,  fell  deeply  in  love  with  her  without  having  seen  her,  and  prevailed 
upon  one  of  his  friends,  Bertrand  d'Allaman,  a  troubadour  like  himself,  to 
accompany  him  to  the  Levant. 

In  II 62  he  quitted  the  court  of  England,  whither  he  had  been  con- 
ducted by  Geoffrey,  the  brother  of  Richard  L,  and  embarked  for  the  Holy 
Land.  On  his  voyage  he  was  attacked  by  a  severe  illness,  and  had  lost  the 
power  of  speech  when  he  arrived  at  the  port  of  Tripoli.  The  countess, 
being  informed  that  a  celebrated  poet  was  dying  of  love  for  her  on  board  a 
vessel  which  was  entering  the  roads,  visited  him  on  shipboard,  took  him  by 
the  hand,  and  attempted  to  cheer  his  spirits. 

Rudel,  wc  are  assured,  recovered  his  speech  sufficiently  to  thank  the 
countess  for  her  humanity,  and  to  declare  his  passion,  when  his  expressions 
of  gratitude  were  silenced  by  the  convulsions  of  death. 

He  was  buried  at  Tripoli,  beneath  a  tomb  of  porphyry,  which  the 
countess  raised  to  his  memory,  with  an  Arabic  inscription. 

The  transcribed  verses,  "On  Distant  Love,"  which  he  composed  pre- 
vious to  this  voyage,  began  thus  :  — 

**  Angry  and  sad  shall  be  my  way, 

If  I  behold  not  her  afar; 
And  yet  I  know  not  when  that  day 

Shall  rise,  for  still  she  dwells  afar. 
God,  who  has  formed  this  fair  array 

Of  worlds,  and  placed  my  love  afar, 
Strengthen  my  heart  and  hope,  I  pray, 

Of  seeing  her  I  love  afar.'* 



A.  I>.  1122-1204. 


rj^UEEN  ELEANOR  succeeded  her  father,  William  X.,  in  1137,  in 
T^C  the  fine  duchy  which  at  that  time  composed  Gascony,  Saintonge, 
and  the  comt6  de  Poitou.  She  married  the  same  year  Louis 
VII.,  king  of  France,  and  went  with  him  to  the  Holy  Land.  She  soon 
gave  him  cause  for  jealousy,  from  her  intimacy  with  her  uncle,  Raymond, 
ct)unt  of  Poitiers,  and  with  Saladin  ;  and  after  many  bitter  quarrels  they 
wtte  divorced  under  pretense  of  consanguinity,  in  1152.  Six  weeks  after- 
wards, Eleanor  married  Henry  II.,  duke  of  Normandy,  afterwards  king  of 
England,  to  whom  she  brought  in  dowry  Poitou  and  Guienne. 

Eleanor  had  four  sons  and  a  daughter  by  her  second  husband.  In 
1162,  she  gave  Guienne  to  her  second  son,  Richard  Coeur  de  Lion,  who 
did  homage  for  it  to  the  king  of  France.  She  died  in  1204.  She  was  very 
Mous  of  her  second  husband  and  showed  the  greatest  animosity  to  all 
whom  she  regarded  as  rivals.  She  incited  her  sons  to  rebel  against  their 
father,  and  was,  in  consequence,  thrown  into  prison,  where  she  was  kept 
^'•r  sixteen  years. 

In  her  youth  she  was  remarkably  beautiful,  and  in  the  later  years  of  her 

^^ned  life  she  showed  evidences  of  a  naturally  noble  disposition.      As  soon 

•*>  >he  wa>  lilxTated   from   her  prison,  which   was   done  by  order  of  her  son 

l^ichard  on  his  accession   to  the  throne,  he  placed  her  at   the  head  of  the 

s'^vernment.      No  doubt  she  bitterly  felt  the  utter  neglect  she  had  suffered 

durinjT  her  imj)risonment :  yet  she  did  not,  when  she  obtained  power,  use 

^^  ^"pui^i^h  her  enemies,  but  rather  devoted  herself  to  deeds  of  mercy  and 

I'i<ty.  jToing  from  city  to  city,  setting  free  all  persons  contined  for  violating 

^"'"  jiiame   laws,  which,    in    the    latter    part    of    Henry's  life,    were  cruelly 

'■"'"reed.     Miss   .Strickland   thus   closes  her   interesting  biography  of  this 

f'^^utihil  but   unfortunate  queen  :     "  Eleanor  oi  Aquitaine   is  among  the 

ver}*  few  women  who   have  atoned  for  an  ill-spent  youth   by  a  wise  and 

'•enevolent  old  age.      As  a  sovereign  she  ranks  among  the  greatest  of  female 




Twelfth  Century  A.  D. 


J^ERENGARIA  of  Navarre  was  a  daughter  of  Sancho  the  Wise,  king 
J^     of  Naples,   and  married  Richard  Coeur  de  Lion  soon  after  he  as- 
cended the  throne  of  England.      Richard  had  been  betrothed,  when 
only  seven  years  of  age,  to  Alice,  daughter  of  Louis  VIL,  who  was  three 
years  old.     Alice  was  sent  to  the  English  court  for  her  education. 

The  father  of  Richard  Coeur  de  Lion,  Henry  IL,  fell  in  love  with  the 
betrothed  of  his  son,  and  had  prevented  the  marriage  from  being  solem- 
nized. But  Richard,  after  he  ascended  the  throne,  was  still  trammeled  by 
this  engagement  to  Alice,  while  he  was  deeply  in  love  with  Berengaria.  At 
length  these  obstacles  were  overcome.  * '  It  was  in  the  joyous  month  of 
May,  1 191,"  to  quote  an  old  writer,  "in  the  flourishing  and  spacious  isle 
of  Cyprus,  celebrated  as  the  very  abode  of  the  goddess  of  love,  did  King 
Richard  solemnly  take  to  wife  his  beloved  lady,  Berengaria." 

This  fair  queen  accompanied  her  husband  on  his  warlike  expedition  to 
the  Holy  Land.  In  the  autumn  of  the  same  year  Richard  concluded  his 
peace  with  Saladin,  and  set  out  on  his  return  to  England.  But  he  sent 
Berengaria  by  sea,  while  he,  disguised  as  a  Templar,  intended  to  go  by 
land.  He  was  taken  prisoner  and  kept  in  durance  by  Leopold  of  Austria 
nearly  five  years. 

Richard's  profligate  companions  seem  to  have  estranged  his  thoughts 
from  his  gentle,  loving  wife,  and  for  nearly  two  years  after  his  return  from 
captivity,  he  gave  himself  up  to  the  indulgence  of  his  baser  passions  ;  but 
finally,  his  conscience  was  awakened,  he  sought  his  ever  faithful  wife,  and 
she,  womanlike,  forgave  him.  From  that  time  they  were  never  parted  till 
his  death,  which  occurred  in  1199. 

She  survived  him  many  years,  founded  an  abbey  at  Espan,  and  devoted 
herself  to  works  of  piety  and  mercy.  "From  her  early  youth  to  her 
grave,  Berengaria  manifested  devoted  love  to  Richard.  Uncomplaining 
when  deserted  by  him,  forgiving  him  when  he  returned,  and  faithful  to  his 
memory  unto  death." 




RBproducBd  frDrn  tha  painting  of  G-BDrges 
Moreau,  French  figure  painter,  and  pupil  of 
Cab  an  el.  Mareau  has  painted  numernus  "w/orthy 
pictures,  of  v/hich  probably  the  best  known  are 
"Potlphar's  Wife,"  "  Death  of  Cleopatra,"  "The 
Family."  and  "  Rn  Egyptologist."  He  was 
hanored  -y^th   a   riisdal  by  the   Paris    Salon, 




A.  D.  1187-1252. 


j^LANCHE  of  Castile,  queen  of  France,  was  the  daughter  of  Alphonso 
13  IX.,  king  of  Castile,  and  of  Eleanor,  daughter  of  Henry  I.  of 
England.  In  1200  she  was  married  to  Louis  VIII.  of  France  ;  and 
became  the  mother  of  nine  sons  and  two  daughters,  whom  she  edu- 
cated with  great  care,  and  in  such  sentiments  of  piety,  that  two  of  them, 
Louis  IX-  and  Elizabeth,  have  been  beatitied  by  the  Church  of  Rome. 

On  the  death  of  her  husband  in   1226,  he  showed  his  esteem  for  her  by 
lea\ii^  her  sole  regent  during  the  minority  of  his  son,  Louis  IX.,  then  only 
twelve  years  old,  and  Blanche  justified  by  her  conduct  in  the  trying  cir- 
cumstances in  which  she  was  placed,  the  confidence  of  her  husband.     The 
princes  and  nobles,  pretending  that  the  regency  was  unjustly  granted  to  a 
woman,  confederated    against  her  ;  but  by  her  prudence  and  courage,  op- 
posing some  in  arms,  Jind  gaining  over  others  with  presents  and  condescen- 
sions, Blanche  finally  triumphed.     She  made  use  of  the  romantic  passion 
ot  the  young  Count  of  Champagne  to  obtain  information  of  the  projects  of 
the  malcontents  ;    but    her   reputation   was    endangered   by  the  favor  she 
showed  him,  as  well  as  by  the  familiar  intercourse  to  which  she  admitted 
^gallant  Cardinal  Romani. 

In  educating  Louis  she  was  charged  witli  putting  him  too  much  in  the 
h*ndsof  the  clergy:  but  she  proved  an  excellent  guardian  of  his  virtue, 
*"<J.  in  1234,  she  married  him  to  Margaret,  tiaughter  of  the  Count  de 
'**>vcnce ;  and  in  1235,  Louis  having  reached  tlie  age  of  twenty-one, 
^"C  surrendered  to  him  the  sovereign  authority.  Hut  even  alter  this,  she 
attained  great  ascendency  over  the  young  king,  of  wliich  >he  sometimes 
"^de  an  improper  use. 

When,  in  124.S,  Louis  undertook  a  crusade  to  the  Holy  Land,  he 
"^Iwmined  to  take  his  (pieen  with  him  and  leave  his  nic»ther  regent.  In 
WK  second  regency  she  showed  the  same  vigor  and  prudence  as  in  the 
^^^'  The  kingdom  had  sutiVrrd  so  nuieh  from  the  domination  of  the 
pritslhood,   that  vigorous  measures  had  become  necessary  ;  and   notwith- 



A.  D.  1812-1369. 


♦>    »     €4 

FHILIPPA  of  Hainault  was  the  daughter  of  the  Earl  of  Hainault, 
married  Edward  IIL,  king  of  England,  in  1327.  In  1346,  wO 
after  the  victorious  battle  of  Cressy,  Edward  lay  before  Ca 
David  Bruce,  king  of  Scotland,  invaded  the  north  of  England,  and  rava 
the  country  as  far  as  Durham.  He  was  there  met  by  Queen  Philippe 
the  head  of  twelve  thousand  men,  commanded  by  Lord  Percy.  Aft 
fierce  engagement,  the  Scots  were  entirely  defeated,  and  their  king 
many  of  the  nobility  taken  prisoners.  As  soon  as  Philippa  had  seci 
her  royal  captive,  she  crossed  the  sea  to  Dover,  and  was  received  in 
English  camp,  before  Calais,  with  all  the  6clat  due  to  her  rank  and  her 
tory.  Here  her  intercession  is  said  to  have  saved  the  lives  of  six  citizer 
Calais,  who  were  condemned  to  death  by  Edward. 

Philippa' s  conduct  was  marked  by  wisdom  and  generosity,  and  she 
on  all  important  occasions  the  confidant  and  adviser  of  her  husband, 
died  before  Edward,  leaving  several  children,  the  eldest  of  whom  was 
celebrated  Black  Prince. 

Philippa  is  said  to  have  founded  Queen's  College,  Oxford  ;  but 
agency  in  establishing  a  manufacturing  colony  of  Flemings  at  Norwich 
the  year  1335,  was  of  far  greater  importance  to  the  prosperity  of  the  nat 
"Blessed  be  the  memory  of  Edward  III.  and  Philippa  of  Hainault, 
queen,  who  first  invented  clothes,"  says  a  monastic  chronicler.  He  m< 
that,  by  the  advice  of  the  queen,  the  English  first  manufactured  cloth. 

Philippa  was  also  the  friend  and  patroness  of  Chaucer  and  Froissart. 

Bianclne  of  Costllt^  continued. 

Standing  her  strong  religious  feelings,  she  exerted  her  utmost  power  aga 
the  tyranny  of  the  priests  and  in  favor  of  the  people. 

The  unfortunate  defeat  and  imprisonment  of  her  son  in  the  East  sc 
fected  her  spirits  that  she  died,  in  1252,  to  his  great  grief,  and  the  rei 
of  the  whole  kingdom.     She  was  buried  in  the  Abbey  of  Maubisson. 



Thirteenth  Century  A.  D. 


^^ARY,  who  attained  considerable  prominence  among  the  Anglo- 
\  T  /  Norman  Trotiveurs,  in  the  thirteenth  century,  may  be  regarded  as 
the  Sappho  of  her  age.  Unfortunately  she  mentions  but  few  cir- 
cumstances respecting  herself ;  she  informs  us  only  that  she  was  born  in 
France,  without  specifying  in  what  province.  She  appears  to  have  resided 
in  England  at  the  beginning  of  the  thirteenth  century,  but  does  not  speak 
o(  the  motive  which  led  her  thither. 

It  may  be  conjectured  that  she  was  a  native  of  Normandy,  for  her 
language  is  neither  that  of  Poitou  nor  of  (}ascony,  the  other  provinces 
under  the  dominion  of  the  English.  She  was  versed  in  the  literature  of 
Bretagne,  from  whose  writers  she  frequently  borrowed,  and  it  is  by  no 
means  improbable  that  she  acquired  the  knowledge  of  both  the  Armoric 
Md  English  languages  in  Britain.     She  was  also  mistress  of  the  Latin. 

Her  attainments  afford  testimony  not  merely  of  her  capacity  and  talents, 
iHit  seem  likewise  to  imply  a  rank  of  life  that  allowed,  with  leisure,  the 
means  of  study.  Her  Christian  name  only  is  mentioned,  and  the  reader  is 
left  in  ctjual  ignorance  concerning  her  patrons. 

Hit  first  jK)ems  are  a  collection  of  lays,  in  French  verse,  forming  various 
niitories  and  adventures  of  brave  and  gallant  knights.  The  stories  are 
generally  remarkable  for  a  singular  or  wonderful  catastrophe.  They  con- 
^'tute  the  largest,  and  at  the  same  time  most  ancient,  si)ecinien  of  Anglo- 
^o^man  poetry  of  the  kind  that  has  come  down  to  the  present  age. 

The  I^ys  of  Mary  are  twelve  in  number,  and  dedicated  to  some  king, 
^Wname  is  left  to  conjecture. 

The  smaller  poems  of  Mary  are  important  in  giving  us  a  wider  knowl- 
^gc  of  ancient  chivalr\',  and  the  writer  appears  to  have  possessed,  with  a 
refined  taste,  great  sensibility  :  her  subjects  are  all  melancholy  ;  she 
t'Hiches  and  melts  the  heart  of  her  readers,  and  seems  to  ha\  e  had  at  call 
^1  the  passions  of  the  mind.  The  third  work  of  Mary  is  a  tale  in  French 
^CTseof  St.  Patrick's  Purgatory. 



A.  D.  1207-1231. 


/J)  LIZABETH  of  Hungary,  daughter  of  Andreas  II.,  king  of  Hungary, 
^^  was  born  at  Presburg  in  1207.  At  the  age  of  four  she  was  affianced 
to  the  Landgraf  of  Thuringia,  Louis  IV. ,  and  was  brought  to  his  court 
in  the  Wartburg,  near  Eisenach,  to  be  educated  under  the  eyes  of  the  parents 
of  her  future  husband.  She  early  displayed  ^  passion  for  the  severities  of 
Christian  life.  She  despised  pomp  and  ambition,  cultivated  humility,  and 
exhibited  the  most  self-denying  benevolence  ;  her  conduct  even  as  a  girl 
astonished  the  Thuringian  court.  The  marriage  took  place  when  Elizabeth 
was  fourteen.  Louis,  far  from  blaming  the  devout  girl  whom  he  had  made 
his  wife,  for  her  long  prayers  and  ceaseless  almsgiving,  was  himself  partially 
attracted  to  a  similar  mode  of  life.  A  boy  and  two  girls  were  the  fruit  of 
their  union.      Louis  died  as  a  crusader  at  Otranto  in  1227. 

Great  misfortunes  soon  befell  the  saintly  Elizabeth.  She  was  deprived 
of  her  regency  by  the  brother  of  her  deceased  husband,  and  driven  out  of 
her  dominion  on  the  plea  that  she  wasted  the  treasure  of  the  state  by  her 
charities.  At  last  she  found  refuge  in  the  church,  where  her  first  care  was 
to  thank  God  that  he  had  judged  her  worthy  to  suffer. 

When  the  warriors  who  attended  her  husband  in  the  crusade  returned 
from  the  East,  she  gathered  them  around  her,  and  recounted  her  sufferings. 
Steps  were  taken  to  restore  to  the  unfortunate  princess  her  sovereign  rights. 
She  declined  tlie  regency,  however,  and  would  only  accept  the  revenues 
which  accrued  to  her  as  landgraxinc.  The  representations  of  other  poten- 
tates soon  induced  her  brother-in-law  to  allow  her  to  return  to  Marburg, 
and  to  draw  a  yearly  revenue  of  500  marks. 

She  now  devoted  herself  wholly  to  a  life  of  asceticism,  put  on  nun's 
raiment,  and  took  up  her  residence  in  a  cottage  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  on 
which  stood  her  castle  of  Marburg.  The  remainder  of  her  days  were  given 
up  to  incessant  devotions,  almsgivings,  and  mortifications.  All  her  reve- 
nues were  given  to  the  poor,  and  what  she  required  for  personal  expendi- 
tures she  earned  with  her  own  hands.     She  died  November  19,  1231. 



A.D.  1266-1290. 



BEATRICE  PORTINARI  is  celebrated  as  the  beloved  of  Dante,  the 
Italian  poet.  She  was  born  at  Florence  in  the  year  1266,  and  is 
said  to  have  been  very  beautiful.  The  death  of  her  noble  father, 
Folco  Portinari,  in  1 289,  is  said  to  have  hastened  her  own.  The  history  of 
Beatrice  may  be  considered  as  an  affection  of  Dante — in  that  lies  its  sole 
interest.  All  that  can  be  authenticated  of  her  is  that  she  was  a  beautiful 
and  virtuous  woman.  She  died  in  1290,  and  yet  she  still  lives  in  Dante's 
immortal  poem,  of  which  her  memory  was  the  inspiration. 

Beatrice  was  .seen  by  Dante  only  once  or  twi(  e,  and  she  probably  knew 
little  of  him.  She  married  .Simone  de'  Hardi.  Hut  the  worship  of  her  lover 
was  stronger  for  the  remoteness  of  its  object. 

He  says  in  the  conclusion  of  the  Rime  (his  miscellaneous  poems  on  the 
subject  of  his  early  love)  :  "  I  beheld  a  marvelous  vision,  which  has  caused 
me  to  cease  from  writing  in  praise  of  my  blrssed  Beatrice,  until  I  can  cele- 
brate her  more  worthily  ;  which  that  I  may  do,  I  devote  my  whole  soul  to 
study,  as  she  knoweth  well  ;  in  so  much,  that  if  it  |)leases  tin-  (ireat  Disposer 
of  all  events  to  prolonj^  my  life  for  a  few  years  upon  this  earth,  1  hope  here- 
after to  sing  of  my  Beatrici*  what  never  yet  was  said  or  sung  of  any  wo- 
man. After  the  which  may  it  seem  good  unto  llini  who  is  the  master  of 
grace  that  my  spirit  should  go  lu  net-  to  beliold  the  glory  of  its  lady,  to  wit. 
r>f  that  blessed  Beatrice  who  now  gl«»riously  gazes  on  the  countenance  of 
Him  qui  est  per  omnia  sircula  brnni ictus.'' 

In  the  *'  Convito  "  he  resumes  tht  story  of  his  life. 

It  was  in  this  transport  of  enthusiasm  iJKit  Dantc"  conceived  the  idea  of 
the  **  Divina  Commedia,"  his  great  poem,  <>f  which  his  Beatrice  was  des- 
tined to  \yc  the  heroine.  Tluis  to  the  inspiration  of  a  young,  beautiful. 
and  noble-minded  woman,  we  owe  one  of  the  grandest  efforts  of  human 
genius;  probiibly  the  most  p<rtret  ti.»nsti«^uiatinn  <»I  the  unseen  worlds  in 
any  language. 



A.  D.  1308-1348. 


^^'r^::-:zt=s,>  - 

£^  AURA,  the  blessed  of  Petrarch,  is  better  known  by  that  title,  than  by 
^^  her  own  name  of  Laura  de  Noyes.  She  was  bom  at  Avignon,  and 
married  Hugo  de  Sade.  Petrarch  first  saw  her  in  1327,  and  con- 
ceived a  passion  for  her  which  histed  during  her  Hfe  ;  yet  her  chastity  has 
never  been  called  in  question.  Petrarch  wrote  three  hundred  and  eighteen 
sonnets  and  eighty-eight  songs,  of  which  Laura  was  the  subject.  She  died 
of  the  plague  in  1348,  aged  thirty-eight.  She  is  said  to  have  had  a  grace- 
ful figure,  a  sweet  \oice,  a  noble  and  distinguished  appearance,  and  a  coun- 
tenance which  inspired  tenderness. 

The  poetry  of  Petrarch  ga\e  Laura  a  wide  celebrity  during  her  lifetime. 
It  is  recorded  that  the  king  of  Hoheniia,  arriving  at  Avignon,  sought  out 
this  well-sung  lady  and  kissed  her  on  the  forehead  in  token  of  homage. 

All  this  may  appear  ver\'  i)Ieasant  ;  romantic  young  women  may  even 
account  Laura  a  very  fortunate  being  :  but  there  is  a  dark  side  to  the  pic- 
ture. The  husband  of  Laura  was  not  pleased  with  the  notoriety  which  the 
devotion  of  Petrarch  conferred  on  the  object  of  his  passion  or  his  poetry-. 
Though  these  marks  of  attachment  were  pure  and  unobtrusive  and  often 
repressed  by  the  coKlness  of  Laura,  yet  they  awakened  a  keen  sense  of 
jealousy  and  distrust  in  her  husband  :  and  though  no  real  infidelity  of  his 
wife  was  ever  disco\eretl,  still  the  chords  of  domestic  happiness  became  dis- 
sonant, and  life's  sweetest  harmonies  were  lost. 

The  children  of  this  ill- matched  couple  showed  either  that  their  train- 
ing was  neglected,  or  their  natural  gifts  \\ere  very  mediocre  ;  both  conse- 
(juences  unfavorable  to  the  character  of  their  mother. 

Though  not  insensible  of  her  inherited  weakness,  her  last  moments  were 
occupied  by  tlu*  sul)limest  considerations.  She  expired  gently,  and  without 
struggle,  like  a  lamp  whose  oil  is  gradually  wasted.  On  the  same  day,  at 
vespers,  her  body  was  carried  to  the  church  of  the  P'ranciscans,  and  in- 
terred in  the  chapel  dc  la  Croix,  built  by  her  husband. 




RaprDducBd  fram  the  painting  nf  Vacslav 
Brozlk,  a  Hnhaniian  history  paintar.  Brozik 
was  succBSsivBly  a  pupil  of  the  Pragua  ilcad- 
amy,  Pilnty's  Munich  Acadamy,  and  nf  Mun- 
kacsy  In  Paris.  The  Paris  Salon  awarded  hini 
a  madal  in  1B7B. 




A.  11.  1310?. 1362. 


ANE  of  Flanders  was  one  of  the  most  extraordinary  women  of  her 
age.  Her  husband,  the  Count  of  Montfort,  havinj^  been,  in  1342, 
made  prisoner  and  conducted  to  Paris,  she  assembled  the  inhabi- 
^iints  of  Rennes  to  take  up  arms  in  her  behalf.  The  movement  was  partici- 
Ftcd  in  by  all  Brittany,  and  she  soon  found  herself  in  a  position  to  protect 
"^^T  rights.  Having  shut  herself  In  the  fortress  of  Hennebonne,  Charles  de 
oiois^  her  husband's  enemy,  besieged  her  there,  after  an  obstinate  defense, 
^^  ^vhich  the  countess  showed  many  of  the  cjualities  of  a  commander. 

The  repeated  breaclies  made  in  the  walls  at  length  rendered  it  necessary 
'^^r  the  l>esieged,  who  were  diminished  in  numbers  and  exhausted  by 
fatigue,  to  treat  for  a  capitulation.  During  a  conference  for  that  purpose, 
m  which  the  Bishop  of  Leon  was  engaged  with  Charles  de  Blois,  the  coun- 
tv.'ss,  who  had  mounted  a  high  tower  which  commanded  a  view  of  the  sea, 
^k^cmii  some  sails  at  a  distance,  and  immediately  exclaimed,  "  Behold  the 
succors!  the  English  succors  !  no  capitulation  !" 

The  tiert  prepared  by   Edward   III.  for  the  relit  f  of   Hennebonne,  hav- 

ii\\^    been   detained    by    contrary    winds,    entered     the     hari)or    under    the 

command  of    Sir  Walter    Mauny.      The    garrison,   by    this    reinforcement, 

Animated  with  fresh  spirits,    immediately   sallied  forth,    beat    the   ix'siegers 

tr»»nuheir  |)osts,  and  oi)liged  them  to  decamp.      The  flames  of  war  still  con- 

Unued  their  devastations,  when  Charles  de  Blois,  having  investe(l   the  fort- 

rt-ss  0!  Roche   de    Rien,  the  Countess    of    Montfort.    reinforced    by    some 

hn\ilsh  troops,  attacked  him  during  the  night   in   his  entrenchments,  dis- 

I«r>.-d  his  army,  and  took  him  j^risoner. 

The  mediation  of  France  and   I'jigland   failed  to  ])nt  an  end  to  the  dis- 

^"^^•^  in  firittany.  till  Charles  de   Blois  was  at   length  slain,  at   the  battle  of 

•  "ray.     Through  the  influence  of  his  motlur,  the  young  C^)unt  de  Mont- 

^*^'n  nficr    obtained    possession  of  tlu*  (Inch v.    and,  though   a  zealous 

•'   ''^^^  '>f  lin^huu],   had  his  title  acknowledged  bv  the  French  king,  to 

%/  /K'^mage  for  his  dominions. 



A.  D.  1347-1380. 

4 .000.  >► 

^^NATHARINE  of  Siena  was  born  in  Siena  in  1347,  and  early  devoted 
^^^  herself  to  an  austere  life.  The  monks  relate  of  this  saint  that  she 
became  a  nun  of  the  Dominic  at  the  age  of  seven,  that  she  saw 
numberless  visions,  and  wrought  many  miracles  while  quite* young,  that  she 
conversed  face  to  face  with  Christ,  and  was  actually  married  to  him. 

In  1365  she  received  the  habit  of  the  third  order  of  St.  Dominic,  and 
soon  became  celebrated  for  her  recluse  life,  revelations,  and  miraculous 
powers  of  conversion.  Her  influence  was  so  great  that  she  reconciled 
Pope  Gregory  XI.  to  the  people  of  Avignon,  in  1376,  after  he  had  excom- 
municated them  ;  and  in  1377  she  prevailed  upon  him  to  reestablish  the 
pontifical  seat  at  Rome,  sexenty  years  after  Clement  V.  had  removed  it  to 

These  public  events  in  her  life  are  hardly  less  extraordinary  and  surpris- 
ing than  those  which  obtained  for  her  the  preeminence  of  saintship. 
Especially  the  latter.  To  put  an  end  to  the  papal  court  of  Avignon,  and  to 
bring  back  the  papacy  to  Italy,  had  been  urgently  pressed  by  both  Petrarch 
and  Dante,  as  well  as  by  the  French  cardinals  and  the  king  of  France  ;  but 
without  avail.  The  French  pope's  own  prejudices  and  wishes  were  even 
enlisted  in  opposition  to  removal.  It  was  under  such  circumstances  that 
Catharine  tried  her  powers  of  persuasion  and  succeeded  in  moving  the 
center  of  Europe  back  again  to  its  old  place  in  Rome  after  the  princes  of  the 
Church  and  the  greatest  men  of  Italy  had  attempted  it  in  vain. 

One  legend,  among  many  which  have  sprung  up  and  attached  themselves 
to  the  life  of  this  saint,  is  likely  to  cause  most  readers  to  feel  an  interest  in 
her  name.  It  is  said  that  in  revenge  for  the  discomfiture  of  a  company  of 
heathen  philosophers,  with  whom  she  had  been  compelled  to  dispute,  the 
holy  and  learned  lady  was  bound  to  a  wheel  with  spikes,  in  such  way  that 
every  turn  of  the  machine  would  cause  the  spikes  to  pierce  her  body.  But 
the  cords  were  miraculously  broken,  and  the  malice  of  her  enemies  foiled. 
Hence  St.  Catharine,  virgin  and  martyr,  is  always  represented  with  awheel, 



b.  1388?  A.  D. 


JLT-IANA  Beniers,  prioress  of  Sopewell  nunnery,  near  St.  Albans,  Eng- 
land, was  the  daujjhter  of  Sir  James  Berners,  who  was  beheaded  in  the 
reign  of  Richard  II.     She  was  celebrated  for  her  beauty,  her  spirit, 
3nd  her  passion  for  field  sports,  while  historically  the  claim  has  been  made 
'^t  she  was  the  earliest  female'  writer  in  the  English  language. 

She  wrote,  **The  Boke  of  Hawkyng  and  Huntyng,"  which  was  one  of 
^^^  first  works  that  issued  from  the  English  press.  A  later  edition  was 
issued  in  1810  by  Haslewood,  containing  an  examination  of  her  claims  to 
be  rt.'garded  as  the  first  female  writer  in  English. 

The  indelicacies  that  are    found  in  her  book  must  be  imputed  to  the 

^Tossness  and  Ixirbarism  of  the  times  in  which  she  lived.      She  attained  to 

an  advanced  age,  and  was  highly  respected  and  admired.      The  information 

V>uchinj^  the  incidents  of  her  life  is  exceedingly  scanty,  and  must  be  largely 

drawn  from  her  works. 

Catharine  of  Sit?na  continued. 

and  the  extn-me  popularity  of  this  saint  is  indicated  by  the  fact  that  a  wheel 
^•^  a  certain  construction  and  appearance  is  to  the  present  day  called  a 
^athariiK'  wheel.  She  died  April  30,  1380,  and  was  canoaized  in  1461. 
Her  (i(-ith  occurred  in  Rome. 

rather  Raimondo,  who  was  then  at  (ieneva,  declares  that  in  that  city, 
at  the  hour  of  her  death,  he  heard  a  voice  communicating  to  him  a  last 
message  (roni  Catharine,  which  hr  afterwards  found  she  uttered  on  her 
JeathU^l  word  for  word  as  he  lu-ard  it 

"^*r  literary  works  consist   of   letters,    poems,    and    devotional    pieces. 

^  k*llers  are  by  far  the  most  interesting  and  valuable  of  lur  reputed 
^**rks,  and  are  373  in  munber.  Many  are  addressed  to  kings,  popes, 
cardinals,  bishops,  conventual  bodies,  and  i)olitical  corporations,  and 
exhibit  eloquence,  exalted  piety,  no])le  sentiments,  and  sound  argumenta- 
^»'»n,  as  well  as  many  philological  excellencies. 




A.  II.  1401-1437. 

._ — j.^.j 

^^ATHARINE  of  Valois,  surnanied  the  Fair,  was  the  youngest  child 
\WM  of  Charles  VL  and  Isabelle  of  Bavaria.  She  was  born  October 
Y  27,  1 401,  at  the  Hotel  de  St.  Paul,  Paris,  during  her  father's  in- 
terval of  insanity.  She  was  entirely  neglected  by  her  mother,  who  joined 
with  the  king's  brother,  the  Duke  of  Orleans,  in  pilfering  the  revenues  of 
the  household.  On  the  recover)'  of  Charles,  Isabelle  fled  with  the  Duke  of 
Orleans  to  Milan,  followed  by  her  children,  who  were  pursued  and  brought 
back  by  the  Duke  of  Burgundy. 

Catharine  was  educated  in  the  convent  at  Poissy,  where  her  sister  Marie 
was  consecrated,  and  was  married  to  Henry  V.  of  England,  June  3,  1420. 

Henry  V.  had  previously  conquered  nearly  the  whole  of  France,  and 
received  with  his  bride  the  promise  of  the  regency  of  France,  as  the  king 
was  again  insane,  and,  on  the  death  of  Charlei=.  VI.,  the  sovereignty  of 
that  country,  to  the  exclusion  of  Catharine's  brother  and  three  older  sisters. 
Catharine  was  crowned  in  142 1,  and  her  son,  afterwards  Henry  VI.,  was 
born  at  Windsor  in  the  same  year,  during  the  absence  of  Henry  V.  in 
France.  The  queen  joined  her  husband  in  Paris  in  1422,  leaving  her  infant 
son  in  England,  and  was  with  him  when  he  died  at  the  castle  of  Vincennes, 
in  August,  1422. 

Some  years  afterward  Catharine  married  Owen  Tudor,  an  officer  of 
Welsh  extraction,  who  was  clerk  of  the  (jueen's  wardrobe.  This  marriage 
was  kept  concealed  several  years,  and  Catharine,  who  was  a  devoted 
mother,  seems  to  have  lived  very  ha|)pily  with  her  husband.  Her  children 
were  torn  from  her,  which  act  of  cruelly  j^robably  hastened  her  death. 
She  died   in    1437. 

The  nuns  who  |)iously  attended  her,  declared  that  she  was  a  sincere 
peniteiU.  She  had  disregarded  the  injunction  of  ht-r  royal  husband,  Henry 
W,  in  choosing  Windsor  as  the  birthplace  of  the  heir  of  F'ngland  ;  and  she 
had  never  believed  the  prediction,  that  **  Henry  of  Windsor  shall  lose  all 
that  Henry  of  Moimiouth  had  gained."  But  during  her  illness  she  became 
fearful  of  the  result,  and  sorely  repented  her  disobedience  to  her  husband. 


Reproduced  from  the  painting  by  Mme.  Zoc  Laure  de  Chatillon. 


A.  I>.  1410-1431. 


JOAN  OF  ARC  f  Jeanne  crArc),  a  famous  heroine,  was  born  January 
6,  1410,  in  the  village  of  Domremy  in  Lorraine,  France,  of  poor  but 
decent  and  pious  parents.     She  was  their  fifth  child,  and,  owing  to  the 
indigence  of  her  father,  received  no  instruction,  but  was  accustomed  to  out- 
of-door  duties,  such  as  the  tending  of  the  shei'p  and  the  riding  of  the  horses 
to  and  from  the  watering  places.     The  neighborliood  of  Domremy  abounded 
in  superstitions,  and  at  the  same  time  sympathized  with  the  Orleans  party 
in  the  divisions  which  rent  the  kingdom  of  P>anc(».     Joan  shared  both  in 
the  political   excitement  and  the   religious   enthusiasm  ;    imaginative   and 
dwout,  she  loved  to  meditate  on  the  legends  of  the  Virgin,  ond  especially, 
it  seems,  dwelt  upon  a  current  prophecy  that  a  virgin  sliould  relieve  France 
of  her  enemies. 

At  the  age  of  thirteen  she  began  to  believe  herself  the  subject  of  siijier- 
wiural  visitations,  siK)ke  of  voices  tliat  she  heard  and  of  visions  that  she 
^*';  and,  at  eighteen,  was  possessed  by  the  idea  that  she  was  called  to 
Jdiver  her  country  and  crown  her  king.  Her  pretensions  were,  at  first, 
treated  with  much  scorn  and  derision.  The  fortunes  of  the  dau|)hin.  how- 
*^^'^*r,  were  desperate,  and  she  was  sent  to  Chin  »n.  wlu-re  Cliarles  held  his 
^'"ft.  Introduced  into  a  crowd  of  conrtirrs  from  whom  the  king  was 
•^"Jistir^ished,  she  is  said  to  have  singlrd  him  out  at  once.  Her  claims 
*^"'"t submitted  to  a  severe  scrutiny.  She  wa^  handed  ovir  to  an  ccdesias- 
ti^'sl commission,  and  sent  to  I*oiticrs  for  examination  by  thr  sexeral  facul- 
''winthe  famous  university  there.  Xo  ividnuc  inificating  that  shi-  was  a 
'Merin  the  black  art,  and  the  fact  of  her  \irginity  n-moxinji;  all  suspicions 
"'her being  under  sa tan ic  intluenr<-,  Ikt  wish  to  had  tin-  army  of  her  kini4 
"'^>  granted. 

A  suit  of  armor  was  made  for  her,  a  ronsr(rat<'(l  sword  which  she 
''Scribed  as  buried  in  tht!  (^hurch  of  St.  C'atharini'  at  l''i«rb«»i>.  was  brouojn 
^'^J placfii  in  her  hands.  Thus  (.([uiiJin-d  slu-  \n\\  lur^ill  at  tlu-  hrad  of 
^".'^'o  troops  under  the  generalship   of  Dunois,   thrrw  herself  upf»n  the 



English  who  were  besieging  Orleans,  routed  them,  and  in  a  week  force 
them  to  raise  the  siege.  Other  exploits  followed.  In  three  months  Charh 
was  crowned  king  at  Rheims,  the  '*  Maid  of  Orleans"  standing  in  full  arm( 
at  his  side.      Her  promised  work  was  done. 

Dunois,  however,  was  unwilling  to  lose  her  influence  and  urged  her  t 
remain  with  the  army,  and  she  did  so  ;  but  her  victories  were  over.  In  a 
attack  on  Paris  in  the  early  winter  (1429)  she  wa^  repulsed  and  woundet 
In  the  spring  of  the  next  year  she  was  taken  prisoner,  and  was  at  one 
carried  to  the  Due  de  Luxembourg's  fortress  at  Beauvais.  An  attempt  t 
escape  by  leaping  from  a  dungeon  wall  was  unsuccessful,  and  she  was  take 
to  Rouen.  Here  she  was  tried  for  sorcery  and  convicted.  The  papei 
were  sent  from  Rouen  to  Paris,  and  the  verdict  of  the.  University  of  Par 
was  unanimous  that  such  acts  and  sentiments  as  hers  were  diabolical,  an 
merited  the  punishment  of  fire. 

Sentence  of  condemnation  was  read  to  her  publicly  on  a  scaffold^  by  th 
Bishop  of  Beauvais,  and  the  alternative  offered  of  submission  to  the  Chord 
or,  the  stake.  The  terrified  girl  murmured  a  recantation,  put  her  mar 
to  a  confession,  and  was  taken  back  to  prison.  Here  she  heard  he 
"voices"  again  ;  her  visions  returned.  A  man's  apparel  being  left  in  he 
cell  to  tempt  her,  she  put  it  on  ;  the  Bishop  of  Beauvais  seized  upon  tli 
act  as  a  virtual  relapse  into  her  old  unbelief,  and  hastened  the  executio 
of  the  first  sentence.  A  huge  i)ile  of  wood  was  erected  in  the  mark< 
place  of  Rouen,  and,  surrounded  by  a  vast  assembly  of  soldiers  and  eccles 
astics,  Joan  of  Arc  was  burned  on  the  last  day  of  May,  1431.  The  Seiii 
carried  her  ashes  to  the  sea. 

The  infamy  of  this  transaction  lies  heavily  upon  all  concerned  with  it 
upon  the  Burgundians  who  gave  her  up  ;  upon  the  English  who  allowe 
her  execution  ;  upon  the  French  who  did  the  deed,  and  the  French  wh 
would  not  prevent  it.  and  upon  the  king  who  did  nothing  to  avenge  her. 

The  character  of  the  "Maid  of  Orleans"  was  spotless.  She  was  di* 
tinguished  for  her  |)urity,  innocence,  and  modesty.  Her  hand  never  she 
blood.  The  gentle  dignity  of  her  bearing  impressed  all  who  knew  her,  an 
restrained  the  brutality  of  her  soldiers.  She  must  ever  be  sanely  estimate 
as  a  "  martyr  to  her  religion,  her  country,  and  her  king." 



m.  A.  D.  1423.    d.  1446. 


J^^Xuas  thif  eldest  daughter  of  John  Beaufort,  Earl  of  Somerset  (son 
of  John  of  Gaunt )  and  of  Margaret,  daughter  of  the  Earl  of  Kent. 
She  was  seen  by  James,  son  of  Robert  III.,  king  of  Scotland, 
while  ho  was  detained  a  prisoner  in  the  Tower  of  London,  and  he  fell  pas- 
^«<>naiely  in  love  with  her.  On  his  release,  in  1423,  after  nineteen  years* 
captivity,  he  married  Joan,  and  went  with  her  to  Edinburgh,  where  they 
»^Te  crowned.  May  22,  1424.  James  then  immediately  commenced  that 
vigorous  administration  which  had  become  necessary  through  the  bad 
K*>vernmcnt  of  his  predecessors.  In  1430,  Joan  became  the  mother  of 
J'inies,  afterwards  James  11.  of  ScoUand. 

Joiin  jK)ssessed  a  strong  influence,  which  she  always  exercised  on  the 
i^idcof  mercy  and  gentleness.  In  1437,  the  queen  received  information  of 
^  ct.nspiracy  formed  against  the  life  of  her  husband,  the  head  of  which  was 
•^»rR()lx.Ti  (iraham,  and  hastened  to  Roxburgh,  where  the  king  then  was, 
^' warn  him  of  the  danger.  Not  being  well  supported  by  his  associates, 
»rahani.  who  was  actuated  partly  by  personal  and  partly  by  political 
"^"tUfs,  was  baffled,  imprisoned  and  banished,  and  his  estates  seized.  In 
^'^'' '^i)s'hlands.  whither  he  had  fled,  he  formed  new  |)lans.  The  king  imnie- 
(.uidy  t(M>k  refuge  with  his  wife  in  the  I  )ominican  abbey  near  Perth;  i)ut 
'"<'  ^'onspiratr)rs.  having  bribed  a  domestic,  found  their  way  into  the  room, 
'hf  (jutt-n  threw  herself  between  them  and  her  husband,  but  in  vain  ; 
^^l<r  nrt.-iving  two  wounds  she  was  torn  from  tiic  arms  ol  James  I.,  who 
■*aN  rmir(|(;  February  21.  1437.  James  had  made  an  heroic  resistance, 
tnoiiahai  i^^[  Yi^.  Ix^gged  his  life  of  the  assassin,  (iraham. 

J"an  married,  a  second  time,  James  Stuart,  called  the  Black  Knight,  son 
"I  Lnrd  I^orne.  to  whom  >hv  bore  a  son.  afterwards  Earl  of  Athol.  She 
(i^^'m  1446,  and  was  buried  at  Perth,  near  the  body  of  the  king,  her  first 
■''I'^band.  H<-r  life  exemplihed  nian\  womanly  \  irtues.  a  serene  dignity, 
ami  a  surpassing  courage. 



A.  D.  14091449. 


f^  GNES  SOREL  was  oorn  in  Fonncnteaii,  in  Lorraine,  and  became 
^^1  maid  of  honor  to  Isabella  of  Lorraine,  sister-in-law  of  the  queen  of 
Charles  VII.  of  France.  The  king  became  enamored  of  her,  and 
at  last  abandoned  the  cares  of  government  for  her  society.  But  Agnes 
aroused  him  from  enervating  repose  to  deeds  of  glory,  and  induced  him  to 
attack  the  English,  who  were  then  ravaging  France.  She  maintained  her 
influence  over  him  till  her  death,  1449,  at  the  age  of  thirty-nine.  Some 
have  falsely  reported  that  she  was  poisoned  by  orders  of  the  dauphin, 
Louis  XL  From  her  beauty,  she  was  called  the  fairest  of  the  fair  ;  be- 
sides beauty  she  possessed  great  mental  powers. 

Agnes  Sorel  bore  three  daughters  to  Chark'^  \'II.,  who  were  openly 
acknowledged  by  him. 

She  herself  relates  that  an  astrologer,  whom  she  had  previously  in- 
structed, being  admitted  to  her  presence,  s;iid  before  Ciiailes,  that  unless 
the  stars  were  deceivers  she  had  inspired  a  lasting  passion  in  a  great 
monarch.  Turning  to  the  king  Agnes  said,  "Sire,  suffer  me  to  fulfill  my 
destiny,  to  retire  from  your  court  to  that  of  the  king  of  England  ;  Henry, 
who  is  about  to  add  to  his  own  the  crown  you  relincpii^h,  is  doubtless  the 
object  ()f  this  pn-dirtion."  The  severity  of  this  reproof  rtTrctually  aroused 
Charles  from  his  indolence  and  supineness. 

Th(*  tomb  of  Agnes  was  strewed  with  flowers  by  the  prK-ts  of  France, 
Even  Louis,  when  he  came  to  the  throne,  was  far  from  treating  her  memory 
with  disrespec  t.  The  canons  of  Loches,  from  a  servile  desire  to  gratify  the 
reigning  monarch,  had,  notwithstanding  her  lil>eralities  to  the  Church,  pro- 
posi'd  tt>  destroy  her  mausoleum.  Louis  reproved  them  ft»r  their  ingrati- 
tude, ordered  them  to  fulfill  all  her  injunctions,  and  added  six  thousand 
livres  t«)  the  charitable  donations  which  she  had  originally  made.  Francis 
I.  honored  and  cherished  her  memory,  and  dedicated  several  poetical  effu- 
sions to  it. 



A.   D.  14^-1481. 


"\  i  ARGARET  of  Anjou,  queen  of  Enj^laiid,  was  born  at  Pont-iVMous- 
JV-L  son,  a  castie  in  Lorraine,  March  23,  1429,  and  died  at  the  chateau 
of  Dampierre,  August  25,  148 1.  Her  childhood  was  passed  amid 
many  troubles  that  befell  her  family,  in  Italy,  France,  and  Lorraine.  As  a 
Pniven^al  princess,  she  was  well  educated,  and  at  an  early  period  of  her 
lite  manifested  considerable  talent. 

Report  of  Margaret's  beauty  reached  Henry  VH.  of  England  from  a 
gentleman  of  Anjou,  who  acted  under  the  inspiration  of  Cardinal  Beaufort, 
and  her  i)ortrait  was  obtained  for  his  inspection.  This  decided  the  king's 
action,  and  commissioners  were  appointed  to  negotiate  a  truce  with  France 
and  Burgundy,  Charles  VH.  favoring  the  marriage  of  Henry  and  Mar- 
garet, with  the  view  of  making  it  the  basis  of  peace  between  France  and 

The  Earl  of  Suffolk  had  the  chief  part  in  the  transaction  on  the  English 
swe.  and  the  ceremony  by  proxy  was  arranged  to  take  place  at  Nantz  in 
N'^vember,  1444.  Margaret  did  not  reach  F^ngland  until  the  next  April. 
'"  ^447.  f»ccurred  the  death  of  the  Duke  of  (iloucester,  of  which  she  has 
"^"  considered  guilty  by  some  historians,  but  without  evidence.  Sue 
^»m  became  unpopular,  and  the  English  connected  the  loss  of  their  French 
P^iis^^-ssions  with   Iut  marriage. 

Marj^aret's  only  child,  a  son,  was  said  by  her  enemies  to  be  either 
^^  <jfepring  f)f  adultery,  or  a  suj^posititious  child.  Prince  Edward  was 
o^'m  while  his  father  was  suffering  from  one  of  his  tits  (»f  inil)r(Mlity,  and 
»ncn  ihequet-n  was  at  the  head  of  the  g()\ernment.  The  Duke  of  ^'o^k 
*•*-''  made  protector,  but  on  the  rest(jration  of  the  king's  health  In-  was 
<^i>nib>><'d^  wht-reupon  he  asserted  his  rights  by  an  a|)j)('al  to  arms,  and 
the  \orkists  won  the  first  battle  of  St.  Albans,  which  re^tortd  thmi  t(^ 
P^^.  Parliament  censured  the  cjueen  and  her  friends,  but  in  1456  Henry 
assumed  his  rights,  and  the  government  was  \  irtually  in  Margaret's  hands. 

Personal  ill-feeling  Ix'tween  the  cjueen  and  the  I'-arl  of  Warwick  caused 
^ renewal  of  the  war,  and  the  Lancastrians  were  at  tirsi  \iet(»rious  :  but  the 



Yorkists  rallied,  defeated  their  foes,  and  obtained  possession  of  the  king's 
person,  who  recognized  York  as  his  su accessor. 

Margaret  fled  with  her  son,  first  to  Wales,  and  thence  to  Scotland. 
Receiving  assistance  from  the  Scotch,  she  returned  to  England,  and  was 
joined  by  her  supporters  in  the  northern  counties  ;  York  advanced  to  op- 
pose her,  but  was  defeated  and  slain  at  Wakefield,  the  queen  behaving  wit); 
cruelty  after  battle.  Marching  to  London,  she  defeated  Warwick  in  the 
second  battle  of  St.  Albans,  and  released  her  husband. 

The  Londoners,  disgusted  with  the  ferocity  of  her  northern  troops,  would 
not  admit  her  into  their  city,  but  recognized  York's  eldest  son  as  king,  by 
the  title  of  Edward  lY.  She  retreated  north  and  was  followed  by  Edward. 
The  great  battle  of.Towton,  1461,  was  fatal  to  the  Lancastrian  cause.  Mar- 
garet fled  to  Scotland  with  her  husband  and  son.  Thence  she  went  to  France, 
in  the  hope  of  obtaining  aid  from  Louis  XL,  in  which  she  met  with  little 

She  returned  again  to  .Scotland,  and  afterward  went  to  Flanders.  After 
remaining  some  time  at  Bruges,  .she  took  up  her  residence  in  her  father's 
dominions,  where  she  superintended  her  son's  education.  She  visited  the 
French  court,  at  Tours,  in  1469,  during  which  time  the  daughter  of  the  Earl 
of  Warwick  was  betrothed  to  the  queen's  son. 

From  now  on,  she  continued  to  ])e  buffeted  al)out  by  the  fortunes  (often 
misfortunes)  of  war  until  the  battle  of  Tewkesbury,  May  4,  1471,  when 
she  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  \  ictor,  her  son  having  previously  been 
slain.  Her  husband  was  put  to  death  a  few  weeks  later.  She  was  impris- 
oned in  the  Tower,  and  afterwards  at  Windsor  and  Wallingford,  until 
November  3,  1475,  when  she  was  ransomed  by  Louis  XI..  who  paid  50,000 
crowns  for  her  liberty,  her  father  having  ceded  Provence  to  him  for  the 
purpose,  and  returned  to  her  father's  protection.  She  formally  renounced 
all  the  rights  her  English  marriage  had  given  her  and  resided  in  deep  seclu- 
sion at  Reculee,  near  Angers,  one  of  the  i)()ssessions  of  her  father,  seldom 
leaving  that  retreat. 

Her  last  days  were  passed  in  the  chateau  of  Dampierre,  in  suffering  and 
bitter  regrets.    . 



A.  D.  1441-1509. 


«s,i^^^.^^    - 

^^ARGARET  was  the  only  daughter  and  heiress  of  John  Beaufort, 
^T^^  Duke  of  Somerset  (grandson  to  John  of  Gaunt,  Duke  of  Lancas- 
ter), by  Margaret  Beauchamp,  his  wife.  She  was  born  at  Bletshoe 
*n  Bedfordshire,  in  144 1.  While  very  young  she  was  married  to  Edmund 
Tudor,  Earl  of  Richmond,  by  whom  she  had  a  son  named  Henry,  who 
vas  afterwards  king  of  England,  by  the  title  of  Henry  VII. 

On  November  3,  1456,  the  Earl  of  Richmond  died,  leaving  Margaret  a 
ven- young  widow,  and  his  son  and  heir,  Henry,  not  al)ove  fifteen  weeks 
old.  Her  second  husband  was  Sir  Henry  Stafford,  knight,  second  son  of 
ihe  Duke  of  Buckingham,  by  whom  she  had  no  issue.  Soon  after  the 
death  of  Sir  Henry  Stafford,  which  happened  about  1482,  she  married 
Thomas.  Lord  Stanley,  afterwards  ICarl  of  Derby,  who  died  in  1504.  After 
^pcndinji^  a  life  in  successive  acts  of  beneficence,  she  paid  the  great  debt  of 
nature  on  June  29,  1509,  in  the  first  year  of  the  reign  of  her  grandson, 
Henry  VIII.  She  was  buried  in  Westminster  Abbey,  where  a  monument 
^*«i5  erected  to  her  memory.  It  is  of  black  marble,  with  her  efiigy  in 
JsTit  co|)p(.r  .  jjjid   ti^^.  head   is  encircled  with  a  coronet. 

Marj^aret  was  cel-jbrated  for  her  dev(Uion  and  charity,  though  slightly 
""^^  with  asceticism.  She  rose  at  five.-  in  ihr  morning,  and  from  that  hour 
'Jniil  dinner,  which  in  those  davs  was  at  ten,  spent  her  time  in  prayer  and 
"^-'htaiion.  In  lur  house  she  kepi  constantly  tuilve  poor  persons,  whom 
^^^  provided  with  food  and  clothing  :  and  although  tlK-  mother  of  a  king, 
"""^^n ttas her  acti\e  benevolence  that  she  was  often  seen  dressing  the  wounds 
•^^  the  l«)tt(H;t  mendicants,  and  relieving  them  by  her  skill  in  medicine.  She 
3'^' evinced  her  respect  for  learning,  both  bv  her  own  works,  and  bv  numif- 
''■*'^t  end(>wments  for  its  encouragement.  She  was  a  mother  to  the  slu- 
«'ntN  of  both  universities,  and  a  patroness  to  all  the  learned  men  of 
Ln^'laml.  Two  public  lectures  in  (li\inily  were  institiit<<l  by  her.  one  at 
Oxforrj  an(^|  another  at  Cambridge  ;  but  thox-  gciurons  efforts  wrw  sur- 
pa-^scfj  hy  luT  last  and  noblest  foundations,  the  colK-^es  of  Christ  and  .St. 
j"hn  in   the    latter  university. 


A.   1>.  14ffl.l504. 


.4. SA BELLA  of  Castile  was  born  in  Madrij^al,  April  22,  1451.     She  was 
•!•     the  daiigliter  of  John  IL   of  Castile  by  his  second  wife,   Isabella  of 
Portugal,  and  was  therefore  descended,  through  both  parents,  from 
the  famous  John  of  Gaunt,  Duke  of  Lancaster. 

Until  her  twelfth  year,  Isabella  lived  with  her*  mother  in  retirement  in 
th(»  small  town  of  Arevalo.  After  numerous  intrigues  on  the  part  of  her 
royal  sponsors  to  contract  political  marriages  that  were  distasteful  to  her, 
she  finally  married,  in  1469,  Ferdinand  V.,  king  of  Aragon,  whose  suit 
both  policy  and  affection  inclined  her  to  accept. 

After  the  death  of  her  brother  Henry  IV.,  in  1474,  she  ascended  the 
throne  of  Castile,  to  the  exclusion  of  her  elder  sister,  Joanna,  who  had 
the  rightful  claim  to  the  crown.  During  'the  lifetime  of  her  brother,  Isa- 
bella had  gained  the  favor  of  the  estates  of  the  kingdom  to  such  a  degree 
that  the  majority,  on  his  death,  declared  for  her.  From  the  Others,  the 
victorious  arms  of  her  husband  extorted  acquiescence,  in  the  -battle  of 
Toro,  in    1476. 

After  the  kingdoms  of  Aragon  and  Castile  were  thus  united,  Ferdinand 
and  Isabella  assumed  the  royal  title  of  Spain.  Thenceforward  their  for- 
tunes were  insc-parably  blended.  For  some  time  they  held  a  humble  court 
at  Dueiias,  and  afterward  they  resided  at  Segovia. 

With  the. graces  and  eharms  of  her  sex,  Isabella  united  the  courage  of  a 
heroine,  and  th(r  sagacity  of  a  statesman  and  legislator.  She  was  always 
present  at  the  transiution  of  state  affairs  and  her  name  was  placed  beside 
that  of  her  husband  in  publi(*  ordinances.  The  conquest  of  Granada,  after 
wiiirli  the  Moms  were  entirely  expelled  from  Spain,  and  the  discovery  of 
America,  were,  in  a  great  degree,  her  work.  When  all  others  had  heard 
with  in(  redulity  the  scluine  «)f  Cnluml.)us.  she  recalled  the  wanderer  to  her 
]>resenci.'  with  the  words.  **  I  will  assume  the  undertaking  for  my  own 
iT«»\\n  of  Castile,  and  am  ready  to  pawn  my  jewels  to  defray   the  expenses 






*^       H       IT       rm^ 


ReprDducBd   frnni    the    painting   by   Vacslav 

(Sbb  "Laura  and  Fetrarch.") 


of  It,  if  the  funds  in  the  treasury  should  be  found  inadequate."     In  all  her 
undertakings,  the  wise  cardinal  Ximenes  was  her  assistant. 

She  has  been  accused  of  severity,  pride,  and  unbounded  ambition  ; 
but  these  faults  oftentimes  promoted  the  welfare  of  the  kingdom,  as  well  as 
developed  her  virtues  and  talents.  A  spirit  like  hers  was  necessary  to 
Humble  the  haughtiness  of  the  nobles  without  exciting  their  hostility  ;  to 
conquer  Granada  without  letting  loose  the  hordes  of  Africa  on  Europe  ; 
and  to  restrain  the  vices  of  her  subjects,  who  had  become  corrupt  by  reason 
ol  the  bad  administration  of  the  laws. 

By  the  introduction  of  a  strict  ceremonial,  which  subsists  to  the  present 
day  at  the  Spanish  court,  she  succeeded  in  checking  the  haughtiness  of  the 
numerous  nobles  about  the  person  of  the  king,  and  in  depriving  them  of 
their  pernicious  influence  over  him.  Private  warfare,  which  had  formerly 
prevailed  to  the  destruction  of  public  tranquillity,  she  checked,  and  intro- 
duced a  vigorous  administration  of  justice. 

The  ver>'  sincerity  of  her  piety  and  strength  of  her  religious  convictions 
led  her  more  than  once,  however,  into  great  errors  of  state  policy,  which 
bave  never  since  been  repaired,  and  into  more  than  one  act  which  offends 
the  moral  sense  of  a  more  refined  age. 

In  1492.  Pope  Alexander  VI.  confirmed  to  the  royal  pair  the  title  of 
Catholic  king,  already  conferred  upon  them  by  Innocent  V'lII.  The  zeal 
for  the  Roman  Catholic  religion,  which  procured  them  this  title,  gave  rise 
t<^  tht' inquisition,  which  was  introduced  into  Spain  in  1480,  at  the  sugges- 
ti«.>n  of  their  confessor,  Torquemada.  This  was  followed  by  a  wholesale 
pn/scripiion  <A  the  Jews  and  other  acts  of  fanaticism  which  history  has  been 
veiy  slow  to  approve,  though  all  historians  agree  in  applauding  her  beauty, 
virtue,  piety,  learning,  and  political  wisdom. 

J-sak-lla  died  in  1504,  having  extorted  from  her  husband  (of  whom  she 
« as  very  jealous )  an  oath  that  he  would  never  marry  again.  She  had  five 
childTt-n  :  Isabella,  married  to  Kmmaniiel  of  Portugal;  Jnan,  a  virtuous 
prince,  who  died  in  1497,  aged  20  ;  Juana,  who  married  Philip,  Archduke 
of  Austria,  and  who  was  the  mother  of  the  emperor  Charles  \'.  :  Maria, 
tt  bo  espoused  Emmanuel  alter  the  death  of  her  sister  :  and  Catharine,  the 
uifeof  Henr>'  VIII.  of  England. 



A.  D.  1462-1528. 



QNNE  of  Beaujeu  was  born  in  1462,  and  was  early  distinguished  f<5r 
genius,  sagacity,  and  penetration,  added  to  an  aspiring  temper.     She 
married  Pierre  de  Bourbon,  a  prince  of  slender  fortune  and  marked 

On  his  deathbed,  Louis,  as  an  exhibition  of  his  confidence  in  the  talents 
of  his  daughter,  bequeathed  the  reins  of  empire  with  the  title  of  governess 
to  her,  during  the  minority  of  her  brother,  Charles  VI IL,  a  youth  of  four- 
teen.     Anne  fully  justified,  by  her  capacity,  the  choice  of  her  father. 

Two  competitors  disputed  the  will  of  the  late  monarch  and  the  preten- 
sions of  Anne  ;  her  husband's  brother,  John,  Duke  of  Bourbon,  and  Louis, 
Duke  of  Orleans,  presumptive  heir  to  the  crown  ;  but  Anne  conducted 
herself  with  such  admirable  firmness  and  prudence  that  she  obtained  the 
nomination  of  the  states-general  in  her  favor.  By  acts  of  popular  justice, 
she  conciliated  the  confidence  of  the  nation  ;  and  she  appeased  the  Duke  de 
Bourbon  by  bestowing  upon  him  the  sword  of  the  constable  of  France, 
which  he  had  been  long  ambitious  to  obtain.  But  the  Duke  of  Orleans  was 
not  so  easily  satisfied.  Having  offended  Anne  by  some  passionate  expres- 
sions, she  ordered  him  to  be  arrested  ;  but  he  fled  to  Brittany  and  sought 
the  protection  of  Francis  II. 

Anne  became  Duchess  of  Bourbon  in  1488,  by  the  death  of  John,  her 
husband's  elder  brother  ;  and  though  before  this,  Charles  VIII.  had  assumed 
the  government,  she  always  retained  a  place  in  the  council  of  state.  Charles 
VIII.,  dying  without  issue  in  1498,  was  succeeded  by  the  Duke  of  Orleans, 
who,  notwithstanding  the  severity  exercised  towards  him  by  Anne,  still 
continued  her  in  the  council. 

The  Duke  de  Bourbon,  died  in  1503  ;  Anne  survived  him  till  November 
14,  1522.  They  left  one  child,  Susanne,  heiress  to  the  vast  possessions  of 
the  family  of  Bourbon,  who  married  her  cousin  Charles  de  Montpensier, 
constable  of  Bourbon. 



A.  D.  1476-1514. 

< — jat— > 

vAJNNE  of  Bretagne,  or  Brittany,  only  daughter  of  Francis  IL,  Duke  of 
-••^  Bretagne,  was  born  at  Nantes,  January  26,  1476.  She  was  carefully 
educated,  and  gave  early  indications  of  great  beauty  and  intelli- 
gence. When  only  five  years  old  she  was  betrothed  to  Edward,  Prince  of 
Wales,  son  of  Edward  IV.  of  England.  But  his  tragical  death,  two  years 
after,  dissolved  the  contract.  The  death  of  her  father  in  1490,  which  left 
her  an  unprotected  orphan,  and  heiress  of  a  spacious  domain,  at  the  time 
*'hen  the  Duke  of  Orleans  was  detained  a  prisoner  by  Anne  of  Beaujeu, 
forced  her  to  seek  some  other  protector  ;  she  was  consequently  married  by 
proxy  to  Maximilian,  emperor  of  Austria.  But  Anne  of  Beaujeu  deter- 
nimed  to  obtain  possession  of  Bretagne,  and,  despairing  of  conquering  it 
">'  anns,  resolved  to  accomplish  her  purpose  by  effecting  a  marriage  be- 
tween her  young  brother,  Charles  VIII.  of  France,  and  Anne  of  Bretagne, 
who  yielded  a  reluctant  consent,  and  the  marriage  was  celebrated,  Decem- 
ber 16,  149 1. 

•  ^nne  soon  became  attached  to  her  husband,  who  was  an  amiable 
though  a  weak  prince,  and  on  his  death,  in  149S,  she  abandoned  herself  to 
the  deepest  grief.  She  retired  to  her  hereditary  domains,  where  she  af- 
lected  the  rights  of  an  independent  sovereign. 

Louis,  Duke  of   Orleans,    succeeded  Charles  VIII.    under  the  title  of 

Louis  XII.,  and  soon  renewed   his  former  suit  to  Anne,  who   had  never 

entirely  lost  the  preference  she  had  once  felt  for  him.     The  first  use  Louis 

made  of  his  regal  power  was  to  procure  a  dixorce    from  the  unfortunate 

Jeanne,  daughter  of  Louis  XL,  who  was  personally  deformed,  and  whom 

he  had  been  forced  to  marry.     Jeanne,  with  the  sweetness  and  resignation 

that  marked  her  whole    life,   submitted  to   the  sentence    and    retired  to  a 

convent.     Soon  after,   Louis  married  Anne  at  Xantes. 

Anne  retained  a  strong  influence  over  her  husband  throughout  her 
whole  life,  by  her  beauty,  amiability,  and  the  purity  of  her  manners.  She 
was  a  liberal  rewafder  of  merit,  and  patroness  of  learning  and  literature. 



m.  1493,  <L  1519. 


■<»-»  <>- 

T  ^UCREZIA,  sister  of  Cesare  Borgia,  and  daughter  of  Rodriguez 
I  Y  Borgia,  afterward  Pope  Alexander  VI.,  was  married  in  1493  to 
Giovanni  Sforza,  Lord  of  Pesaro,  with  whom  she  lived  four  years. 
Her  father,  upon  his  accession  to  the  Holy  See,  dissolved  the  marriage  and 
gave  her  to  Alphonso,  Duke  of  Bisceglia.  On  this  occasion  she  was  created 
Duchess  of  Spoleto  and  of  Sermoneta.  She  had  one  son  by  Alphonso, 
who  died  young.  In  June,  1500,  Alphonso  was  stabbed  to  death  by  assas- 
sins, supposed  to  have  been  employed  by  the  infamous  Cesare  Borgia. 
Lucrezia  has  never  been  accused  of  any  participation  in  this  murder,  or  in 
any  of  her  brother's  atrocious  deeds.  She  then  retired  to  Nepi,  but  was 
recalled  to  Rome  by  her  father,  and  toward  I  he  end  of  1501  was  married  to 
Alphonso  d'Este,  Duke  of.  Ferrara. 

This  third  marriage  was  celebrated  with  great  pomp,  and  marked  a  new 
era  in  her  career.  When  Alphonso  was  absent  in  the  field  of  battle  he  in- 
trusted her  with  the  government,  in  which  capacity  she  gained  general 
approbation.  She  became  a  patroness  of  literature,  and  lived  with  wise 
discretion.  Her  conduct  while  living  at  Rome  with  her  father  has  been 
the  subject  of  much  obloquy,  which  seems  to  rest  chiefly  on  her  living 
in  a  flagitious  court  among  profligate  scenes.  No  individual  charge  can  be 
substantiated  against  her.  On  the  contrary  she  is  mentioned  by  contem- 
porary poets  and  historians  in  the  highest  terms.  Many  of  the  reports 
about  her  were  circulated  by  the  Neapolitans,  the  natural  enemies  of  her 
family.  She  died  at  Ferrara  in  15 19.  In  the  Ambrosian  Library  there  is  a 
collection  of  letters  written  by  her,  and  a  poetical  effusion. 

Anne  of  Bretagne  continued. 

Her  piety  was  fervent  and  sincere,  tliough  rather  superstitious  ;  but  she 
was  proud,  her  determination  sometimes  amounted  to  obstinacy,  and,  when 
she  thought  herself  justly  offended,  she  knew  not  how  to  forgive.  She 
died  January  9,  1514,  and  Louis  mourned  her  loss  with  the  most  sincere 



ReproducBd  from  a  painting  by  Joseph  CbIbs- 
tin  BlaiiG  Bxhibitsd  in  the  Paris  Salon,  IBGS. 
Blanc  was  a  pupil  of  Bin  and  Cabanel,  and  wan 
the  prize  at  Rame  in  1BFj7.  His  best  piclures  are 
"The  First  Sin."  "  Hrigand's  Wile/'  and  "Judith 
and  HaloiErnes." 












^^nfHE  twelfth   century  was  a   turbulent   period  of  transition,   both  in 
®  I  fe     France  and  in  England,  from  an  old  state  of  society  to  a  new  one. 
It  witnessed  in  both  countries  the  great  struggle  between  kingly 
government  and  feudal  power,  and,  at  the  end  of   it,  the   advantage  re- 
mained with  the  crown,  though  the  victory  was  but  imperfect. 

The  position  of  woman,  it  is  true,  had  been,  in  some  degree,  raised  at 
the  beginning  of  this  period,  especially  among  the  aristocracy.     Kings  of 
the  Norman  line  granted  the  hereditary  right  of  succession  to 
*|**^  such  titles  of  nobility  as  earls,  barons,  etc.,  without  excep- 
tion of  sex  ;   so  that  on  the  failure  of  male  heirs,  the  title 
should  devolve  and  be  confirmed  to  the  women,  and  they  could  convey  it 
"}' marriage  into  other  families.     Thus  women  became  nobles  in  their  own 
"R"t    On  the  other  hand,  the  authority  of  the  father  over  his  daughters, 
»n  regard  to  giving  in  marriage,  had  been  transferred  to  tlie  feudal  lord,  or 
^t  'east  was  placed  under  his  control  ;  and  his  right  to  the  disposal  of  wards 
^^more  strictly  enforced  than  ever,  and  was  made  a  means  of  profit  and 
extortion.       One  of  the  old  writers   complains  that   "  wards  were  bought 
i*ndsold  as  commonly  as  were  beasts."      In  the  charter  of  Henry  I.,  pre- 
^Ted  to  the  laws  of  that  monarch,  and  written  in  the  first  year  of  his  reign, 
Wonuia**    ^'  ^'  ^^^^  ^^    iioi,  he  promises    to    act    in   regard    to  his 
MarttAl      authority  over  the  barons  in  this  regard,  with  the  upmost  dis- 
*"     interesledness.      *'  And  if,"  he  says,  *'any  one  of  my  barons 
or  men  wish  to  give  in  marriage  his  (laughter,  or  sister,  or  j^randdaiighter, 
or  kinswoman,  let  him  talk  to  me  about  it.      But  I  will  neither  take  any- 
thing from  him  for  this  license,  nor  will  I  forbid  him  to  give  her,  unless  he 
should  intend  to  unite  her  with  my  enemy.      And  if  my  baron  or  other  man 
being  dead,  his  daughter  remains  his  heir,  I  will  give  her  w  ith  her  lands  by 
the  advice  of  my  barons.      And  if,  the  husband  being  dead,  his  wife  sur- 
vive, and  be  without  children,  she  shall  have  her  dower  and  marriage,  and 



I  will  not  give  her  to  a  husband,  except  according  to  her  will.  But  if 
the  wife  survive  with  children,  she  shall  have  her  dower  and  marriage,  as 
long  as  she  shall  keep  her  body  lawfully  ;  and  either  the  wife  or  some  other 
near  of  kin  shall  be  the  guardian  of  the  land  and  children.  And  I  order 
that  my  barons  shall  forbear  similarly  towards  the  sons  or  daughters  or 
wives  of  their  men."  Such  was  woman's  marital  position  under  feudalism  ; 
forbearance  was  proclaimed  nominally,  but  was  far  from  bein<y  the  practice, 
if  various  writers  of  this  period  are  to  be  accredited. 

One  of  the  most   singular  characteristics  of  this  period  is  the  curious 

mixture  of  religion   and  love.     The  knight  wrote  poems  in  honor  of  the 

Virgin  Mary,  which  cannot  be  easily  distinguished  from  those 

and         addressed  to  the  lady  of  his  affection.     The  love  of  God  and 

i^ove        of  lYiQ  ladies  was  the  prime  motive  of  every  true  knight  in  his 

course  of  chivalry.      To  this  he  publicly  and  solemnly  devoted    himself. 

La  Dame  des  Belles  Cousines,  a  shining  light  in  the  days  of  chivalry,  held 

that  the  love  of  God  should  not  go  on  without  the  love  of  the  ladies,  and 

that  a  "  lover  who  comprehended  how  to  serve  a  lady  loyally  was  saved,'' 

St.  Palaye  does  not  hesitate  to  accept  this  as  a  serious  article  of  the  faith  of 

a  knight.     Speaking  of  the  education  of  gentle  youth  he  says,  '*  The  first 

lessons  given  to  them  had  reference  principally  to  the  love  of  God  and  of 

the  ladies  —  that  is  to  say,  to  religion  and  to  gallantry. 

**  If  one  can  credit  the  chronicle  of  Jean  de  Saintre,  it  was  generally  the 
ladies  who  undertook  the  duty  of  teaching  them  at  one  and  the  same  time 
f/iet'r  catechism  and  the  art  of  love.  But  in  like  manner,  as  the  religion 
which  was  taught  was  accompanied  by  puerilities  and  superstition,  so  the 
love  of  the  ladies,  which  was  prescribed  to  them,  was  full  of  refinement  and 

The  poet  Chaucer  observes  as  follows:  "Women  are  the  cause  of  all 
knighthood,  the  increase  of  worship,  and  of  all  worthiness,  courteous,  glad 
and  merry,  and  true  in  every  wise."  Gassier  in  his  **  History  of  the  Chiv- 
alry of  France,"  speaking  of  the  romancers  or  troubadours,  has  the 
following  :  — 

**Many  knights  are  numbered  among  these  poets.  To  consecrate  his 
heart  and  his  homage  to  a  mistress,  to  live  for  her  exclusively  ;  for  her  to 



aspire  to  all  the  glory  of  arms  and  of  the  virtues,  to  admire  her  perfec- 
tions and  assure  to  them  public  admiration,  to  aspire  to  the  title  of  her 
ff^^,       servant  and  her  slave,  and  to  think    himself  blessed   if,   in 
btdoars     recompense  of  so  great  a  love,   and  of  so  great  efforts,  she 
deign  to  accept  them  ;  in  a  word,  to  serve  his  lady  as  a  kind 
of  divinity  whose  favors  cannot  but  be  the  prize  of  the  noblest  sentiments, 
a  divinity  who  cannot  be  loved  without  respect,  and  who  cannot  be  re- 
spected without  love  —  this  was  one  of  the  principal  duties  of  every  knight, 
or  of  whosoever  desired  to  become  one.     The  imagination  sought  to  exalt 
Itself  with  such  a  scheme  of  love  ;  and,  by  forming  heroes,  it  gave  reality  to 
blithe  flights  of  the  poet's  imagination  of  that  time. 

"  The  fair  whose  charms  and  whose  merits  the  knights-troubadour  cele- 

*^ted,  those  earthly  goddesses  of  chivalry,   welcomed  them  with  a  win- 

^^g  generosity,  and  often  repaid  their  compliments  with  tender  favors. 

*  It  is  easy  to  understand  that,  love  and  war  being  the  spring  of  all 

^*'"  actions,  some  celebrated  the  deeds  of  arms  which  had  rendered  so 

^*^J'  orave  knights  illustrious,  while  others  sang  of  the  beauty,  the  graces, 

^"^  charms  of  their  ladies,  and  of  the  tender  sentiments  with  which 

^  *3*es  inspired  them. ' ' 

y  tl-|e  customs  of  Burgundy,  a  young  maid  could  save  the  life  of  a 

^*     if  she  met  him  by  accident,  for  the  first  time,  going  to  execution, 

^^d  him  in  marriage.      "Is  it  not  true,"  asks  Marchangy,  "  that  the 

^*^    who  can  interest  a  simple  and  virtuous  maid,  so  as  to  be  chosen  for 

^^^d,  is  not  so  guilty  as  he  may  appear,  and  that  extenuating  circum- 

i^tance^    ^peak  secretly  in  his  favor?  " 

^^  not  necessary  to  adduce  further  [)roof  of  the  eminence  to  which, 

"^*^V,  woman  was  exalted  through  the  spirit    of  chivalry.      Her  empire 

_,--.  was  notorious  and  unchalleni^ed.      All  writers  of  those  times 

Cli%^^j         c<?lebrate  it,  and   in  recent  times  it  has  been  attested  by  the 

charming  pen  of   Scott    and  by  the  sneer  of  Gibbon.     The 

•hct)^'  of  the   worship  is  beyond   dispute  ;    but  it  may  be  interesting  to 

e?t^^Uie  how  the  practice  of  chivalry  accorded   with   its  profession,    and 

Vk'bcther  the  power  and  position  of  the  sex  were  substantially  as  dazzling  as 

speculation  represented  them.      Upon  reflection  we  shall  probably  all  admit 



that  they  were  so.  For  though  the  phase  of  lady  worship  most  familiar  to 
us  is  seen  in  the  practice  of  the  knights- errant,  to  whose  vagaries  a  certain 
amount  of  ridicule  attaches,  there  is  ample  evidence  of  a  real,  practical, 
established  female  ascendency.  Independently  of  the  effects  of  real  or  fan- 
cied passion,  or  generosity,  or  condescension,  the  sex,  as  such,  undoubtedly 
experienced  and  exercised  the  benefits  and  the  powers  which  the  knight's 
profession  assigned  to  it. 

Dunham,  in  his  History  of  the  Middle  Ages,  says:  — 

'*That  woman  should  be  regarded  with  new  respect,  that  love  and 
poetry  should  thrive  together  and  become  the  greatest  charm  of  life,  was  to 
be  expected.  In  fact,  from  this  period  the  sex  assumed  an  empire  which 
had  never  before  existed  —  an  empire  which  religion  could  not  reach  — 
over  the  minds  of  the  fiercest  nobles.  It  was  not  uncommon  for  a  knight  to 
expiate  even  a  venial  fault  by  years  of  penance  at  the  mandate  of  some 
proud  beauty." 

But  though  possessed  of  such  great  and  arbitrary  powers,  woman  was 

not  a  wholly  irresponsible  despot.     She  had  her  duties  as  well  as  her  privi- 

xiie         ^^R^S'  ^"^^  notwithstanding  that  here  and  there  a  saucy  sister 

Petninine   strained  her  power  to  the  utmost  while  taking  little  thought 

spiiere  ^^  ^^^^  ^^^,^  obligations,  yet  with  the  sex  generally  it  was  not 
so  ;  indeed  it  could  not  have  been  so  without  breaking  down  the  system, 
which  rested  as  much  upon  the  fitness  of  women  to  be  loved  and  served  as 
on  the  merit  of  men  in  loving  and  serving  them.  To  justify  this  extreme 
idolatry,  it  was  necessary  that  the  idol  should  be  worthy  of  such  worship  ; 
and  a  very  high  standard  indeed  was  set  up.  The  dame  and  the  demoiselle 
were  eminent  for  courtesy,  affability,  and  grace  ;  while  at  the  same  time 
they  cultivated  all  useful  arts  which  were  proper  to  their  sphere.  They 
were  emphatically  ftviiymie.  Fast  and  majinish  women  were  not,  as  we 
shall  see,  wholly  unknown,  but  they  were  nonconformists,  dissentients  from 
the  pure  faith  of  chivalry, —  women  who  did  not  perceive  their  true  mis- 
sion nor  the  real  source  of  their  strength.  That  source  was,  as  has  been 
said  above,  undoubtedly  their  weakness,  and  the  absence  of  all  pretension 
on  their  part.  Anything  like  self-assertion  or  competition  would,  in  those 
blustering  ages  when  their  influence  began  to  bud,  have  been  fatal  to  the 



tender  plant  Woman  became  the  arbitress  of  men's  deeds,  because  she 
refrained  from  meddling  in  the  affairs  of  men  ;  she  ruled  because  she  did 
not  rival.  St.  Palaye,  who  has  helped  us  before,  we  again  cite  in  testimony 
of  her  training  and  office  : — 

"Courts  and  castles  were  excellent  schools  of  courtesy,  of  politeness, 
and  of  the  other  virtues,   not   only  for  pages  and  esquires,   but  even  for 

young  ladies.     The  lattervvere  there  instructed  betimes  in  the 
.^  most  essential  duties  which  they  would  have  to  fulfill.     There 

were  cultivated,  there  were  perfected,  those  simple  graces 
and  those  tender  feelings  for  which  nature  seems  to  have  formed  them. 
The)'  prepossessed  by  civility  the  knights  who  arrived  at  tlieir  castles. 
According  to  our  romances,  they  disarmed  them  on  their  return  journeys 
and  expeditions  of  war,  gave  them  changes  of  apparel,  and  waited  on 
them  at  table.  The  examples  of  this  are  too  frequently  and  too  uniformly 
repeated  to  allow  of  our  questioning  the  reality  of  this  custom.  We  see 
therein  nothing  but  what  is  conformable  to  the  spirit  and  the  sentiments  at 
the  time  almost  universally  diffused  among  ladies  ;  and  one  cannot  refuse 
toreco^ize  the  marks  of  usefulness  which  were  in  everything  the  stamp  of 
our  chiN-alr)'. 

"These  damsels,  destined  to  have  for  husbands  those  same  knights  who 
\Tsited  at  the  houses  where  they  were  brought  up,  could  not  fail  to  attach 
them  to  themselves  by  the  attentions,  the  considerations,  and  the  services 
*hich  they  lavished  upon  them.  How  admirahk'  the  union  which  ought  to 
pniceed  from  alliances  established  on  foundations  like  this  I  The  young 
i(irls  learned  to  render  one  day  to  their  husbands  all  the  ser\  ices  which  a 
*amor,  distinguished  by  his  valor,  can  expect  from  a  tenck-r  and  generous 
woman  :  and  they  prepared  to  be  to  them  the  most  touching  recompense 
and  the  sweetest  solace  of  their  labors. 

Chivalry  passed  its  meridian  and  began  to  decline  when  it  became  a 
ndiculous  mania   for  renown.      Knighthood  was   no   longer  the  rt.\v;ird  of 

high-minded  virtue,  but  was   bestowed  on  any  man  who  had 
^  wealth   or  power   to  obtain   it   for   his  own  seltlsh   purposes. 

The   profligacy  of  the   troubadours  was  open   and    flagrant  ; 
the  crusaders,  who  made  a  pilgrimage  to  the  holy  sepulchre  in  expiation  of 



their  sins,  fearfully  added  to  the  list  on  their  way  ;  poor  knights,  who  had 
no  money  to  i)ay  iheir  retainers,  made  no  scruple  of  obtaining  it  by  rob- 
bery and  violence,  and  wandered  about  in  quest  of  adventures,  letting  out 
their  swords  to  richer  brethren  ;  women  departed  from  the  modesty  which 
had  procured  them  homage,  and  bestowed  their  smiles  so  indiscriminately 
that  they  lost  their  value.  Vet,  as  the  affectation  of  anything  is  always 
more  excessive  than  the  reality,  the  exploits  of  the  knights  during  the 
rapid  decline  of  chivalry  were  more  outrageously  fantastical  than  they  had 
ever  lx?en.  It  was  common  for  a  cavalier  to  post  himself  in  some  very 
public  place,  and  fight  every  gentleman  that  passed,  unless  he  instantly 
acknowledged  that  the  lady  of  his  affections  was  the  handsomest  and  most 
virtuous  lady  in  the  world  ;  and  if,  as  often  happened,  he  was  met  by  one 
as  mad  as  himself,  who  insisted  upon  maintaining  the  superior  charms  of 
his  dulcinea,  a  deadly  combat  ensued. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  fourteenth  century,  a  society  of  ladies  and 
gentlemen  was  fornu-d  at  Poictou,  called  the  Penitents  of  Love.  In  order 
to  show  that  love  could  effect  \\\v  strongest  metamorphosis,  they  covered 
themselves  with  furred  mantles  and  sat  before  large  fires  in  the  heat  of 
summer,  while  in  winter  they  wore  the  slightest  j)ossible  covering.  Thus 
chivalry  became  an  absurd  and  disgusting  mockery,  and  was  finally 
laughed  out  of  the  world    by  the  witty  Cervantes. 

But  though  thf  form  became  grotesque,  and  died  in  a  state  of  frenzy, 
the  important  end  achieved  by  the  spirit  of  true  chivalry  ought  not  to  be 
XeacliliiirM  f**^^*^^^^*"-  '^  stood  in  the  place  of  laws,  when  laws  could 
of  xnae  not  have  bevn  enforced,  and  it  raised  woman  to  a  moral  rank 
ciiiva  ry  j^^  society  unknown  to  the  most  rrfmed  nations  of  anti(|uity 
—  a  rank  she  can  never  entirely  lose,  and  from  which  her  comparative  free- 
dom is  derived.  It  taught  monarchs  to  lay  the  foundation  of  a  beautiful 
social  system  by  introducing  the  wives  and  daughters  of  the  nobles  at 
court,  where  none  but  men  had  previously  been  seen.  "A  court  without 
Lidies,"  said  Francis  I.,  "is  a  year  without  a  spring,  or  a  spring  without 

Beyond  the  walls  of  the  castle,  and  having  no  relationship  of  their  own 
with   feudalism,   to  which    the   foregoing  discussion    has   almost  exclusive 



^^crencc,  lay  two  other  great  classes  of  the  population.  First,  there  were 
"^^  mhabitants  of  the  towns,  who  embodied,  perhaps,  to  a  greater  degree 
^W  any  of  the  others,  the  spirit  of  social  and  political  freedom  and  prog- 
^^  The  other  was  to  a  great  extent  a  servile  class,  attached  to  the 
^und,  or  personally  to  the  lord  of  the  domain,  reduced  to  servility 
throi^h  conquest,  and  largely  intermixed  in  the  course  of  time  with  slaves 
/'^uced  to  that  condition  by  different  means.  Among  the  masses,  in 
"^A  these  classes,  there  was  far  less  of  social  refinement  than  among  tHe 
^^da\  or  gen//e  class. 

F'or  our  knowledge  of  the  women    among  the  masses  at  that  time  we 

"'"^t  look  to  the  fabliaux   and    popular  tales,   to  the  farces,  and  to  the 

'^^ong       popular  literature  generally,  and  there  we  shall  find  it  pic- 

tiie  tured  pretty   fully,  and  it    must    be   confessed    in    not   very 

*****      amiable  colors. 

"The  generality  of  the  buri^her  women  are  represented  as  ill-educated, 

^^^^*^  in  language  and  manners,  and  violent  in  temper.     They  tyrannize 

®^*^r  their  husbands,  and  beat  them,  and  are  often  beaten  in   their  turn. 

irit^ylove  gadding  alx)ut.     This   is   perhaps  easily  understood,  when  we 

^^nsider  that  town  life,  as  far  as  the  male  sex  was  concerned,  was  very 

"^^»ch  out-of-doors,    and    that    the    women    were    left    to    themselves,   and 

^HQrefore  sought  society  among  themselves,   and,   as  they  had  not  this  at 

'^oiTie,  they  sought  some  common  place  of  meeting.     This  place  was  the 

^^vern,  which,  in  the  medieval  town,  was  the  great  place  of  resort  for  both 


The  love  of  women  for  the  tavern   is  continually  alluded  to  by  the  early 

Popular  writers.      The  farces  of  these  writers  were  first  made  to  enliven  the 

dull  mysteries,   or  nligious  plays,  with  which  the  medieval 

^  clergy  sought  to  edifv   their  congregations  on  certain  occa- 

sions.      When   the  hearers  appeared  to  he  too  much  wearied 

*Uh  the  religious  piece,  or  when   it  was  judged   probable  that  they  might 

"^«  One  of  these   farces  was    introduced    between   the  scenes,    the  subject 

usually  taken  from  vulgar  life. 

In  the  middle  of  the  religious  play  of  the  Life  of  St,  Fiarn\  a  farce  is 
Jntrodured,  the  subject  of  which   is  a  scene  of  poj)ular  lift-,  the  charac  trrs 



being  men  of  the  country  instead  of  the  town,  whose  manners  appear  not 
to   have   differed.     A   scuffle   has  taken   place  between  a  yeoman,  a  ser- 
geant (or  bailiff),  and  a  brigand,  in  which  the  sergeant* s  arm 

"       *^*    is  broken.     The  wives  of  the  bailiff  and  yeoman  meet  in  anoth- 
Plctnre  ^ 

er  scene,  and  the  latter  tells  the  former  of  her  husband's  mis- 
hap, at  which  she  expresses  her  joy,  inasmuch  as  he  had  beaten  her 
severely  the  night  before,  and  she  hopes  he  may  be  disabled  from  doing  it 
again.     The  yeoman's  wife  then  proposes  to  adjourn  to  a  tavern  :  — 

•'  Sister,  I  know  a  tavern. 
Where  there  is  a  wine  so  dainty, 
That  to  all  bodies  it  sets  the  heart  laughing 
Who  drinks  it." 

Accordingly  they  proceed  to  the  tavern,   and  address  themselves  to  the 

hostess  :  — 

**  Hostess,  God's  blessing  to  you, 
Put  us  in  a  private  room, 
And  then  bring  us  to  drink." 

So  the  women  are  shown  into  a  private  apartment,  and  are  served  with 
wine  ;  and  here  they  enter  into  a  rather  free  conversation  on  the  characters 
of  their  husbands,  not  much  to  the  advantage  of  the  latter.     Says  the  wife 

of  the  bailiff  :  — 

•*  You  shall  drink  first  of  all, 
Gossip,  you  are  the  elder. 
Moreover  you  have  brought 
The  news  first 
Of  my  husband,  how  he  is 
In  evil  plight  ;    I  am  in  great  joy, — 
I  wish  he  had  his  head 

Entirely  broken." 

However,  it  turns  out  that  the  bailiff's  hurt  was  not  so  great  as  had  been 
supposed  ;  and  the  drinking  room  was  not  so  secret  ;  for  the  women  are 
alarmed  soon  after  by  seeing  their  husbands  approach  the  tavern.  They 
arrive,  find  their  wives  and  beat  them,  and,  as  their  wives  are  very  ready  at 
defending  themselves,  the  farce  ends  in  a  general  scuffle.  Such  was 
burgher  life  in  one  of  its  lower  phases. 

There  was  another  establishment  peculiar  to  the  medieval  towns  which 



formed  ^.     favorite  resort  to  the  townswomen,   called  in  French  cstuves  or 
public  baths.     The  women  of  the  medieval  towns  appear  to 
31^^^^        have  spent  much  of  their  time  in  these  cstuves.     They  met 
there  as  at  a  party  of  amusement,  and  often  clubbed  together 
provisions  to  make  a  banquet,  much  in  the  manner  of  fashionable  picnics  in 
the  days  of  George  III.  of  England.     The  earlier  French  popular  literature 
imrodiices  us  to  the  scenes  which  occurred  on  these  occasions,  but  they  are 
too  coarse  and  disreputable  to  be  described  in  modern  print.      In  the  man- 
ner in   which  they  were  conducted,  these  establishments  offered  so  many 
lacUilies  to  discreditable  intrigues  that  they  became  known  as  houses  of  ill- 
lame.     They  continued   to  exist  in  France  until  rather  a  late  period  ;  in 
London  they  were  suppressed  by  Henry  VIII. 

*  "e  tone  of  society  in  the  towns,  as  revealed   by  these  scenes  in  the 
*'*''^»  Ji-as  extremely  gross,  and  the  language  the  women  use,   and  the 

^^^^^ subjects  of  which  they  talk,  would  not  bear  repetition  at  the 

lAt^  [)resent   day.     This  was,    no  doubt,   less  the   case   with  the 

higher  classes,  though  the  women  of  these  classes,  even,  are 

•fess/^    warned  against    the  use  of  obscene  words  and  expressions,   as 

^"  ^liey  were  not  uncommon.      Morality,  too,  appears  to.have  been  at 

■'^  ^^^^3,  and  the  burgher  women  are  represented  as  engaged  continually 

in  low  ^x^  trignc's,  and  as  too  often  faithless  to  tht-ir  husbamls. 

\ar  \,  ^y^  circumstances  conduced  to  this  state  of  things.      The  women  of 

the  t«»^  iVs,  and  of  the  common  class  in  the  country,  were  left  much  to  them- 

^^.^.^         selves,  and  were  perhaps  on  that  account  more  rxposed   to 

corruption.      But  the  literature  of  the  feudal  agt?  destroys  any 

(JoO^^  ^hich  might  remain  on  our  minds  that  the  j)ri(sthoo(l,  (k*j)ri\r(i  of 

-Y^c  V^^viJejri-  of    marriage,   were    the  grrat  corruj)ti'rs  of   fcinak*  morality. 

-^YvJ^  ^as  chiefly  the  outside  the  walls  of  the  feudal  castles.      The  clergy 

^ilh»n  — the  chaplains  of  the  feudal  chieftains  —  were  too  widely  sej)arate(i 

•^  rocial  level   from  the  ladies  of  the  household,  and   under  too  close  ob- 

y.nati<m  of  the  lord  and  his  knights  and  escjuires,  to  he  vtry  dangerous. 

/f  tt<is  the  parish  priesthood  especially,  who  mixed  with   their  parishioners 

^,n  a  ^*x»ting  of  equality,  and,  in  fact,  belonj^ed.  generally,  by  l)Ioo(i  to  the 

^mc  class,  who,  armed  with  the  dem(»ralizing  system  of  auricular  confes- 



sion,    were  the  great   underminers  of  the  social   morals   of  the   Middle 

In  the  popular  stories  of  the  time,  every  woman  almost  had  a  priest,  or 
a  ''  clerk,"  or  a  monk,  for  her  lover,  and  not  a  few  of  the  stories  turn  upon 
the  alliance  or  rivalry  of  clergy  and  laity  in  the  same  pursuit.  Moreover,  a 
very  considerable  portion  of  the  clergy,  down  to  a  very  late  period,  so  far 
set  the  regulations  of  the  Church  at  defiance,  that  they  lived  with  concu- 
bines, who  were  acknowledged  by  the  parishioners  as  their  wives,  and  were 
commonly  spoken  of  as  the  *'  priestesses,"  who  were  considered  as  holding 
rather  a  high  position  in  the  popular  society,  and  whose  children  were 
proud  of  their  descent.  The  priests'  wives,  or  priestesses,  formed  quite  2k 
class  in  medieval  society,  although  they  were  not  acknowledged  by  the 

Another  point  to  be  emphasized  as  characteristic  of  the  Middle  Ages  is 
the  spirit  of  superstitious  devotion  so  generally  manifested.     No  guest  was 

saper-      so  welcome  in  bower  and  hall  as  the  pilgrim  returned  from  the 

•tltloas  Holy  Land,  with  many  a  tale  to  tell  of  victories  gained  by 
knights  of  the  holy  cross  over  the  worthless  infidel.  The 
troubadours^  after  a  youth  spent  in  love  and  minstrelsy,  almost  invariably 
retired  to  the  silence  of  the  cloister.  Noble  and  beautiful  women,  upon  the 
slightest  disgust  with  life,  or  remorse  of  conscience,  took  the  vow  that  sep- 
arated them  fore\'er  from  the  world,  and  pledged  them  to  perpetual  chastity 
and  poverty.  When  this  vow  was  taken,  all  jewels  and  rich  garments  were 
laid  aside,  and  the  head  shorn  of  its  beautiful  ornament  of  hair. 

The  building  in  which  they  secluded  themselves  was  guarded  by  massive 
walls,  and  iron-grated  windows.     The  rich  and  the  noble  seldom  died  with- 
out   leavine  something  to  endow  a  convent.      At  last,   they 
Conirents  .  . 

became  powerful  instruments  of  oppression  ;  for,  if  a  noble- 
man had  numerous  daughters,  and  wished,  in  the  pride  of  his  heart,  to  cen- 
ter his  wealth  on  one  only,  he  could  compel  all  the  others  to  take  the  veil  ; 
if  they  were  not  sufificiently  beautiful  to  aid  his  ambitious  views,  or  dared  to 
form  an  attachment  contrary  to  his  wishes,  the  same  fate  awaited  them. 

If  a  nun  violated  her  vow  of  chastity,  she  suffered  a  penalty  as  severe 
as  that  imposed  on  the  vestal  virgins  ;  being  placed  in  an  opening  of  the 



walb,  which  was  aften^ard  bricked  up  and  thus  left  to  perish  slowly  with 

But  the  influence  of  convents  was  far  from  being  wholly  evil.  Their 
gates  were  ever  open  to  the  sick,  the  wounded,  and  the  destitute  ;  in 
the  most  turbulent  times,  the  sweet  charities  of  life  there  found  a  kindly 
nurser)-,  and  many  a  young  mind  was  trained  to  virtue  and  learning,  under 
the  fostering  care  of  some  worthy  abbess. 

Aschi\'alr\'  and  the  military  spirit  declined,  men  began  to  take  pride  in 
literature  ;  and  women,  of  course,  assumed  a  corresponding: 
character.  The  merits  of  Arist()tle  and  Plato  divided  the 
attention  of  the  learned.  The  universities  declared  in  favor  of  Aristotle  ; 
■'"^  poets,  lovers,  and  women  were  enamored  of  the  ethereal  Plato.  Wo- 
men preached  in  public,  supported  controversies,  published  and  defended 
theses,  filled  the  chairs  of  philosophy  and  law,  harangued  the  popes  in  Lat- 
in. «Tote  Greek,  and  read  Hebrew.  Nuns  wrote  poetry,  women  of  rank  be- 
<^*roc  divines,  and  young  girls  publicly  exhorted  Christian  princes  to  take 
upvmsforthe  recovery'  of  the  holy  sepulcher. 

"  niay  Ih?  necessary'  to  speak  briefly  concerning  the  matter  of  dress  at 

™  remote  periods  under  consideration.      I^xtravagancc*  in  the  display  of 

^^       jewelry    and    of    rich    materials    in    the    dress    had    increased 

greatly  toward  the  end  of  the  twelfth  ( entury,  and  were  still 

on  the  increase. 

Among  the  new  sul)stances.  derived  like  so  many  others  from  the  ICast, 

Has  one  a»mm<»n  enough  now.  but  then  greatly  prized  — cotton,  which  ;ip- 

ftears  to  have   l>een   introduced   into   Pranct-  in    the   twelfth    century.      It 

;ippears  to  ha\ e  iK^en  in  general  use  throughout   lunopc-  in  the  thirteenth 

a-niury.     The  use  of  silk  among  the  higher  classes  was  very  considerable, 

dJid  it  was    mixed    perhaps  with    other    substances,   and    received  various 

cJ'vrs.  s'^  as  to  form  a  variety  of  silken  stutfs  known  inuKr  (hftcrcnt  nanus. 

.Siji^  uas  a  cloth  of  very  fine  texture  made  of  wool.      It  was  often  employed 

:o  evade   the    ecclesiastical    rule  which   enjoined,  by   way  of  penance,    the 

*  tearing  (»f  a  woolen  garment,  intended,   of  course.    1«)  be  rough,    next  to 

he  >kin.      Cavulot,  which  came  from   the  Past,  is  said  to  have  been  made 

A  the  hair  of  camels. 



In  the  latter  part  of  the  twelfth  century,  and  in  the  thirteenth,  embroid- 
ery of  various  kinds  was  employed  in  these  stuffs,  and  in  dresses  made 
from  them,  to  a  very  extravagant  degree.  It  was  not  unusual  to  have  the 
crests  and  armorial  bearings  of  the  family  embroidered  upon  the  outer 
dress  ;  and  it  was  often  covered  with  large  figures,  not  only  of  plants  and 
flowers,  but  of  animals  also.  Widows  were  closely  muffled,  and  wore  caps 
and  veils  very  much  like  nuns. 

A  taste  for  rich  and  elegant  dress  displayed  itself   first  in   Italy  and 

'France,   and    thence  spread  into  the   more  northern  nations.     Petrarch's 

National      Laura  is  described  as  wearing  gloves   brocaded  with    gold , 

Pecaifarltfes  and  dressed  magnificently  in  silk,  though  a  pound  of  silk  ai 

n  Dress  ^j^^^  period  was  valued  at  above  twenty  dollars,  in  our  money. 
Spanish  ladies  wore  necklaces  of  steel,  to  which  thin  iron  rods  were  fas- 
tened, curving  upward  to  expand  the  veil  when  thrown  over  the  head. 

All  nations  prided  themselves  on  long  and  beautiful  hair.  Among  the 
Saxons  and  Danes,  married  women  only  covered  it  with  a  headdress  ;  girls 
wore  their  tresses  loose  and  flowing.  A  faithless  wife  had  her  head  shaven, 
and  the  Church  sometimes  ordered  it  as  a  penance  for  other  sins.  The 
Spanish  and  Italian  ladies  retained  the  Roman  predilection  for  golden  hair. 
In  order  to  obtain  the  desired  hue,  they  made  use  of  sulphur  and  aquafortis, 
and  exposed  their  heads  to  the  sun  during  the  hottest  hours  of  the  day. 

The  writers  of  the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth  centuries  make  much  more 

frequent    mention    of   the  variations  of   the   fashions  than   those  of  more 

remote   periods.       The    causes   of    this    may   easily   be    dis- 

covered,  both  in  the  principal  events  of  the  last  centuries  of 

the  Middle  Ages,  and  in  the  reciprocal  relations  of  the  nations  of  Europe. 
The  long  wars  between  the  English  and  French,  and  the  military  expedi- 
tions of  the  Germans,  French,  and  Spaniards  to  Italy,  caused  such  an  in- 
termixture of  nations  as  had  not  taken  place  since  the  time  of  the  crusades. 
When  the  soldiers  who  had  been  in  foreign  service  for  many  years  returned 
to  their  native  land,  they  very  often  retained  the  dresses  and  decorations 
which  announced  their  extraordinary  achievements  and  adventures  ;  and 
these  foreign  costumes  and  ornaments  found  admirers  and  imitators  among 
their  countrymen  and  countrywomen. 








A.  D.  1500  TO  A.  D.  1800 





A.  D.  1480-1536. 


F^lATHARINE  of  Aragon,  fourth  daughter  of  Ferdinand  and  Isabella, 
^^^  king  and  queen  of  Castile  and  Aragon,  was  born  December  15, 
1485.  Married  in  1501,  when  scarcely  sixteen,  to  Arthur,  Prince 
^t  Wales,  son  of  Henry  VII.,  she  was  left  a  widow  April  2,  1502,  and  on 
^«e  25di  of  June  was  betrothed  to  her  brother-in-law,  Henry,  then  only 
^M'cn  years  old.  The  pope's  dispensation  enabling  such  near  relatives  to 
Quarry  was  obtained  in  1504,  and  the  marriage  took  place  in  June,  1509, 
5cven  weeks  after  Henry's  accession  to  the  crown  as  Henry  VIII. 

The  queen,by  her  manners,  good  sense,  and  superior  endowments,  con- 
trived to  retain  the  affection  of  this  fickle  and  capricious  monarch  for  nearly 
twaty  years.  She  was  devoted  to  literature  and  was  the  patroness  of  liter- 
arjrmciL  She  bore  several  children,  but  all  of  them,  excei)ting  a  daughter, 
afteiwanitt  Queen  Mary,  died  in  their  infancy.  Scruples,  real  or  pretended, 
3tleiq;th  arose  in  the  mind  of  Henry  concerning  the  legality  of  their  union, 
udthey  were  powerfully  enforced  by  his  passion  for  Anne  Boleyn. 

In  1527,  he  resolved  to  obtain  a  divorce  from  Catharine  on  the  grounds 
of  the  nullity  of  their  marriage,  as  contrary  to  the  Divine  laws.  Pope 
QcmeDt  VII.  seemed  at  first  disposed  to  listen  to  his  application,  but  over- 
Ured  by  Charles  V.,  emperor  of  Germany  and  nephew  to  Catharine,  he 
cvaed  die  negotiations  to  be  so  protracted  that  Henry  became  very  impa- 
tient Catharine  conducted  herself  with  gentleness,  yet  firmness,  in  this 
^lynv  emergenc>-. 

Beil^  cited  before  the  papal  legates,  Wolsry  and  Campeggio,  who  had 
opened  their  court  at  London,  in  May,  1529,  to  try  the  validity  of  the 
l^ioS^s  marriage,  she  arose  and,  knc-eling  Ix-fore  her  hnsl)ancl,  reminded  hin., 
*  a  pathetic  yet  resolute  speech  of  Ikt  lonely  and  unprotected  state, 
'wlof  her  constant  devotion  to  him,  on  proof  of  which  she  appealed  to  his 
Own  heart ;  then,  protesting  against  the  proceedings  of  the  court,  she  rose 
^'rf  withdrew,  nor  could  she  ever  be  induced  to  appear  again. 

Hcnrj',  soon  after,  threw  oil  liis  submission  to  the  court  of  Rome,  de- 



A.  D.  1499-1549. 


MARGARET  was  born  in  AngouKime,  April  ii,  1492,  and  died  at 
the  chateau  Odos,  in  Bigorre,  Deceml)cr  21,  1549.  She  was  the 
daughter  and  eldest  child  of  Charles  of  Orleans,  Count  of  Angoii- 
lenie,  and  of  Louise  of  Savoy.  Her  father  died  when  she  was  in  her 
twelfth  year,  hut  she  was  well  educated  by  her  mother,  and  at  the  court  of 
Louis   XI L 

She  was  married  in  1509  to  Charles,  Duke  of  Alen9on,  a  prince  of 
the  blood  royal,  but  who  has  suffered  in  history,  as  he  did  at  the  time, 
by  the  splendor  of  the  alliance  made  for  him.  The  five  years  that  im- 
mediately followed  this  marriage  were  passed  in  the  duchy  of  Alenyon  ; 
but  when  Margaret's  brother  became  king  of  France,  as  Francis  L,  she  not 
only  became  attached  to  his  court,  but  had  a  large  part  in  the  government. 

She  w«'is  superior  to  her  brother  in  ability,  and  her  learning  and  wit 
made  her  the  fit  companion  of  the  statesmen  of  those  times.  She  spoke 
several  languages  fluently  and  correctly. 

After  the  defeat  and  capture  of  her  brother  at  Pavia,  in  February,  1525, 
Margaret  aided  her  mother  to  carry  on  the  government  for  some  months  ; 
but  in  August  she  went  to  Madrid,  where  Francis  was  then  a  prisoner  to 
Charles  V.  Her  visit  was  reputed  to  have  saved  his  life  ;  and  her  warm 
reproaches  to  the  emperor,  because  of  his  uncliivalrous  treatment  of 
Francis,  had  a  powerful  eflect  even  on  his  cold  nature.  The  Duke  oi 
Alen^on,  her  husband,  died  April  11,  1525.  She  afterwards  became  the 
wife  of  Henri  d' Albert,  Count  of  Beam,  and  titular  king  of  Navarre. 

Cutlx<irino  of  Arfujroii  continued. 

clared  himself  luad  c>f  the  Church  of  luigland,  had  his  marriage  formally 

annulled  by  Archbishop  Cranmer,  and  in  1532  married  .Xnne  Boleyn. 

Catharine  took  up  her  abode  at  Amplhill  in  Bedfordshire,  and  after- 
wards at  Kimbolton  Castle,  in  Huntingdonshire.  .She  employed  herself 
chiefly  in  religious  duties,  bearing  her  lot  with  resignation.  She  died  in 
January,  1536. 


A.  D.  1507-153G. 


aNXE  BOLEYN,  second  wife  of  Henry  VIII.,  was  born  in  1.507,  and 
was  the  daughter  of  Sir  Thomas  Holeyn,  by  Elizabeth  Howard, 
(laughter  of  the  Duke  of  Norfolk.  She  spent  some  three  years  at 
the  court  of  France,  and  soon  after  her  return  to  England  was  wooed  by 
Lord  Hcnr)'  Percy,  and  by  king  Henry  himself,  who  in  1522  began  to  shower 
•eaith  and  honors  on  her  father,  and  who  ere  this  had  dishonored  her  sister 
Man*.  \ot  till  the  king's  divorce  from  Catharine  of  Aragon  was  set  afoot, 
dots  Anne  seem  to  have  favored  his  addresses  ;  but  long  before  Cranmer 
pn»nounce(i  the  divorce,  she  was  Henry's  mistress.  They  were  secretly 
numd  in  Januar\',  1533,  and  Anne  was  crowned  the  following  June.  Her 
^laujjhter,  the  famous  Elizabeth,  was  born  on  September  7  of  the  same  year. 
Anne  continued  to  be  much  loved  by  the  king  until  1536,  when  the  dis- 
appointment caused  by  the  birth  of  a  still-born  son  alienated  his  affections. 
^  next  May  day,  the  king  rode  off  abruptly  from  a  tournament  held  at 
Greenwich,  leaving  the  queen  behind,  and  on  the  morrow  she  was  arrested 
andhrouj^ht  to  the  tower.  The  story  runs  that  his  jealousy  was  kindled  by 
"^r  dropping  a  handkerchief  to  one  of  her  lovers  in  the  lists  below  ;  any- 
'"•ow,  a  s|>ecial  commission  had  been  secretly  engaged  in  examining  into 
charges  of  Anne's  adultery  with  her  own  brother,  Lcird  Ro(  hford,  and 
♦jtheni,  including  Mark  Smeaton,  a  musician.  Only  Smeaton  made  any 
confession;  but  they  were  all  convicted  oi  high  treason  and  nut  death, 
^'neaton  was  hanged,  and  two  days  later  on  Tower  (Jreen,  Anne  submitted 
"^-T slim  neck  to  the  headsman's  axe.  Henry,  the  next  day,  married  Jane 

"  ^ as  through  the  influence  of  Anne  Boleyn  that  the  translation  of  the 
Vnpturt-s  was  sanctioned  by  Henry  \'III.  Her  own  private  coj)y  of 
iyndale's  translation  is  still  in  existence.  She  was  a  woman  of  highly 
•-uuivaied  mind,  and  there  are  still  extant  soiiie  verses  comj)ose(l  by  her, 
shortly  before  her  execution,  which  are  touching  in  the  extreme  by  reason 
^'^  tJic^ef  and  desolation  they  express. 



A.  I>.  1521-1546. 


FNNE  ASKEW,  daughter  of  Sir  William  Askew,  oi  Kelsay,  in  Lin- 
colnshire, England,  was  born  in  152 1.  She  received  a  very  liberal 
education,  and  early  manifested  a  predilection  for  theological 
studies.  She  had  read  and  studied  the  Scriptures  quite  extensively  and 
espoused  with  great  earnestness  the  opinions  of  the  Reformation. 

Her  eldest  sister,  who  was  engaged  to  Mr.  Kyme  of  Lincolnshire,  died 
before  the  nuptials  were  completed.  Sir  W^illiam  Askew,  unwilling  to  lose 
a  connection  which  promised  pecuniary  advantages,  compelled  his  second 
daughter,  Anne,  to  fulfill  the  engagement  entered  into  by  her  sister.  But 
however  reluctantly  she  gave  her  hand  to  Mr.  Kyme,  to  whom  she  bore 
two  children,  she  rigidly  fulfilled  the  duties  of  a  wife  and  mother. 

Her  husband  was  a  strong  Catholic,  and  turned  her  out  of  doors.  She 
went  to  London  to  sue  for  a  separation,  and  attracted  the  sympathy  of 
the  queen,  Catharine  Parr,  and  many  of  the  court  ladies. 

At  first  a  Roman  Catholic,  she  had  gradually  become  convinced  of  the 
falsity  of  transubstantiation.  On  coming  to  London  she  was  obliged  to 
suflfer  numerous  indignities  lK)th  at  the  hands  of  the  Church  and  the  civil 

Her  denial  of  the  corporeal  presence  of  Christ's  body  in  the  eucharist 
caused  her  arrest  and  committal  to  prison.  When  examined  before  the 
lord  chancellor  Wriothesley,  bishop  of  London,  and  the  lord-mayor  of  that 
city,  she  was  asked,  whether  the  priests  cannot  make  the  body  of  Christ? 
She  answered,  "  I  have  read  that  (lod  made  man,  but  that  man  can  make 
(iod  I  have  never  yet  read." 

Yet  Hiirnet  says,  that  after  much  pains  she  signed  a  recantation  acknowl- 
edging that  the  natural  body  of  Christ  was  present  in  the  sacrament  after 
the  consecration,  wlu-ther  the  ofiiciating  priest  W(.*re  a  man  <»f  holy  or  evil 
life.  Her  recantation  did  not  save  her.  She  was  recommitted  to  Newgate, 
anil  aski'd  to  disclose  who  were  her  correspondents  at  court.  She  refused 
to  reply,  and  was  racked  in  the  presence  of  the  lord  chancellor,  but  would 
disclose  nothing. 



d.  A.  I).  1544. 


-  ♦-.'-^^ 

MARGARET  ROPER,  eldest  daughter  of  Sir  Thomas  More,  was  a 
woman  of  fine  mind  and  charming  disposition,  the  dehght  and 
comfort  of  her  celebrated  father.  The  greatest  care  was  taken  in 
^w  education  ;  and  she  became  learned  in  Greek,  Latin,  many  of  the  sci- 
ences, and  music. 

Erasmus  wrote  a  letter  to  her,  as  a  woman  famous  not  only  for  virtue 
^d  piety  but  for  solid  learning.  Cardinal  Pole  was  so  delighted  with  the 
elegance  of  her  Latin  style,  that  he  could  not  believe  it  was  the  production 
of  a  woman. 

She  married  William  Roper,  Esq.,  of  Well-hall  in  the  Parish  of  Eltham, 
in  Kent ;  she  died  in  1544,  and  was  buried  at  St.  Dunstan's  church,  in 
Canterbury,  with  her  father's  head  in  her  arms  ;  for  she  had  procured  it 
^er  it  had  remained  fourteen  days  on  London  bridge,  and  had  preserved 
11  in  a  leaden  box,  till  there  was  an  opportunity  of  conveying  it  to  Can- 
terbury, to  the  burial  place  of  the  Ropers.  She  had  five  children,  one  of 
*'nom,  Mary,  was  nearly  as  famous  as  herself. 

Mrs.  Roper  wrote,  in  reply  to  Quintilian,  an  oration  in  defense  of  the 
•^cn  man,  whom  he  accuses  of  having,  by  venomous  flowers  in  his  garden, 
P<>isoned  the  poor  man's  bees.  This  performance  is  said  to  have  rivaled 
V"'niilian's  in  eloquence. 

^ne  also  wrote  two  declamations,  and  translated  them  into  Latin,  and 
^niposed  a  treatise  Of  the  Four  Last  Vlihiq^s,  in  which  she  showed  so 
°^"^h  strong  reasoning  and  justness  of  thought,  as  obliged  Sir  Thomas  to 
confess  its  superiority  to  a  discourse  in  which  he  was  himself  employed  on 
^"^  same  subject.  The  ecclesiastical  history  of  Lusebius  was  translated  by 
tnis scholarly  woman  from  the  Greek  into  Latin. 

'^Hw  A«Vco%v  continued. 

Her  fortitude  probably  saved  the  life  of  the  (jueen.  As  she  was  not  able 
^^  stand  after  the  torture,  she  was  carried  in  a  chair  to  the  stake  at  Smith- 
"^d,  July  16,  1546,  and  suffered  along  with  four  others.  She  underwent 
^nis  last  trial  with  the  same  courage  as  the  former. 



A.  I>.  lftlG-15A8. 



/  I  \HIS  queen,  upon  whom  has  l)ccn  indelibly  fixed  the  epithet  of 
-I-  **  Bloody  Mary,"  was  born  at  Oremwich  Palace,  February  i8, 
15 16,  a  daughter  of  Henry  VIII.  by  his  first  wife,  Catharine  of 
Aragon.  She  was  carefully  educated  in  Sj^ain,  was  an  ardent  Catholic  and 
became  a  proficient  scholar  in  Latin,  so  that  Erasmus  commends  Ikt  letters 
in  that  language. 

Edward  VL,  her  brother,  dying  15S3.  ^^^^  ^^'*^*^  proclaimed  queen  in  July 
of  the  same  year,  and  crowned  in  October.  I'pon  her  accession,  she 
declared  that  she  would  not  persecute  her  Protestant  subjects  :  but,  in  the 
following  month,  she  restricted  preaching,  and  in  less  than  three  months 
the  Protestant  bishops  were  excluded  from  the  House  of  Lords,  and  all  the 
statutes  of  Edward  \'I.  respecting  the  Protestant  religion  were  repealed. 

In  July,  1554,  she  was  married  to  Philip  11.  of  .Spain,  who  was  t-leven 
years  younger  than  herself,  and  by  temper  little  disposed  to  act  tlu*  h^ver. 
His  ruling  i)assion  was  ambition,  which  this  fond  consort  was  resoKcd  to 
gratify.  In  this  point,  however,  she  was  less  successful  than  in  her  favorite 
wish  of  reconciling  the  kingdom  to  the  pope,  which  was  effected  in  form, 
by  the  legate,  Cardinal    Pole. 

The  sanguinary  laws  against  heretics  were  renewed,  and  put  in  execu- 
tion. The  shocking  scenes  which  followed,  the  pages  of  history  tell  in 
tears.  In  three  or  four  years,  two  hundred  an<l  seventy-seven  persons 
were  conunitted  to  the  fiames.  On  T'ebruary  4,  1555,  John  Rogers  was 
burned  at  the  stake  ;  Cranmer,  Latim<r,  and  Ridley  shared  the  same 
fate.  The  ruin  of  England  seemed  impending,  when  in  the  summer  c^f 
1558  the  (pieen  was  attacked  by  an  intermittent  fever,  of  \\lii<h  she  died 
at  .St.   James    Palace,    November    17. 

To  her,  no  doubt,  the  propagators  of  heresy  were  the  enemies  of  man- 
kind, and  she  ha<l  little  cause  to  lovt?  them.  \\{  j)erha|)s  she  hardly  real- 
ized the  full  horror  of  what  was  done  under  her  sanction.  Tennyson  calls 
her  "unhappiest  of  cjueens,  and  wives,  and  women." 



A.  D.  1537-1554. 


H-H06 — K 

T  (^ADY  JANE  GREY  was  born  at  Brod^atc,  Leicestershire,  England, 
I  \    in  October,  1537.     She  was  the  eldest  daughter  of  Henry  Grey, 
Marquis  of  Dorset,  who  in   1551   became  Duke  of  Suffolk,  and  of 
Lady  Frances   Brandon. 

Udy  Jane  was  brought  up  rigorously  by  her  parents,  every  petty  fault 
punished  with  "pinches,  nips,  and  bobs"  ;  but  Aylmer,  her  tutor,  after- 
wards bishop  of  London,  endeared  himself  to  her  by  his  gentleness,  and 
under  him  she  made  great  progress,  especially  in  languages — Latin,  Greek, 
French,  Italian,  and  Hebrew. 

Roger  Ascham  tells  how  in  December,  1550,  he  found  her  reading  Plato's 
Pkirdoin  the  original,  while  the  rest  of  the  family  were  hunting.  She  also 
s^  and  played  well,  and  was  versed  in  other  feminine  accomplishments. 
^"  ^S53,  after  the  fall  of  the  Duke  of  Somerset,  the  Duke  of  North- 
wraberland,  foreseeing  the  speedy  death  of  the  boy-king  Edward  VI.,  de- 
termined to  change  the  succession  and  secure  it  to  his  own  family.  Lady 
Jiine.  not  sixteen  years  old,  was  therefore  married,  strongly  against  her 
wish,  to  Lord  Dudley,  Xorlhuml)erlan(rs  fourth  son,  on  May  21,  1553  ; 
ai^donJulvQ,  three  days  after  Edward's  death,  the  council  informed  her 
that  ^he  was  named  as  his  successor. 

*-^n  the  19th,  the  brief  usurpation  over,  she  found  herself  a  prisoner  in 
the  Tower  and  four  months  later,  j)leading  guilty  of  high  treason,  she  was 
^ntenatl  to  death.  .She  spurned  the  idea  of  forsaking  Protestantism  for 
love  of  life,  and  bitterly  condemned  Northumberland's  rrcantation.  This, 
t^^ther  with  her  father's  participation  in  Wyatt's  rebellion,  sealed  her 
d'M'Hi  and  she  was  beheaded  on  Tower  I  fill,  IVbruary  12,   1554. 

from  the  scaflold  she  made  a  hj)eech  in  which  she  said  :  "  The  fact,  in- 
'Jeed,  against  the  (jueen's  highness  was  unlawful,  and  the  consenting  to  by 
nie;  but  touching  the  procurement  and  tlesire  thereof  by  m(*  or  on  my  be- 

Wf,  I  do  wash  my  hands  thereof  in  innocency I  die  a 

true  Giristian  woman. ' ' 



A.  I>.  1519-1589. 


^^ATHARINE  DE'MEDICI,  the  wife  of  one  king  of  France  and  the 
\T^  mother  of  three,  was  the  daughter  of  Lorenzo  de' Medici,  Duke  of 
T  Urbino,  and  was  born  at  Florence  in  15 19.  In  her  fourteenth  year 
she  was  brought  to  France,  and  married  to  Henry,  the  second  son  of 
Francis  I.  The  marriage  was  a  part  of  the  poUtical  schemes  of  her  uncle. 
Pope  Clement  VII.,  hut  as  he  died  soon  after,  she  found  herself  friendless 
and  neglected  at  the  French  court. 

It  was  not  till  the  accession  of  her  eldest  son,  Francis  II.,  in  1559,  that 
she  found  some  scope  for  her  ambition.  The  Ciuises  at  this  time  were  in 
power,  and  Catharine  entered  into  a  secret  alliance  with  the  Huguenots  to 
oppose  them.  On  the  death  of  Francis  II.  in  156c),  and  accession  of  her 
second  son,  Charles  IX.,  the  government  fell  entirrly  into  her  hands. 

She  entered  into  a  secret  treaty  with  Spain  for  the-  extirpation  of  heretics 
and  subsecjuently  into  a  plot  with  the  Guises,  which  resulted  in  the  fearful 
mass;icre  of  St.  Bartholomew's  day.  This  event  brought  the  whole  power 
of  the  state  into  the  hands  of  the  (jueen  mother,  who  boasted  of  the  deed 
to  Roman  Catholic  governments,  and  excused  it  to  IVoti-staiit  (»nes. 

Al)Out  this  time  she  succeeded,  by  gold  and  inlrij^ms,  in  getting  her 
third  son,  afterwards  Henry  III.,  clicted  to  tin-  Polish  thn»ne.  Hut  lur 
arbitrary  and  tyrannical  administration  roused  the  opposition  oi  a  Roman 
Catholic  party,  at  the  head  of  which  was  her  own  fourth  son,  the  Duke  of 
Alen^on.  It  was  very  generally  Ix-lievird  that  she  was  privy  to  the  machi- 
nations that  led  to  his  death.  Many  vexations  preyed  on  the  proud  heart 
of  the  (jueen  mother  in  her  last  days  :  and.  amid>t  the  c<»ntu>ion  and  strife 
of  parties,  she  died  at  Hlois  on  January  5,   15S1;,  iniheeded  and  unlamented. 

Catharine  de'Mediei  may  fairly  be  regarded  as  a  representative  woman 
of  an  ::ge  when  the  first  princii)les  of  human  coiiduel  N\ere  hopelessly  con- 
founded by  religious  strife  and  tlur  inlrij^ues  and  curruptions  of  the  courts. 
Virtue  had  given  place  to  luxiny.  extravagance,  cunning,  sensuality,  and 
cruelty  ;  qualities  which  the  prevailing  ctMulilions  tencied  to  develop. 






ReprDducBd  Irnm  thB  painting  af  A.  L.  Mayer, 
a  Hungarian  painter,  and  pupil  of  Piloty. 
Mayer's  works  have  recBived  much  praisB,  as- 
pB::ially  his  picturss,  "  Faust,"  and  "  Maria  ThB- 
resa  Nursino  tha  Faor  Woman's  Child." 




A.  11.  1^33-U\OH. 


^2)  LIZABKTH,  qiiei.n  of  ICnt^laiul,  and  the  last  sovereign  of  the  house  of 
^^r  Tudor,  was  horn  at  (jRcnwich,  Scplt-inbcr  7,  1533.  She  was  a 
daughter  of  Henry  \  IH.  and  Anne  Holeyn.  Her  chiUihood  wiis 
])assed  in  comparative  retirement,  and  she  was  e(ineated  hy  persons  who 
favored  the  reformed  reli^don.  She  learned  the  I-atin,  dreek,  French,  and 
Italian  languages  of  the  famons  Ro^er  Asi  ham. 

In  1554  Klizaheth  was  confined  in  the  Tower  l>y  order  of  Oueen  Mar\', 
who  believed  her  to  he  imj)lieate<l  in  Wyatt's  rebellion,  an<l  rej^arded  her 
with  jealousy  Inrcause  she  was  the  favorite  with  the  Protestant  j»arty.  She 
narrowly  escaped  death,  for  some  «>f  the  bishops  and  courtiers  advised 
Mary  to  order  her  execution.  After  she  had  passtd  several  months  in  the 
Tower,  she  was  removed  to  Woodstock  and  aj>j)eased  Mary  by  professing 
to  be  a  Roman  Catholic. 

On  the  death  <>f  (Jueen  Mary,  on  Nov.  17.  I55«S.  Flizalu-th  ascen<ied 
the  throne,  and  tlu^  majority  of  th<*  people  rejoired  at  her  a(•^•rs^ion.  She 
appointed  William  Cecil  secretary  t)f  st.ite.  and  Nieln»las  Bacon  keeper 
of  the  great  seal.  .She  retained  several  Roman  Catholic^  in  her  privy 
council,  but  she  refused  to  hear  mass  in  tlu-  royal  chaj)el. 

The  Prott*stants  wen-  the  maj<)rity  in  the  Parlianunt  which  met  in  1559, 
abolished  the  mass,  adopted  the  Thirty-Niiu-  .\itieles  as  the  nliii^ion  of  the 
State,  and  recognized  thr  (juem  as  tlir  luad  <>!  the  Church.  .Sht-  <ieclint'd 
an  offer  of  marriage  made  to  lur  bv  Philip  nf  .Spain.  Her  fonign  policy 
was  pacific.  She  waged  n«»  war  f«»r  <  ninpust,  but  to  pn»m<»tr  the  .stability 
of  her  throne  she  aided  tlu-  Protectant  in>urgents  in  Sci aland.  France,  and 
the  Netherlands,  with  nn)niy  and  trtM»j>^. 

In  1563,  the  l^uliament.  an.\iMn>  ih.ii  ^h<*  ^li«»nl<l  ha\r  An  luir.  entreated 
her  to  marry,  l)Ut  .she  rrtnrnrd  an  <\.»>i\«'  an^wir.  .ni<l  v\onld  neither  accept 
the  hand  of  any  of  lu-r  sin"t«»r^  n«»r  (lcci<l«  in  t.t\««r  of  any  » lainiant  of  the 
throne.  Among  lur  suitors  urrc  thr  l*irn«h  1  )nk«  •»[  An^«»n.  tlh-  .\rch- 
dukc  Charles  of  Austria,  aimI  Ri»1m  rl   Dudley,  I'.arl  «»i   L«  ice>trr.  who  was 



for  many  years  her  chief  favorite.  William  Cecil,  Lord  Burleigh,  was  her 
prime  minister  and  most  trusted  adviser  during  the  greater  part  of  her  reign, 
the  prosperity  of  which  was  largely  due  to  his  prudence  and  influence. 

Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  fleeing  from  her  rebellious  subjects,  took  refuge 
in  England  in  1568,  and  was  detained  as  a  prisoner  by  Elizabeth.  The 
latter  regarded  Mary  as  a  dangerous  rival,  because  the  English  Catholics 
wished  to  raise  her  to  the  throne  of  England,  and  formed  several  plots  and 
conspiracies  for  that  object.      Mary  was  beheaded  February  8,  1587. 

Philip  II.  of  Spain  had  long  meditated  a  hostile  enterprise  against 
Queen  Elizabeth,  who  had  offended  him  by  aiding  his  revolted  Dutch  sub- 
jects and  by  persecuting  the  English  Catholics.  For  the  invasion  of  England 
he  fitted  out  the  Invincible  Armada,  which  consisted  of  about  130  vessels 
with  over  19,000  soldiers,  and  sailed  in  May,  1588.  A  violent  storm  dis- 
persed the  Spanish  ships,  many  of  which  were  wrecked,  and  the  rest  were 
encountered  by  the  English  fleet,  mostly  consisting  of  small  but  excellently 
equipped  veSvSels,  under  Admiral  Howard,  and  thoroughly  beaten,  August 
8,  1588. 

The  disastrous  failure  of  this  expedition  did  not  terminate  hostilities  l>e- 
tween  England  and  Spain.     An  English  fleet  look  Cadiz  in   1596. 

After  the  Earl  of  Leicester  died,  15SS,  the  Earl  of  Essex  was  the  queen's 
favorite  courtier.  The  I*uritans  were  severely  persecuted  in  the  latter  part 
of  her  reign.  She  died  March  24,  1603.  and  was  succeeded  by  James  \'I. 
of  Scotland,  who  became  Janice  I.  of  England. 

Her  reign  was  one  of  the  most  j)rosperous  and  glorious  in  English  his- 
tory. The  Elizabethan  age  was  almost  unequaled  in  literature,  and  was 
illustrated  by  the  genius  of  Shakespeare,  Sj>enser,  Bacon,  Sidney,  and  Ra- 

The  darkest  slain  on  the  memory  of  I^lizabelh  is  her  trealment  of  Mary. 
Queen  of  Scots.  Her  executi<^n.  tliouj^h  clamored  for  by  the  ICnglish 
nation,  was  an  act  of  cruelly  peculiarly  revolting  on  the  j>art  of  a  female 
sovereign  and  kinswoman.  And  IClizabelh's  affected  rehic  tance  to  sign  the 
death  warrant,  coupled  with  the  most  fla^  duplicity  following  closely 
upon  it  —  all  of  which  was  o\er-acted  and  disgusting  —  is  almost  as  injurious 
to  the  reputation  of  Elizabeth  as  the  deed  itself. 



A.  I>.  1548-1587. 


^^ARY  STUART,  Queen  of  Scots,  celebrated  for  her  beauty,  her 
\T /  wit,  her  learning,  and  her  misfortunes,  was  born  December  8, 
1542.  She  was  the  daughter  of  James  V.  of  Scotland  by  Marie 
ol  Lorraine,  a  French  princess  of  the  family  of  Guise.  Her  father  died  a 
Iwdays  after  her  birth,  and  on  September  9,  1543,  she  was  crowned  queen 
of  Scotland,  the  Earl  of  Arran  conducting  the  government. 

In  1548  she  was  affianced  to  Francis,  Dauphin  of  France,  son  of  Henry 
11.  and  Catharine  de'  Medici,  and  in  the  same  year  she  was  brought  to 
France  to  be  educated  at  the  French  court.  When  she  grew  up  she  added 
to  a  striking  and  fascinating  personal  beauty  all  the  accomplishments  and 
cWms  which  a  perfect  education  can  give. 

Her  marriage  with  the  dauphin  was  celebrated  April  24,  1558,  in  the 
Church  of  Notre  Dame,  and  when  Mary  I.  of  England  died  in  the  same 
year  she  had  her  arms  quartered  with  those  of  England,  and  threatened  to 
rouse  the  Catholics  against  Elizabeth's  title. 

On  July  10,  1559,  Henry  II.  died,  and  was  succeeded  by  Francis  II. 
^Jan- thus  became  Queen  of  France,  but  Francis  died  December  5,  1560  ; 
she  was  childk*ss,  and  had  little  power  at  court,  where  the  influence  of 
Catharine  de' Medici  was  now  paramount.  In  the  same  year  her  mother 
^j«i.  and  she  then  returned  to  Scotland. 

brought  up  a  Roman  Catholic  and  used  to  the  gay  life  of  the  French 
^^urt.  she  found  the  dominant  Protestantism  of  Scotland  and  the  austere 
"^ners  of  her  subjects  almost  intolerable.  Nevertheless,  the  first  period 
'•I  her  reign  was  fairly  successful  ;  and  she  strove  to  conciliate  the  Protes- 
^"^.  The  latter,  however,  were  s(K)n  estranged  l)y  her  unfortunate  mar- 
"^^  with  her  cousin,  Henry  Stuart,  Lord  Darnley,  a  Catholic,  who,  on 
'^^bruar)'  9,  1567,  was  blown  up  by  gunpowder  as  the  result  of  a  treacher- 
ies plot  he  had  inspired.  Three  months  after  the  death  of  her  husband 
^iiry  married  the  Earl  of  Both  well,  whom  public  opinion  accused  of  the 
fflurder  of  Darnley. 



From  this  time  a  series  of  misfortunes  attended  the  queen,  and  a  gen- 
eral revolutionary  uprising  took  place.  In  the  battle  of  Carberry  Hill 
(June  15)  Bothwell  was  defeated  and  fled,  and  Mary  was  confined  in  Loch- 
leven  Castle  and  compelled  to  abdicate.  She  escaped,  however,  and  rallied 
a  new  force,  but  was  defeated  at  Langside,  May  13,  and  fled  to  Hnj^land. 
Here  she  was  immediately  imprisoned  —  first  at  Carlisle,  after\vards  in  vari- 
ous other  places,  and  at  last  in  Fotheringay  Castle. 

After  eighteen  years'  imprisonment,  during  which  she  was  the  center  of 
Catholic  plots,  she  was  tried  on  a  charge  of  complicity  in  the  conspiracy  of 
Antony  Babington  against  the  life  of  Klizabelh,  and  on  October  25,  1586. 
a  sentence  of  death  was  pronounced  against  her.  On  February  i,  1587, 
Elizabeth  signed  the  warrant  of  execution,  and  on  F'ebruary  8,  Mary,  Queen 
of  Scots,  was  beheaded.  She  insisted  to  the  last  that  she  was  innocent  of 
Babington' s  plot. 

She  was  buried  at  Peterborough,  whence,  in  161 2,  her  body  was  re- 
moved to  the  chapel  of  Henry  VII.  at  WestminsUr. 

At  the  intimation,  in  her  death  verdict  rendered  by  the  (jueen's  council, 
that  her  life  was  an  impediment  to  the  security  <A  the  revealed  religion, 
Mary  "seemed  with  a  certain  unwonted  alacrity  to  Iriumph,  giving  Ood 
thanks,  and  rejoicing  in  her  lu*arl  that  she  was  held  to  he  an  instrument" 
for  the  restoration  of  her  own  faith.  This  note  of  exultation  as  in  martyr- 
dom was  maintained  with  unflinching  courage  to  the  last.  She  wrote  to 
Elizabeth  and  the  Duke  of  (iuist*  two  k-tters  of  almost  matchless  eloquence 
and  pathos,  admirable  esjMcially  for  their  loyal  and  grateful  remembrance 
of  all  her  faithful  servants. 

That  the  life  of  Mary  .Stuart  was  not  onr  of  mmunglc-d  innocence  and 
virtue  is  abundantly  evident,  but  the  exact  UK'asurc  of  her  guilt,  or  the  exact 
degree  of  her  coinj)licity  in  the  crinus  conunitled  for  lur  sakr  and  in  her 
name,  has  nc»t  been  made  out.  And  still  more  obscurr  and  entangled  seem 
those  ideas  and  passions  from  which  such  guilt  >j)ran3L:.  Thrrc  are  two 
brilliant  dramatical  delineations  of  h<r  character  onr  hv  Schiller  and  the 
other  by  Hjijrnson — and  a  number  of  j)rose  works  relalinii  to  her  his- 
tory that  give  us  \arying  estimati-s  of  this  romantic  and  unhappy  person- 





RaprDducBd  frnm  a  palntiiicr  by  Ferdinand 
Heilbuth,  a  G-erman  painter.  .  The  peculiar  talent 
□f  Heilbuth  in  treating  life  and  manners  has  vjun 
hiin  a  wide  reputatian.  The  Paris  Salon  gave 
him  a  medal  of  hnnnr  lu  lEBl.  His  "  Titian  with 
his  Lady  Love"  and  "On  Monte  Pincio  "  (the 
latter  In  the  Corcoran  G-allery,  Washington)' are 
bath  renowned  pictures. 

'^^(^  /  V  ^^5^^^ 


A.  D.  1537-1581. 


^LEONORA  D'ESTE,  an  Italian  lady  of  illustrious  descent,  was 
Ql  daughter  of  Hercules  H..  marquis  of  Kste,  and  Renie,  daughter  of 
Louis  XIL,  king  of  France,  and  was  born  in  1537.  She  was  en- 
dowed by  fcHtune  with  an  exalted  social  station,  and  by  nature  with  extraor- 
dinary beauty,  taste,  and  intellect ;  but  her  chief  claim  to  historical  memo- 
riafization  was  her  relation  with  Tasso  the  poet. 

Tasso  was  twenty-one  years  old  when  he  appeared  at  the  court  of 
Alphonso  of  Este.  An  indiscreet  remark  having  been  made  by  a  certain 
ca\'alicr  upon  his  devotion  to  the  princess  Eleonora,  he  challenged  the 
ofiendcr,  who,  with  three  brothers  to  aid  him,  basely  attacked  the  bard. 
Tasso  valiantly  combated  the  whole  four  until  interference  put  an  end  to 
the  dud.  Alphonso  felt  offended  at  the  cause  of  this  rencontre,  and  sent 
TasBointo  exile,  where  he  remained  subject  to  the  duke's  recall. 

Taaso  was  an  admirer  of  beauty,  and  wrote  verses  to  the  charms  of  the 
k>vdy  Eleonora  that  could  not  but  touch  her  heart.  It  is  said  that,  being 
^t  the  wedding  of  one  of  the  Cionzago  family,  celebrated  at  the  court  of 
^te,  he,  blinded  by  his  passion,  imj)ressed  a  kiss  on  the  clieek  of  the  prin- 
"^'tts.  The  color  mounted  t<>  Alphonso' s  brow  ;  but  he  turned  coldly  to  his 
courticra,  and  said,  **\Vhat  a  great  pity  that  the  hncst  genius  of  tht*  age- 
^become  suddenly  mad  !  " 

I'pon  this  charge  of  madnc^ss,  the  j>rince  caused  Tasso  to  be  shut  up  in 
^he hospital  of  St.  Anna.  His  \^n\^  years  kA  inij)ris()nnu-nt,  his  sufferings, 
'■^'' laments,  are  well  known.  Obliged  to  witness  the  cruel  j)unishnient  ol 
^iT  lover,  and  knowing  the  inflexible  (haracter  (^f  her  brother,  I'^leonora  fell 
•-to  a  slow  fever,  and  died  in  15S1,  about  a  year  after  Tasso' s  imprisonment, 
l^ht  doors  of  Tasso' s  prison  were  at  length  opened  :  but  she  was  dead  I 
'Omh,  love,  fortune,  all  had  vanished  :  tame,  it  is  true,  remained.  The 
•^urd-crown  was  placed  on  his  brow  at  Rome  in  the  midst  of  a  pompous 
•t">tival  :  but  this  could  not  recompense  him  for  his  wasted  youth  and  his 
ioftt  Eleonora. 



A.  D.  1571-1599. 



^^ABRIELLE    D'ESTREES,    a   descendant   of    one   of    the   noblest 

I®!'      houses  in   Picardy,  was  born  in   157 1,   and   died   April   10,    1599. 

Gabrielle  was  about  twenty  years  of  age  when  she  met  Henry  for 

the  first  time  at  the  chateau  of  Coeuvres,  where  she  resided  with  her  family. 

She  was  fair  and  of  singularly  beautiful  complexion  ;  her  eyes  were 
blue,  and  combined,  in  a  remarkable  degree,  tenderness  with  brilliancy  of 
expression  ;  her  hair  had  a  golden  hue,  her  forehead  was  bold  and  large  ; 
her  whole  presence  was  beaming  with  intelligence  and  instinct  with  gentie- 
ness  and  grace. 

She  inspired  the  French  monarch  with  a  violent  passion,  which,  however, 
did  not  interrupt  her  relation  with  her  old  lover,  the  Duke  of  Belleg^rde. 
But  Henry  still  urged  his  suit,  and  often  stole  by  the  sentinels  of  his  ene- 
mies, in  the  dress  of  a  j)easant,  to  see  the  object  of  his  love.  The  heart  oi 
Gabrielle  was  at  length  moved  by  such  ardor  and  devotion,  and  she  be- 
came the  mistress  of  the  chivalric  monarch,  who  never  loved  any  other 
woman  so  passionately. 

To  escape  the  severe  scrutiny  of  her  father,  Henry  married  her  to  a 
nobleman  named  M.  de  IJancourt,  as  a  nominal  husband,  and  subsequendy 
raised  her  to  the  rank  of  Marchioness  of  Monceaux,  and  in  1595  to  that  of 
Duchess  of  Beaufort.  At  the  same  time  he  lavished  riches  upon  her  in 
great  profusion,  and  at  the  time  of  her  death  she  was  possessed  of  more 
than  twelve  estates,  some  of  which  are  to  this  day  pointed  out  in  the 
vicinity  of  Paris. 

Henry  would  have  divorced  liimself  (as  he  afterwards  did)  froir 
Margaret  of  X'alois,  his  legitimate  wife,  for  the  purpose  of  raising  Gabriellt 
to  the  throne  of  France,  had  it  not  been  for  his  friend  and  ministe 
Sully,  with  whose  influence  she  was  unable  to  cope.  She  had  three  chil 
dren  by  the  king  —  Casar  and  Alexander,  afterwards  Dukes  of  Vendome, 
and  Catharine  Henrietta,  subsequently  the  Duchess  of  Elbeuf. 



A.  D.  1583-1599. 


BEATRICE  CENCI  was  the  daughter  of  Francesco  Cenci,  a  Roman 
nobleman  of  colossal  wealth.  According  to  Muratori,  Francesco 
was  twice  married,  Beatrice  being  the  youngest  of  twelve  children 
by  the  first  wife.  After  his  second  marriage  he  treated  the  children  of  his 
^rst  wife  in  a  revolting  manner,  and  was  even  accused  of  hiring  bandits  to 
murder  two  of  his  sons  on  their  return  from  Spain. 

The  beauty  of  Beatrice  inspired  him  with  the  horrible  and  incestuous 
desire  to  possess  her  person  ;  and  with  mingled  lust  and  hate  he  persecuted 
her  from  day  to  day,  until  circumstances  enabled  him  to  consummate  his 

The  unfortunate  girl  besought  the  help  of  her  relatives,  and  of  Pope 
Clement  V 1 1.,  but  did  not  receive  it  ;  whereupon,  in  company  with  her  step- 
mother and  her  brother,  Giacomo,  she  planned  the  murder  of  her  unnatural 
F^ent,  into  whose  brain  two  hired  assassins  drove  a  large  nail,  Septem- 
**r9,  1598. 

The  crime  was  discovered,  and  both  she  and  Giacomo  were  put  to  the 
torture  ;  Giacomo  confc*ssed,  but  Beatrice  persisted  in  the  declaration  that 
i»he  was  innocent.  All,  however,  were  condemned  and  beheaded,  Septem- 
ber 10.  1599. 

Such  is  Muratori' s  narrative.  Others  allei^e  that  Beatrice  was  the  inno- 
^t  victim  of  an  infernal  plot.  The  results,  howe\er,  of  Bestolotli's  in- 
vestigations go  far  to  deprive  the  story  of  the  Cenci  tragedy  of  the  romantic 
elements  on  which  Shelley's  i)owerful  drama  mainly  turns. 

Francesco,  it  would  appear,  was  profligate,  but  no  monster  ;  Beatrice, 
^^  the  time  she  murdered  her  father,  was  not  sixteen,  hut  twenty-one  years 
of  age,  was  far  from  beautiful,  and  was  probably  the  mother  of  an  illegit- 
'"late  son.  And  Bestolotti  finther  sliows  that  the  sweet  and  mournful 
^^'^HJntenance  which  forms  one  of  tht-  treasures  of  the  Barberini  Palace  in 
Rome,  cannot  possibly  be  a  portrait  of  Beatrice  by  Guido,  who  never 
painted  in  Rome  till  some  nine  years  after  Beatrice's  death. 


A.  I>.  155)2-1615. 


MARGARET  of  Valois,  queen  of  France,  was  born  in  1552,  and  died 
in  Paris,  March  27,  161 5.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Henry  IL  and 
of  Catharine  de' Medici  and  was  celebrated  for  her  beauty,  her 
profligacy,  and  her  talents.  In  1572  she  was  married  to  the  king  of  Na- 
varre, afterward  Henry  IV.  of  France,  the  marriage  being  the  pretext  on 
which  the  leading  Protestants  were  assembled  at  Paris,  to  Ik?  massacred  on 
the  eve  of  St.  Bartholomew.  After  his  escape  from  thc*se  tragic  scenes, 
Margaret  was  permitted  to  join  him  at  Biarn,  where  she  remained  five 
years,  tolerating  the  king's  infidelities,  though  he  would  not  tolerate  her 

In  1 58 1,  on  the  invitation  of  her  mother,  she  returned  to  the  French 
court.  There  the  profligacy  of  her  life  drew  upon  her  the  condemnation  of 
her  brother,  Henry  III.,  who  compelled  her  to  return  to  her  husband,  by 
whom  she  was  received  with  bitter  reproaches.  .She  fled  from  him,  and  took 
up  her  residence  at  Agen,  where  she  made  war  on  him  as  a  heretic.  Thai 
place  being  taken  in  1585,  she  vainly  sought  another  asylum,  and  was 
seized  and  imprisoned  in  the  fortress  of  I'sson  ;  but  her  arts  made  her 
mistress  of  the  place,  from  which  she  drove  the  governor  and  held  it  for 
twenty  years. 

She  became  queen  of  France  in  1594.  <>n  the  triumph  of  her  husband, 
but  he  refused  to  restore  her  to  freedom  luitil  she  sliould  renoimce  her 
rank,  to  which  she  would  not  consent  until  after  the  death  of  (»abrielle 
D'Kstrees.  They  were  divorced  in  1599,  but  she  did  not  recover  her  lib- 
erty until  some  years  later.  She  visited  the  court  in  1605,  where  she  did 
homage  to  her  successor,  Marie  de' Medici.  The  remaining  ten  years  of 
her  life  were  passed  in  l*aris  or  in  its  vicinity. 

Alnu^st  to  the  last  she  led  a  vicious  life  ;  but  at  length  she  fell  into 
hypochondria,  and  was  terrified  at  the  a|)[)roach  (»f  death.  .She  founded  a 
convent  in  Paris,  the  imnates  of  which  were  reijuired  to  have  fme  voices, 
and  herself  instructed  them  in  the  nnisic  which  was  restful  to  her. 


A.D.  1A0A?-1617. 


FOCAHONTAS,  an  Indian  woman  of  Virginia,  daughter  of  the  chief 
Powhatan,  was  born  about  1595,  and  died  in  (^ravesend,  England, 
in  March,  16 17.      She  was  remarkable  for  her  friendship  toward  the 
EngHsh  colonists,  a  striking  evidence  of  which  is  said  to  have  been  given 
when  she  was  about  twelve  years  old. 

Captain  John  Smith  was  taken  prisoner,  and  it  was  decided  to  put  him 
to  death.  His  head  was  laid  upon  a  stone,  and  the  savages  were  brandish- 
ing their  clubs  prej)aratory  to  dashing  out  his  brains,  when  Pocahontas 
threw  herself  upon  the  captive's  body,  and  her  intercession  with  her  father 
saved  his  life.      Recent  researches  discredit  this  story. 

When  Smith  returned  to  Jamestown,  he  sent  [)rcsents  to  Pocahontas 
and  her  father  :  and  after  this,  according  to  Smith's  narrative,  Pocahontas 
*'  with  her  wild  train  visited  Jamestown  as  freely  as  her  father's  habitation." 

In  1609  she  passed  through  the  wood  in  the  night  to  inform  Smith  of  a 
plot  formed  by  her  father  to  destroy  him.  in  161 2  she  was  living  in  the 
territory  of  the  Indian  chief  Jaj)azaws.  Captain  Samuel  Argall  bribed  Jap- 
azaws  to  betray  her  intt^  his  hands,  and  began  to  treat  with  Pocahontas  for 
her  restitution,  but  they  were  unable  to  agree. 

While  she  was  on  shipboard,  an  attachment  sprang  up  between  her  and 
an  Englishman  named  John  Rolfc,  and  the  consent  of  Sir  Thomas  Dale  and 
of  her  father  having  been  gained,  they  were  married  at  Jamestown  in  April, 
1613.  A  peace  of  many  years  duration  between  the  English  and  the  In- 
dians was  the  consecpience  of  the  union.  Before  her  marriage  she  was  l)ap- 
tized,  receiving  the  name  of  Rebecca.  In  16 16  she  accomj)anied  Dale  to 
England,  where  she  was  an  object  of  great  interest  t<^  all  classes  of  people, 
and  was  presented  at  court.  Pocahontas  prepared  to  leave  England,  but 
she  suddenly  died  when  on  the  point  of  t-mbarking. 

She  left  one  son,  Thomas  Rolfe.  who  was  educated  by  his  uncle,  a  Lon- 
don merchant,  and  in  after  life  went  to  X'irginia,  where  he  became  a  person 
of  note  and  influence. 



A.  I>.  160S-1666. 



^JJfNNE  of  Austria,  queen  of  France,  daughter  of  Philip  III.    king  of 

'  ^^^     Sj)ain,   was  born   in   1602,  and  died  January  20,  1666.     She  was 

married  December  25,  1615,  to  Louis  XIIL,  and  was  the  mother  0/ 

Louis  XIV.      Hardly  any  queen  of  France  was  so  much  calumniated,  or  so 

undeservedly  unhappy. 

Cardinal  Richelieu,  the  all-powerful  minister  of  the  weak  Louis  XIIL, 
dreading  the  influence  of  the  wife,  or,  as  others  pretend,  having  been  re- 
fused by  her  as  a  lover,  succeeded  in  prejudicing  the  mind  of  the  king  till 
he  allowed  Anne  to  be  continually  persecuted,  exiled,  and,  at  times,  left  to 
suffer  the  greatest  penury.  Richelieu  accused  her  of  conspiracy  with 
the  Dukes  of  Lorraine,  with  England,  with  her  own  brother,  the  king  of 
Spain,  with  all  the  enemies  of  France,  and  with  the  conspirators  at  the 
court,  against  his  own  supremacy. 

When  Richelieu  represented  her  as  wishing  to  get  rid  of  Louis  to  marry 
Gaston,  and  Anne  was  compelled  to  appear  before  the  king's  counsel  to 
answer  this  grave  charge,  her  dignity  here  came  to  her  aid  and  she  scorned 
to  make  a  direct  reply.  She  merely  observed,  contemptuously,  that  too 
little  was  to  be  gained  by  the  change,  to  render  such  a  design  on  her  part 

At  the  death  of  Louis  XIIL,  the  parliament  in  1643  appointed  her 
regent  during  the  minority  of  Louis  XIV.  The  Cardinal  Mazarin,  who, 
likewise,  was  said  to  have  been  her  lover,  ruled  in  her  name,  and  this 
occasioned  the  revolt  of  some  of  the  princes  of  the  blood  and  other  French 
grandees, —  a  rising  known  in  French  history  under  the  name  of  the 

She  possessed  a  peculiar  and  extremely  delicate  sense  of  feeling  over 
the  whole  body  ;  scarcely  any  linen  or  caml)ric  was  fine  enough  for  her 
use.  It  was  another  peculiarity  of  hers,  that,  though  she  loved  flowers 
passionately,  she  could  not  bear  the  view  of  natural  or  even  painted  roses. 



A.  I>.  1090-1643. 


(jVj^'NE  HUTCHINSON,  the  founder  of  the  Antinomian  party  in  the 
•*-^  New  England  colonies,  was  the  daughter  of  a  Lincolnshire,  Eng- 
land, clergyman  named  Marbury,  and  was  born  in  1590.  In  Eng- 
land she  was  interested  in  no  preaching  but  that  of  John  Cotton  and  her 
brother-in-law,  John  Wheelwright,  and  it  was  her  desire  to  enter  the  minis- 
tr\'  of  the  former,  which  induced  her  to  follow  him  to  New  England. 

She  came  to  Boston  with  her  husband,  September  18,  1634,  was  admitted 
a  member  of  the  Boston  church,  and  rapidly  acquired  esteem  and  influence. 
She  instituted  meetings  of  the  women  of  the  church  to  discuss  sermons  and 
doctnnes,  in  which,  with  a  ready  wit,  bold  spirit,  and  imposing  familiarity 
with  the  Scriptures,  she  gave  prominence  to  j)eculiar  speculations. 

Her  tenets  were  that  the  person  of  the  Holy  Spirit  dwells  in  every  be- 
li^er,  and  that  the  inward  revelations  of  the  Spirit,  the  conscious  judgment 
0^  the  mind,  are  of  paramount  authority.  Amoqg  her  partisans  were  the 
young  j/ovemor  Vane,  Cotton,  Wheelwright,  and  almost  the  whole  Boston 
church,  while  the  country  clergy  were  generally  united  against  her. 

She  soon  threw  the  whole  colony  into  a  flame.  The  progress  of  her 
s^tinients  occasioned,  in  1637,  t:he  first  synod  in  America.  "The  dis- 
pute, '  siiys  Bancroft,  *'  infused  its  spirit  into  tvcTvthing  ;  it  interfered  with 
"^*^  levy  of  troops  for  the  Pequot  war  ;  it  influenced  the  respuct  shown  to 
tfie  majrist rates,  the  distribution  of  town  lots,  the  assessment  of  rates  ;  and 
it  last  the  C(mlinued  existence  of  the  two  parties  was  considered  inconsis- 
^twith  public  peace." 

Accordingly,  Mrs.  Hutchinson  was  called  before  the  court  in  November, 
^"37;  and,  being  convicted  of  traducing  the  ministers  and  advancing 
^'*rs.  was  banished  from  Massachusetts.  She  went  with  her  husband  to 
'^Me  Island,  and  in  1642,  after  her  husband's  death,  removed  into  the 
^<^^'tor\' of  the  Dutch  beyond  New  Ha\'en.  Here,  in  1643,  her  home  was 
attacked  and  set  on  fire  by  the  Indians,  and  herself  and  all  her  family, 
excepting  one  child,  who  was  carried  captive,  perished. 



A.  D.  169A-ia80. 


^)nNE  HARRISON  FANSHAWE,  the  eldest  daughter  of  Sir  John 
-1-A-  Harrison,  of  Balls,  England,  was  born  in  London,  March  25,  1625. 
Her  mother  was  Margaret  Fanshawe,  of  an  ancient  and  highly  re- 
spectable family  ;  and,  what  was  of  more  importance  to  her  daughter,  she 
was  an  eminently  pious  as  well  as  an  accomplished  woman.  When  about 
nineteen,  Anne  Harrison  married  Sir  Richard  Fanshawe,  a  relative  of  her 
mother.  He  was  a  lawyer,  went  abroad  with  his  wife,  arid  was  finally 
appointed  secretary  to  the  English  ambassador  at  the  Spanish  court. 

As  a  supporter  of  Charles  IL,  he  was  taken  and  imprisoned  after  the 
batde  of  Worcester,  during  which  imprisonment  his  wife  exhibited  the 
highest  form  of  devotion.  He  was  finally  released,  on  heavy  bail,  and  was 
joined  by  her  at  Tankerslys  Park,  Yorkshire,  where  husband  and  wife  de- 
voted themselves  to  literary  pursuits.  After  the  restoration.  Sir  Richard 
was  sent  to  the  court  of  Portugal,  and  subsequently  to  Spain.  While 
occupying  the  latter  post,  he  suddenly  died. 

The  queen  of  Spain  was  so  moved  by  the  desolation  of  the  heart-broken 
widow,  that  she  offered  her  a  pension  of  thirty  thousand  ducats  per  annum 
if  she  would  embrace  the  Catholic  religion.  Lady  Fanshawe  was  deeply 
grateful  for  this  kindly  interest,  but  refused  to  accept  any  favors  with  such 
conditions  attached. 

Through  the  financial  assistance  of  Anne  of  Austria,  the  remains  of  Sir 
Richard  were  sent  to  England  for  interment  and  subsecjucntly  Lady  Fan- 
shawe erected  a  hand.some  monument  to  the  memory  of  her  husband. 
Their  union  of  twenty- two  years  had  been  a  pattern  of  conjugal  fidelity  and 
happiness  ;  the  widow  continued  as  constant  to  the  memory  of  the  dear 
departed  as  she  had  been  in  her  affection  to  liim  while  he  lived.  Her 
whole  aim  and  jjlan  of  life  was  to  educate  her  children  :  and  she  wrote  her 
own  Memoir  * '  for  her  dear  and  only  son. ' '  She  survived  her  husband 
fourteen  years,  dying  January.  1680. 



A.  I>.  1631-1664. 


eATHARINE   PHILIPS,    "the   matchless   Orinda/'  was  born   the 
daughter  of  a  respectable  Presbyterian  London  merchant,  on  Jan- 
uary I,  1 63 1.     A  precocious  child,  she  early  became  strongly  royal- 
ist in  feeling,  and  in   her  seventeenth    year  she  married  a  worthy  Welsh 
gentleman,  James  Philips  of  Cardigan  Priory. 

Her  earliest  poem  was  an  address  to  Henry  Vaughan,  the  Silurist,  on 
the  appearance  of  his  Olor  Iscamis.  About  the  same  time  she  seems  to 
have  assumed'  her  melodious  nom  de  plume  of  Orinda,  having  formed 
among  her  neighbors  of  either  sex  a  society  of  Friendship,  the  members 
of  which  must  needs  be  re-baptized  —  the  ladies  as  Lucasia,  Rosania, 
Regina,  Valeria,  Polycrife  ;  the  gentlemen  as  Palaemon,  Sylvander,  An- 
tenor  (her  own  husband),  and  Poliarchus  (Sir  Charles  Cotterel,  her  greatest 
Wend,  to  whom  her  forty-eight  Letters  were  published  in  1705). 

Orinda  is  the  earliest  English  sentimental  writer,  and  she  has  tears  at 
*ill  e\'en  for  the  marriages  of  the  lady  members,  which  she  resents  as  out- 
^es  on  the  sufficiency  of  friendship.  Yet  she  was  a  worthy  woman  and 
a  good  wife,  despite  her  overstrained  sentimentality,  to  whom  Jeremy 
Taylor  dedicated  his  Measures  and  OJJlces  of  Friendship.  She  went  to 
^Min  in  1662,  and  here  Roger,  Earl  of  Query,  and  the  rest  gave  her  a 
"Ottering  reception.  On  a  visit  to  London  she  caught  smallpox,  and  died 
He  22,  1664. 

At  Dublin  she  translated  Corneille's  Povipcy,  and,  in  her  last  year,  the 
P'^'iter  part  of  his  Horaee.  Her  poems  were  surreptitiously  printed  at 
l-ondon  in  1663,  but  an  auth(>rit.iti\e  edition  was  issued  in  1667.  The 
"^^tchless  Orinda' s  poetry  has  long  since  faded  into  forget  fulness,  despite 
^he  chorus  of  contemporary  praise  from  Cowley  and  every  poet  of  note. 
'^^Is  found  her  poems  in  1S17  while  writing  Kndymion,  and  in  a  letter 
^*^  Re)'nolds  speaks  of  them  as  showing  "a  most  delicate  fancy  of  the 
'^^cher  kind."  Her  daughter,  Joan,  was  also  a  talented  writer  of  verse, 
^cording  to  Mr.  Gosse. 



A.  D.  1626-16S9. 


eHRISTINA,  queen  of  Sweden,  only  child  of  the  great  Gustavus 
Adolphiis,  was  born  December  17,  1626,  and  succeeded  her  father 
in  1632,  when  only  six  years  old.  Distinguished  equally  by  beauty 
and  the  possession  of  a  lively  imagination,  a  good  memory,  and  uncommon 
intelligence,  she  received  a  man's  rather  than  a  woman's  education,  and  to 
this  may  partly  be  attributed  the  many  eccentricities  of  her  life. 

During  Christina's  minority,  the  kingdom  was  governed  by  the  five 
highest  officers  of  state,  the  principal  being  Chancellor  Oxenstiern.  In 
1644  she  assumed  the  reins  of  power,  and  in  1650  was  crowned  with  the 
title  of  king.  She  had  previously  declared  her  cousin,  Charles  (Gustavus, 
her  successor.  For  four  years  thereafter  she  ruled  the  kingdom  with  vigor, 
and  was  remarkable  for  her  patronage  of  learned  nun,  such  as  (irotius, 
Salmasius,  and  Deticartes.  In  1654,  however,  at  tlie  age  of  twenty-eight, 
weary  of  the  personal  restraint  which  royalty  imposed  on  her,  she  alxlicated 
in  favor  of  her  cousin,  reserving  to  herself  sufficient  revenues,  entire  inde- 
pendence, and  supreme  authority  over  her  suite  and  household. 

I'pon  leaving  Sweden,  she  proceeded  to  Brussels,  where  she  embraced 
the  Roman  Catholic  religion.  .She  next  went  to  Rome,  which  she  entered 
on  horseback,  in  the  costume  of  an  Amazon,  with  great  jxunp.  Confirmed 
by  Pope  Alexander  \*ll.,she  adopted  the  surnanu-  of  .Xlesandra.  She 
next  visited  Paris  ;  and  there  in  1657  she  caused  her  grand  ecpierry,  Mon- 
aldeschi.  who  had  enjoyed  her  entire  confidence,  to  be  j)nt  to  di^ath  in  her 
own  household  for  treason.  The  death  of  the  king  in  i^Cx)  caused  her  to 
hasten  from  Rome  to  .Sweden,  but,  failing  in  her  attem|)t  to  be  reinstatcnJ 
on  the  throne,  she  again  left  the  country.  In  1666  she  asj)ired  to  the 
crown  of  Poland,  but  was  unnoticed  by  the   Poles. 

The  remainder  of  her  life  was  spent  at  Koine  in  artistic  an<l  scientific 
pursuits.  Here  she  live<l  lor  some  twenty  y<ars,  (inarrding.  intriguing, 
and  collecting  :  corresjionding  with  men  of  letters  and  founding  academies  : 
consume<l  by  the  desire  for  that    political    power    which    she  had  thrown 



d.  A.  D.  1679. 


T  ADY  DOROTHY  PAKINCiTON,  daughter  of  Lord  Coventry,  and 
JL/  wife  of  Sir  John  Pakington,  \vi\s  eminent  for  her  learning  and  piety, 
and  ranked  among  her  friends  several  celebrated  divines.  A  volume 
entitled  71k^  Whole  Duty  of  Man  was  ascril>ed  to  her  at  first,  though  the 
mistake  in  authorship  has  since  been  discovered. 

Her  acknowledged  works  are,  The  Gentiemen  s  Callinfr^  the  Ladies' 
Callings  The  Government  of  the  Tonfi^ue,  The  Christian  s  Birthright,  and 
The  Causes  of  the  Decay  of  Christian  Piety.  Her  theological  works  are 
strictly  orthodox,  and  evince  ardent  piety  of  fe<»ling.  She  was  at  the  time 
of  her  decease  engaged  in  a  work  entitled  The  Government  of  the  Thoughts^ 
which  was  praised  in  high  terms  by  Dr.  Fell  ;  this  work,  however,  she  did 
not  finish. 

Lady  Pakington  had  ri'ceived  a  learned  education,  which  w*as  not  at 
that  time  uncommon  to  give  to  women  of  high  rank  ;  that  she  used  her 
talents  and  learning  wisely  and  well,  we  have  this  testimony  in  the  writings 
of  Dr.  Fell.  He  s;iys  of  her,  **  Lady  Pakington  was  wise,  humble,  tem|>er- 
ate,  chaste,  patient,  charitable,  and  devout  ;  she  iive<l  a  whole  age  of  great 
austerities,  and  maintained  in  the  midst  of  them  an  undisturlx'd  serenity." 
She  died  May  lo,  1679. 

CtirlMtino  of  i^wi.Mlori  continued, 

away,  and  endeavoring  to  assert  her  vanishetl  influence  to  the  last.  She 
wrote  a  great  deal,  but  her  Afaxifns  and  Sentemrs,  and  Ke flections  on  ike 
Life  and  Actions  of  Alexander  the  ihcat,  are  all  that  have  been  pre- 

Her  death  ()r(nirri"<i  in  Rome.  .April  19,  1689.  and  she  w;ls  buried  under 
a  sonorous  e|)ita|)h.  in  St.  Peter's. 

Her  magnitirtnt  library  was  purchased  by  Alexander  VI 1 1.,  her  collec- 
tion of  antic juities  and  part  of  her  paintings  by  a  nephew  of  the  Pope,  and 
the  remaindtr  of  lur  pictures  by  the  regent  of  Orleans. 



A.  D.  168A-1719. 


f I  ARANQOISE  d*Aubign6  Maintcnoii  was  born  at  Niort,  Xovemher  27, 
-L  1635,  ^^^  died  at  St.  Cyr,  April  15,  17 19.  Her  l)irthplace  was  a 
prison,  Chateau  Trompette,  where  her  father.  Constant  d'Aiibign6,  Baron 
of  Surimeau,  was  confined  for  having  killed  his  wife  and  her  lover,  whom 
he  had  taken  in  adulter^'. 

The  mother  of  Fran^oise  was  the  daughter  of  the  governor  of  the  prison, 
whom  d*Auhigne  had  persuaded  to  marry  him  secretly.  In  1639  he  was 
discharged  from  prison,  and  with  his  wife  and  children  emigrated  to  Mar- 
tinique, where  he  died  in  the  utmost  poverty.  His  widow  returned  to 
France,  whither  she  was  soon  followed  by  her  daughter,  who,  after  various 
vicissiludt»s  and  much  suffering  from  poverty  and  ill  treatment  on  the  part 
of  her  relatives,  found  herself,  at  the  age  of  fifteen,  in  Paris,  an  inmate,  in  a 
dependent  and  almost  menial  position,  of  the  house  of  her  g<>(imr)th«r,  the 
Countess  de  Neuillant,  who  had  converted  her  from  Calvinism  to  Catholi- 

The  comic  poet  Scarron,  who  was  a  paralytic  and  a  cripj)le.  lived  in  the 
same  street  with  the  Countess  de  Neuillant,  became  interested  in  the  young, 
beautiful,  and  intelligent  girl,  whose  adventures  had  been  related  to  him. 
and  furnished  money  to  enable  her  to  enter  a  convent,  whirh  |>overty  had 
hitherto  prevented  her  from  doing.  Fran«;oise  called  to  thank  her  bene- 
factor, and  at  their  t'lrst  interview  he  j)roposed  to  lur  to  bn  ome  his  wif<\ 
.After  a  week's  deliberation  she  consented,  and  they  were  married  in  1651. 
She  was  at  this  lime  exreetlingly  beautiful,  graceful,  and  witty,  and  the 
house  of  Scarron  soon  became  the  ri-sort  of  the  most  brilliant  intellects  of 
Paris.  Scarron  died  October  14,  i66<..).  leaving  his  young  widow  nearly 
penniless,  his  j)ension  ceasing  at  his  death. 

In  1669  she  become  g«»verness  to  the  children  of  Loui>  XIW  by 
Madame  de  Montespan,  much  to  the  dissatisfaction  of  the  king,  wlio  at  tirst 
did  not  like  the  extreme  gravity  and  reserve  of  the  young  widow. 

Her  talents  and  wisdom,  however,  soon  attra*  t<*d  his  attention,  and  she 



d.  A.  D.  1650. 


BAUGHTER  of  Camillus  Molsa,  knight  of  the  order  of  St.  James  of 
Spain,  and  granddaughter  of  Francis  Maria  Molsa,  a  celebrated 
Italian  poet,  was  a  woman  of  very  high  accomplishments,  uniting 
in  an  extraordinary  degree,  wit,  learning,  and  beauty.  Her  father,  observ- 
ing her  genius,  had  her  educated  with  her  brothers,  and  by  the  best 
roasters,  in  the  chief  branches  of  literature  and  science.  Some  of  the  most 
distinguished  men  of  the  time  were  her  instructors  and  eulogists.  She  was 
mistress  of  Latin,  Greek,  and  the  ethics  of  Aristotle,  Plato,  and  Plutarch. 
She  also  understood  Hebrew  and  natural  philosophy,  and  wrote  her  own 
language,  the  Tuscan,  with  ease  and  spirit.  She  played  on  the  lute  and 
violin,  and  is  also  said  to  have  had  a  highly  cultivated  singing  voice. 

Tarquinia  Molsa  was  greatly  esteemed  by  Alphonsus  II.,  Duke  of 
Ferrara,  and  his  court.  The  city  of  Rome,  by  a  decree  of  the  senate,  in 
wWch  all  her  excellencies  were  set  forth,  honored  her  with  the  title  of 
Sinf^uiar,  and  bestowed  on  her  the  rights  of  a  Roman  citizen.  This 
<ltCTeewas  passed  December  8,  1600. 

She  was  married  to  Paulus  Porrinus,  but  losing  her  husband  while  still 
ven*  young,  she  would  never  consent  to  be  married  again.  H(t  grief  was 
Sfi  acute  at  the  rt*sult  of  his  death  that  she  was  called  a  second  Artemisia. 
She  retained  her  personal  charms  till  an  advanced  period  of  life,  confirming 
the  opinion  of  Euripides,  that  "  the  autumn  of  beauty  is  not  less  pleasing 
than  its  spring."  Although  so  courted  and  extolled,  she  avoided  notice 
i'ld  distinction,  and  retained  to  the  last  her  fondness  for  a  retired  life. 

Madame  <!•*  Nlalntemon  continued, 

t)ecame  his  confidant  and  adviser,  was  made  marchioness,   and    took    the 

n^rae  of  Maintenon  from  an  estate,  and,  after  resolutely  refusing  to  become 

rhe  king's  mistress,  became  his  wife  by  a  secret  marriage  in  1683.      From 

ihh  time  till  his  death,  Louis  was  greatly  under  her  intluence,  after  which 

trvcnt  she  retired  to  the  convent  of  St.  Cyr. 




A.  D.  1644-1710. 


^LLE.  DE  LA  VALLIERE,  duchess,  a  French  lady  celebrated  for 
her  intimate  relations  with  Louis  XIV.,  born  in  Tours  in  August, 
1644,  died  in  Paris,  June  6,  17 10. 

After  the  death  of  her  father,  a  French  nobleman  and  superior  officer, 
her  mother  married  the  Baron  de  St.  Remy,  who  was  attached  to  the 
household  of  the  Duchess  of  Orleans.  Introduced  at  court  and  appointed 
maid  of  honor  to  Henrietta  of  England,  sister-in-law  of  Louis  XIV., 
Louise  de  La  Valliere  soon  received  the  homage  of  several  distinguished 
persons,  whose  attentions  she  discountenanced  from  a  feeling  of  sincere  love 
and  admiration  for  the  king. 

All  who  became  acquainted  with  the  young  lady  were  struck  with  her 
modesty,  gentleness,  and  truthfulness,  as  well  as  with  her  personal  charms 
and  varied  accomplishments  ;  and  the  most  eminent  French  writers,  as 
Racine,  La  Fontaine,  and  Madame  de  Sevigne,  bestow  the  highest  encomi- 
ums upon  her  virtues  and  graces. 

Her  love  for  Louis  XI \'.  was  as  enthusiastic  as  it  was  disinterested  : 
and  after  having  for  some  time  resisted  his  advances,  she  became  his  mis- 
tress in  1661,  but  on  several  occasions  felt  iniptlled  by  conscientious 
scniples  to  desert  her  lover,  who  twice  succeeded  in  bringing  her  back  from 
the  conven^in  which  she  had  taken  refuge.  In  1674,  however,  she  left  him 
definitely,  and  took  the  veil  in  the  Carmelite  convent  of  the  Faubourg  St. 
Jacques  under  the  name  of  Sister  Louise.  She  received  the  visits  of  the 
queen,  the  Duchess  of  Orleans,  and  other  warm  admirers,  and,  engaged  in 
works  of  piety  and  charity,  spent  the  rest  of  Irt  life  in  the  seclusion  of 
that  convent. 

She  bore  four  children  to  the  king,  two  of  whom  were  K-gitimatized, 
Mile,  de  Hlois,  who  married  the  Prince  of  C'onti,  and  llu*  Count  of  Verman- 
dois.  She  wrote  a  book  entitled  Krfintions  on  thr  Mm  v  of  (lod,  by  a 
Penitent  Jl on/an,  1680.  A  collection  of  her  letters  was  also  published  in 
1767.      Her  life  has  been  a  very  sugj^estive  literary  theme. 



A.  D.  1654-1720. 


|XXE  LEFEV^RE  DACIER,  a  French  woman  distinguished  in  letters 
and  as  a  scholar,  was  born  in  Saumur,  France,  in  March,  1654,  ^^^ 
died  in  Paris,  August  17,  1720. 

She  was  the  daughter  of  the  celebrated  scholar,  Tanneguy-Lcfevre,  and 
acquired  her  first  instruction  from  overhearing  his  lessons  to  her  brother. 
lefe\Te,  amazed  at  the  extent  of  the  information  thus  obtained,  devoted 
fcimself  to  her  education  :  and  at  his  death,  in  1672,  she  was  one  of  the 
nwst  accomplished  scholars  in  Europe. 

Immediately  subsequent  to  the  death  of  her  father,  she  went  to  reside  in 
hris,  where  in  1674  she  published  an  edition  of  Callimachus.  The  repu- 
tation acquired  by  this  work  procured  her  an  invitation  to  assist  in  prepar- 
njg  the  Delphin  editions  of  the  cl.issics.  In  the  discharge  of  this  duty  she 
P^pared  editions  of  Florus,  Eutropius,  Aurelius  Victor,  Dictys  Cretensis, 
and  Dares  Phrygius. 

In  1683  she  was  married  to  Andre  Dacier,  a  favorite  of  her  father,  under 
*hom  they  had  for  many  years  been  fellow  pupils.  This  marriage  was  called 
"<he  marriage  of  the  Greek  and  Latin."  Two  years  afterward,  they  both 
abjured  Protestantism,  and  received  from  the  king  a  pension  of  two  thou- 
sand livres.  Madame  Dacier  tlu-nceforth  continued  to  devote  herself  no  less 
assiduously  to  literary  j)ursuits,  and  produced  translations  of  sexeral  plays 
^  Plautus.  the  whole  of  Terence,  the  Iliad  and  Odyssey  of  Homer,  the 
"utusanti  Clouds  of  Aristophanes,  and  the  whole  of  Anacrconand  Sappho. 
*^"t  translations  from  Homer  involved  her  in  a  controxersy  with  M.  de  la 
•'"tic.  and  othe^^,  concerning  the  comj)arative  merits  of  ancient  and  mod- 
^■"^  literature,  Madame  Dacier  vigorously  sustaining  the  former.  She  also 
agisted  her  husband  in  the  translation  of  Marcus  .Aurelius  and  Plutarch's 

She  was  distinguished  for  modesty  and.  amiability,  and,  amid  her  en- 
jrr^^sing  literary  avocations,  di<l  not  neglect  lur  domestic  and  maternal 



A.  D.  1660-1M5. 



^^|AUGHTER  of  Henry  Killigrew,  born  in  London  in  1660,  died  in 
M^  June,  1685,  was  characterized  by  one  of  her  admirers  as  "a  Grace 
for  beauty,  and  a  Muse  for  wit."  Her  father  was  one  of  the  preb- 
endaries of  Westminster  some  time  before  the  restoration  of  Charles  II. 

The  daughter  showed  indications  of  genius  very  early  and  this  being 
carefully  cultivated,  she  became  eminent  in  the  arts  of  poetry  and  painting. 
An  exhibition  of  the  latter  is  her  portrait  of  the  Duke  of  York  (afterward 
James  II.)  and  his  duchess,  to  whom  she  was  a  maid  of  honor.  She  also 
painted  some  historical  pictures  and  some  pieces  of  still  life,  for  her  own 

She  was  a  woman  of  exemplary  piety  and  virtue.  Dryden  speaks  of 
her  in  the  highest  terms,  and  wrote  a  long  ode  to  her  memor}-,  from 
which  the  following  stanza  is  extracted  : — 

**  Now  all  those  charms,  that  blooming  grace. 
The  well-proportioned  shape  and  beauteous  face. 
Shall  never  more  be  seen  by  mortal  eyes: 

In  earth  the  much  lamented  virgin  lies!  • 

Not  wit,  nor  piety,  could  fate  prevent, 
Nor  was  the  cru»*l  destiny  content 
To  finish  all  the  murder  at  a  blow. 
To  snap  at  once  her  life  and  beauty  too; 
But,  like  a  hardened  felon,  took  a  pride 
To  work  more  mischievously  slow, 
And  plunder 'd  first,  and  then  destroyed. 
Oh  I  double  sacriltrge  on  things  divine. 
To  rob  the  reiique  and  deface  the  shiine! 
But  thus  Orinda  died : 

Heaven  by  the  same  disease  did  l)oth  translate. 
As  equal  were  their  souls,  as  equal  was  their  fate." 

She  died  of  smallpox,  and  was  buried  in  the  chapel  of  the  Savoy  hospi- 
tal, on  the  north  side  of  which  is  a  j)lain  monnnient  of  marble  aiul  freestone 
erected  to  her  memory,  and  hxed  in  the  wall,  on  which  is  a  Latin  inscrip- 


Reproduced  from  a  copper  etching  after  the  original  portrait 


A.  I>.  1086-1714. 


/|f\NE,  queen  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  was  born  at  St.  James 
\Ji  Palace,  London,  on  February  6,  1665.  She  was  the  second 
daughter  of  James  IL  of  Enghind  by  his  first  wife,  Anne  Hyde,  the 
daughter  of  the  famous  Earl  of  Clarendon.  When  she  was  six  years  of 
age,  her  mother  died  ;  and  her  father  soon  after  professed  himself  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Church  of  Rome  ;  but  his  daughters  were  educated  in  the  prin- 
ciples of  the  Church  of  England,  to  which  Anne  always  retained  an  ardent 
ii  not  a  very  enlightened  attachment. 

In  1683  Anne  was  married  to  Prince  Cicorge  of  Denmark,  an  indolent 
and  good-natured  man,  who  concerned  himself  little  about  public  affairs, 
^  had  as  little  capacity  for  dealing  with  them.  At  an  early  age  she 
^<)nned  an  intimacy  with  Sarah  Jennings  (afterwards  the  Duchess  of  Marl- 
•^orough),  who  exercised  an  almost  unbounded  influence  over  her,  both 
Wore  and  after  her  accession  to  the  throne.  She  was  the  mother  of  seven- 
^^tti  children,  all  of  whom  died  young  and  before  she  became  queen. 

In  the  revolution  of  1688,  Anne  supported  the  cause  of  the  Prince  of 

^^rangc,  but  was  afterwards  implicated  in  intrigues  for  tht^  restonition  of  her 

>'Uher.     She  succeeded   William  III.,  who  died   March  8,   1702,  at  a  time 

^ hen  the  strife  of  parties  was  extremely  violent.      She  pursued  the  foreign 

policy  of  the  late  king,  which    involved   luigland   in  the  long  war  of  the 

Spanish  succession   as    the   ally  of    Austria   anil    the    enemy    of    I*' ranee. 

Amoi^  the  important  events  of  the  reign  were  a  number  of  sii;nal  victories 

gained  by  the  Duke  of  Marlborough  over  the  armies  of  Louis  XIV.,  and 

^^t  union  of  England  and  .Scotland  in    1707.      Her  political  principles,   if 

^ht  had  any,  were  favorable  to  royal  preroi^ative  rather  than  constitutional 

Ji^y,  and  rendered  her  |)artial  to  the  Tories. 

She  became  gradually  alierijited  from  ihtr  nuclus^  of  Marlborough,  who 
*as  a  Whig,  and  transferred  h«r  fa\oritiMn  to  .Mr>.  Mashani,  whose  in- 
^4ru<-"^  undermined  the  Whig  party  so  effectually,  that  the  Tory  statesmen. 
the  Earl  <if  Oxford  and  Lord  Bolingbroke,  came  into  power  in  17 10.      The 


A.  D.  1668-1731. 


^"v  HIS  voluminous  writer  was  the  daughter  of  a  merchant  of  Newcastle- 
Vr  upon-Tyne,  where  she  was  born  in  1668.  She  was  well  educated, 
and  among  other  accomplishments  was  mistress  of  French,  and  had 
a  good  knowledge  of  the  Latin  tongue.  Her  uncle,  a  clergyman,  observ- 
ing her  uncommon  predilection,  took  her  under  his  tuition,  and  taught  her 
mathematics,  logic,  and  philosophy.  She  left  her  native  place  when  she  was 
about  the  age  of  twenty,  and  spent  the  remaining  part  of  her  life  at  London 
and  Chelsea.  Here  she  pursued  her  studies  with  assiduity,  acquired  great 
proficiency  in  the  exact  sciences,  and  extended  her  knowledge  of  the  classic 
authors.  Among  these  latter,  Seneca,  Epictetus,  Hierocles,  Antoninus, 
Tully,  Plato,  and  Xenophon  were  her  favorites. 

She  wrote  .An  Essay  in  Defense  of  the  Female  Sex\  A  Serious  Pro- 
posal to  the  Ladies,  and  many  other  books  and  essays  with  the  purpose 
of  raising  the  standard  of  female  education  and  female  character.  She 
was,  however,  a  woman  conservative  and  decidedly  opposed  to  the  new- 
fangled spirit  of  the  times.  She  died  at  Chelsea,  May  11,  1731,  and  was 
there  buried. 

Queen  Ann*^  continaed, 

queen  and  these  Tory  ministers  concurred  in  designs  and  intrigues  to  secure 
the  succession  to  her  brother,  the  Pretender.  The  Kuroj)ean  war  was 
ended  by  the  treaty  of  Utrecht,  Lord  Bolingbroke  became  j>rime  minister 
in  place  of  the  Karl  of  Oxford,  and  the  poor  (jueen  was  kept  in  a  state  of 
constant  unrest  through  the  (juarrcls  of  her  ministers.  She  died  of 
apoplexy  on  August   i,  17 14,  and  was  succeeded  by  (jeor^o  I. 

Her  reign,  illustrated  by  the  genius  of  Newton,  Addison.  Pope,  Boling- 
broke, Swift,  DeFoe,  and  Arbuthnot,  was  almost  as  celebrated  in  literature 
as  the  Augustan  age  of  Rome,  although  she  did  little  to  make  it  so. 

Queen  Anne  was  of    middle  size,   and    c<^)mely  though    not   beautiful 
She  was  virtuous,  conscientic^us,  and  afTectionate,  more  worthy  of   esteem 
as  a  woman  than  of  administration  as  a  queen. 




A.  D.  1670-1734. 


"l^RS.   MASHAM'S  name  occupies  a  prominent  place  in  the  political 
\Y-1-     writings  which  characterized  the  reign  of  Queen  Anne.     She  was 
the  daughter  of  Mr.  Hill,  a  wealthy  merchant  of  London,  by  reason 
d  whose  bankruptcy  she  was  obliged  to  become  the  attendant  of  Lady  Riv- 
ers.    From  this  position  she  was  advanced  to  the  place  of  waiting  maid  to 
l\\e  princess  Anne,  and  after  her  mistress  ascended  the  throne  gradually 
acquired  considerable  influence  over  her.     She  was  not  a  woman  of  superior 
mind  or  attainments,  but  there  were  many  points  of  sympathy  between  the 
queen  and  herself,  which  may  account  for  the  ascendency  of  this  favorite. 
She  possessed  great  powers  of  mimicry,  and  considerable  taste  in  music,  of 
vWch  latter  accomplishment  the  queen  was  very  fond. 

In  1707,  Abigail  Hill  married  Mr.  Masham,  a  man  of  ancient  family, 
one  of  the  pages  of  the  court.  This  marriage  was  performed  secretly,  and 
m  the  presence  of  the  queen.  The  Duchess  of  Marlborough,  who  had  hith- 
^obeen  a  favorite  of  the  queen,  on  learning  these  facts,  gave  way  to  such 
Violence,  that  it  severed  finally  the  tie  between  herself  and  her  sovereign  ; 
•*"^  in  a  short  time  she  was  deprived  of  all  offices  and  dignities  at  court, 
'^e  of  her  situations,  that  of  the  privy-seal,  was  given  to  Mrs.  Masham. 

l*olIowing  upon  this,  Mrs.  Masham  leagued  herself  with  the  queen's 
Wy,  who  were  intriguing  to  remove  the  Duke  of  Marlborough  and  his 
adherents,  and  became  an  instrument  in  their  hands.  In  171 1  a  change  of 
n^'nbtr)'  took  place,  and  Mr.  Masham  was  raised  to  the  peerage.  Hence- 
^^^,  Lady  Masham  became  involved  in  all  the  intrigues  of  the  court, 
specially  in  those  of  the  Tories  in  favor  of  the  exiled  House  of  Stuart, 
"hich  she  warmly  advocated. 

Mrs.  Masham  was  plain  in  appearance,  and  delicate  in  health.      One  of 
i^r physical  blemishes  was  a  remarkably  red  nose,  furnishing  the  wits  of  the 
day  with  a  constant  subject  at  which  to  level  their  shafts.     After  the  death 
of  the  queen  she  lived  in  great  retirement,  and  died  at  an  advanced  age. 



A.  D.  1062-1694.  ' 


MARY  IL  was  born  at  St.  James  Palace,  Westminster,  April  30,  1662. 
She  was  the  daughter  of  James  II.  by  Anne  Hyde,  his  first  wife. 
She  married,    November  4,  1677,   at  the  age  of  fifteen,  William, 
Prince  of  Orange,  and  sailed  two  weeks  after  to  the  Hague.      Here  she 
lived  till  February  12,  1689,  when  accepting  a  solemn  invitation  from  the 
states  of  England  she  followed  her  husband  to  London. 

The  throne  was  declared  vacant  by  the  flight  of  James  II.,  and  William 
and  Mary  were  crowned  as  next  heirs  April  11,  1689.  Though  Mary  was 
declared  joint  possessor  of  the  throne  with  her  husband,  yet  the  administra- 
tion of  the  government  was  left  entirely  to  him.  This  arrangement  cost 
Mary  no  sacrifice,  but  was  in  strict  accord  with  her  desire.  "There  is  but 
one  command  which  I  wish  him  to  obey,"  said  she,  **and  that  is,  *  Hus- 
bands, love  your  wives.'  For  myself,  I  shall  follow  the  injunction,  *  Wives, 
be  obedient  to  your  husbands  in  all  things.*  " 

She  kept  the  promise  voluntarily  made,  and  all  her  efforts  were  directed 
to  promote  her  husband's  happiness,  and  make  him  beloved  by  the  English 
people.  He  had  great  confidence  in  her  abilities,  and  when,  during  his 
absence  in  Ireland  and  on  the  continent,  she  was  left  the  regent  of  the 
kingdom,  she  managed  parties  at  home  with  much  prudence,  and  governed 
with  a  discretion  not  inferior  to  his  own. 

Queen  Mary  was  strongly  attached  to  the  Protestant  religion  and  the 
Church  of  England,  and  was  evidently  led  to  consider  its  preservation  a 
paramount  duty,  even  when  opposed  to  the  claims  of  filial  obedience.  The 
unfriendly  terms  on  which  she  lived  with  her  sister,  afterward  Queen 
Anne,  have  often  been  alluded  to  as  a  blemish  on  her  character.  But 
political  jealousies,  and  the  foolish  attachment  of  Anne  to  overbearing 
favorites,  may  sufficiently  account  for  this  rupture.  Aside  from  this,  Mar)' 
was,  in  truth,  an  amiable  and  excellent  queen,  and  by  her  example  made 
industry  and  domestic  virtue  fashionable.  She  died  of  smallpox,  at  Ken- 
sington, in  the  year  1694. 



A.  D.  1684-1727. 


—         -^t=#;-<g*-  -  - 

CATHARINE  I.,  Empress  of  Russia,  was  a  peasant's  daughter,  and  her 
original  name  was  Martha  Skavranska.  Her  parents  lived  at  Rin- 
g^,  a  small  village  not  far  from  Dorpt,  on  Lake  X'itcherve,  in  Livonia. 
^Hedate  of  her  birth  was  April  15,  1684.  Being  left  an  orphan  in  her  fif- 
^<*enth  year,  she  was  brought  up  chiefly  by  a  Lutheran  pastor  named 
Gliick,  in  Marienburg,  Livonia. 

In  1702  she  married  a  Swedish  dragoon,  but  Marienburg  being  taken 
^y  the  Russians  in  the  same  year,  she  was  made  prisoner,  and  became  the 
mistress  of  Prince  Menschikoflf.  She  then  attracted  the  notice  of  Peter  the 
Great,  and  won  so  much  on  his  affections  that  he  married  her  ;  and  the 
tnarriage  was  publicly  avowed  in  1711.  Some  years  prior  to  this,  however, 
she  went  over  to  the  Greek  Church,  and  took  the  name  of  Catharina 

When  Peter  the  Great  and  his  army  seemed  entirely  in  the  power  of  the 
*"rkish  army  on  the  Pruth  in  171 1,  Catharine,  according  to  the  common 
account,  through  skillful  bribery,  procured  the  deliverance  of  the  Russians. 
Iroin  this  time  forth  she  was  received  with  great  fa\or  and  was  solemnly 
downed  in    17 12. 

On  the  death  of  Peter  the  Great,  in  1725,  she  was  acknowledged 
fc-o^press  and  sole  ruler  of  all  the  Russians.  She  showed  herself  worthy 
^^  this  high  station  by  completing  the  grand  designs  which  lur  illustrious 
consort  had  begun.  The  first  thing  she  did  on  her  accession,  was  to  cause 
^'^r)' jrallows  to  be  taken  down,  and  all  instruments  of  torture  to  be  de- 
stroyed. She  instituted  a  new  order  of  knighthood,  and  performed  many 
actions  worthy  of  a  great  mind. 

She  was  much  beloved  for  her  great  humanity,    but  ere   long  began  to 
yield  to  the  influence  of  a   number  of   faxorites,  addicted  herself  to  drunk- 
enness, ami  lived  such  a  life  as  could  not  fail  to  hurry  her  to  her  grave. 
She  died  May  17,  1727.      Her  daughter —  Elizabeth  —  became  empress. 



A.  D.  1690-1768. 


rVV  ARY  WORTLEY  MONTAGU,  born  about  1690  at  Thoresby, 
\  J  /  Nottinghamshire,  England,  was  the  eldest  daughter  of  Evelyn 
^  Pierrepont,  Duke  of  Kingston,  and  Lady  Mary  Fielding.  She 
was  a  clever,  attractive  child,  the  pride  and  delight  of  her  father,  who, 
having  lost  his  wife  in  1694,  ^"^  continuing  a  widower,  introduced  his 
daughter  to  society,  and  made  her  preside  at  his  table  at  a  very  early  age. 

In  17 1 2  she  married,  without  the  consent  of  her  father,  Edward 
Wortley  Montagu,  eldest  son  of  Hon.  Sydney  Montagu.  For  more  than 
three  years  after  her  marriage,  she  lived  near  Sheffield,  where  her  son  was 
born,  her  husband  being  kept  principally  in  London  during  this  time  by  his 
parliamentary  duties.  On  the  accesssion  of  George  L,  Mr.  Montagu 
obtained  a  seat  at  the  Treasury  Board,  and  from  this  time,  Lady  Mary  lived 
in  London,  where  she  gained  a  brilliant  reputation  by  her  wit  and  beauty, 
and  was  on  terms  of  intimate  friendship  with  Addison,  Pope,  and  other 
literary  men  of  the  day. 

In  17 16  Mr.  Montagu  was  appointed  ambassador  to  the  Porte,  and  in 
August  of  that  year  he  set  out  for  Constantinople,  accompanied  by  his 
wife.  They  remained  abroad  till  17 18,  and  during  this  time  Lady  Mary 
wrote  the  well  known  Letters  to  her  sister,  Pope,  and  other  friends.  The 
Letters  give  a  true  description  of  Eastern  life  and  manners,  and  are  written 
in  a  clear,  lively  style,  sparkling  with  wit  and  humor.  The  next  twenty 
years  of  her  life  she  passed  in  PZngland. 

For  reasons  which  are  not  well  known,  in  1739,  she  left  England  and 
her  husband,  from  whom,  however,  she  parted  on  very  good  terms,  though 
they  never  met  again.  She  lived  in  Italy,  first  on  the  shores  of  the  lake 
of  Iseo,  and  afterwards  at  Venice,  till  1761,  when  at  the  request  of  her 
daughter,  the  Countess  of  Bute,  she  returned  to  England.  She  died 
August  21,  1762.  Of  her  two  children,  both  of  whom  survived  her,  one 
was  the  eccentric  and  profligate  Edward  Wortley  Montagu,  and  the  other 
became  the  wife  of  the  Marquis  of  Bute,  a  distinguished  nobleman. 



A.  D.  1697-1780. 


QX  accomplished  French  woman,  resplendent  in  the  age  of  Louis  XV. , 
was  born  in  Paris  in  1697,  ^"d  died  in  the  same  city  September  24, 
1780.     She  was  of  noble  birth,  and  was  educated  in  a  convent,  but 
at  an  early  age  astonished  her  parents  by  her  skeptical  opinions  on  religious 

At  h*enty  years  of  age  she  was  married  to  the  Marquis  du  Deffand, 
irom  whom  her  indiscretions  soon  caused  her  to  be  separated,  after  which 
she  launched  into  a  career  of  fashionable  dissipation,  and  for  many  years 
was  one  of  the  most  brilliant  ornaments  of  the  court  of  Louis  XV.  Al- 
though incapable  from  a  natural  selfishness  and  want  of  sympathy  of  enter- 
taining the  passion  of  love,  she  knew  how  to  inspire  it  in  others  ;  and  over 
the  greater  part  of  her  numerous  lovers,  among  whom,  it  is  said,  was  the 
^ent  himself,  her  influence  remained  unimpaired  until  their  dotage. 

Her  conversational  powers  and  clear,  cool  judgment  caused  her  to  be 
courted  by  the  most  eminent  men  of  the  time,  and  when  in  her  fifty-sixth 
y^r  she  became  totally  blind,  her  salons  in  the  convent  of  St.  Joseph  were 
the  favorite  resort  of  Montestjuieu,  X'oltaire,  President  Henault,  David 
Hume,  D'AIembert,  and  many  others.  At  this  period  of  her  life  she  be- 
c^e  acquainted  with  Horace  Walpole,  between  whom  and  herself  a  cor- 
^pondence  was  for  many  years  carried  on. 

As  she  grew  old  her  selfish  traits  developed  more  disagreeably,  and 
the  ungenerous  manner  in  which  she  treated  her  companion  and  reader, 
Mile,  de  Lespinasse,  alienated  many  of  her  friends.  Her  hitter  years  were 
"^ked  by  i>eevishness  and  cnnuL  and  she  died  unhappy  after  several 
"Availing  efforts  to  consecrate  herself  to  the  life  of  a  devotee. 

Her  epistolary  writings    comprise    her    correspondence  with   H6nault, 
•Vontes<}uieu,  D'AIembert,  and    the   Duchess  of    Maine,   and   with   Horace 
U'alpole.      Her  prose  style   is  a  model  of  elegance,  but  her  poetry  never 
rose  above  mediocrity. 



A.  D.  1706-1749. 


Vjt  most  remarkable  women  of  her  time,  notorious  for  intimacy  with 
Voltaire,  was  born  at  Paris,  December  17,  1706.  At  an  early 
period  she  displayed  a  great  aptitude  for  the  acquisition  of  knowledge. 
She  studied  Latin  and  Italian  with  her  father,  the  Baron  de  Bretuil,  and 
subsequently  betook  herself  with  zeal  to  mathematics  and  the  physical 
sciences.  Maupertius  was  her  instructor  in  geometry,  and  the  works  of 
Newton  and  Leibnitz  became  her  constant  study.  It  was  while  thus  dev^ot- 
ing  herself  that  she  met  Voltaire. 

Distinguished  alike  for  her  beauty  and  talent,  she  soon  found  a  host  of 
suitors  for  her  hand.  Her  choice  fell  on  the  Marquis  du  Chatalet-Lomont, 
•  but  her  marriage  did  not  hinder  her  from  forming,  in  1733,  a  liaison  with 
Voltaire,  who  came  to  reside  with  her  at  Cirey,  a  chateau  on  the  borders  of 
Champagne  and  Lorraine,  belonging  to  her  husband.  Here  they  studied, 
loved,  quarreled,  and  loved  again,  for  several  years. 

In  1747  Madame  du  Chatelet,  however,  became  sensible  to  the  brilliant 
qualities  of  a  certain  M.  Saint- Lambert,  a  captain  of  the  Lorraine  Guards  ; 
and  the  result  was  that  the  philosopher  had  to  make  room  for  the  soldier. 
Voltaire  was  both  grieved  and  indignant  on  discovering  that  he  had  a  rival, 
but  Madame  du  Chatelet' s  assurances  of  unabated  friendship  reconciled 
and  induced  him  to  remain  near  her.  She  died  at  Luneville,  September 
10,  1749,  a  few  days  after  having  given  birth  to  a  child. 

Her  first  writing  was  Institutions  dc  Physique,  a  treatise  on  the  philoso- 
phy of  Leibnitz.  She  also  translated  the  Principia  of  Newton  into  French, 
accompanying  it  with  algebraic  elucidations. 

Madame  du  Chatelet' s  ideas  of  morality  were  those  of  her  time.  She 
was  graceful,  remarkable  for  her  simplicity  of  manner,  and  renowned  for 
the  accuracy  of  her  judgment.  Proud  of  her  rank  and  birth,  haughty  to 
her  inferiors,  violent  and  imperious  in  her  temper,  she  ruled  despotically 
over  her  lovers,  as  she  was  ruled  by  her  passions. 



A.  D.  1707-1791. 


rXOUNTESS  SELINA  HUNTINGDON,  a  patron  of  Calvinistic  Metho- 
^^  dists  in  England,  was  born  in  1707,  and  died  June  17,  1791.  She  was 
one  of  three  daughters  and  co-heirs  of  Washington  Shirley,  Earl  of 
'■^^'^^rs,  and  at  the  age  of  twenty-one  was  married  to  Theophilus  Hastings, 
'^^^  of  Huntingdon,  a  man  distinguished  for  piety.  His  sudden  death  in 
'''^^^,  and  also  the  death  of  her  four  children  in  youth,  caused  her  to 
^^^^^me  deeply  religious. 

Ai  the  time  when  the  founders  of  Methodism,  Wesley  and  Whitefield, 
^'^r^j  exciting  in  England  a  spirit  of  more  intense  devotion  than  was  gener- 
^*y  prevalent,  the  Countess  of  Huntingdon  embraced  their  doctrines  with 
"^^  whole  heart.  She  inclined  to  Whitefield' s  peculiar  doctrines  rather  than 
^^  AVesley's,  but  she  chose  herself  to  become  the  founder  of  a  sect  which 
^*^s called  **  The  Countess  of  Huntingdon's  Connection." 

She  had  the  control  of  a  large   income  during  her  forty-five  years  of 

^'idowhood,  and  as  her  own   personal  expenses  were  small,   and  she  was 

^sisted  by  other  opulent  persons,  she  supported  a  college  at  Trevecca,  in 

South  Wales,  for  the  education  of  Calvinistic  ministers,  and  built  sixty-four 

cHapels,  the  ministers  of  which  she  assisted  to  support.      Her  largest  chapel 

*as  at  Bath,   which  she   freciuently  attended.      The   ccjllege  was   removed 

3lter her  death  to  Cheshunt,  Herts,  where  it  still  exists,  and  for  the  supjx^t 

^^  it  and  also  her  chapels  she  left  a  trust.      Not  only   in  tliese  ways  did  she 

^<^nt  the  title  of  public  beivefactor,  but  she  also  expended  large  sums  in 

private  charities.      According  to  the  census  of  1831,  there  were  109  chapels 

Wonging  to  the  *'  Connection,"  with  accommodations  for  40,000  hearers. 

Udy  Huntingdon  lived  for  others,  and  at  her  death,  which  took  j)lace 
•^'tit  a  long  career,  she  was  mourned  by  all  who  knew  her.  Kven  those 
^horejjarded  her  conduct  as  the  result  of  mistaken  enthusiasm,  nspected 
"^*r  lor  the  noble  virtues  of  her  character  and  her  Christian  (onduci. 

«he  Congregational  polity  prevails  among  lur  societies,  .some  of  which 
"^^'^  formally  identified  themselves  with  the  Congregationalists. 



A.  D.  1717-1780. 


^I^HIS  noted  woman,  archduchess  of  Austria,  queen  of  Hungary  and 
®  |fe  Bohemia,  and  empress  of  Germany,  born  at  Vienna,  May  13, 
17 17,  was  the  eldest  daughter  of  Charles  VI.  of  Austria,  emperor 
of  Germany.  In  1724  Charles,  by  his  will,  known  as  the  Pragmatic  Sanc- 
tion, regulated  the  order  of  succession  in  the  House  of  Austria,  declaring 
that,  in  default  of  male  issue,  his  eldest  daughter  should  be  heiress  of  all  the 
Austrian  dominions,  and  her  children  after  her.  The  Pragmatic  Sanction 
was  guaranteed  by  the  Diet  of  the  Empire,  and  by  all  the  German  princes, 
and  by  several  powers  of  Europe,  but  not  by  the  Bourbons.  In  1736  she 
married  Francis  of  Lorraine,  to  whom  she  gave  equal  share  in  the  govern- 
ment upon  the  death  of  her  father  in  1740. 

At  the  time  of  her  accession  the  monarchy  was  exhausted,  the  finances 
embarrassed,  the  people  discontented,  and  the  army  weak.  To  add  to  the 
gravity  of  the  situation,  Prussia,  Bavaria,  Saxony,  and  Sardinia,  abetted  by 
France,  put  forward  claims  to  the  whole  or  to  portions  of  her  dominions. 
Maria  Theresa,  however,  went  immediately  to  Vienna,  and  took  possession 
of  Austria.  Bohemia,  and  her  other  German  states.  She  then  repaired  to 
Presburg,  took  the  oaths  to  the  Constitution  of  Hungary,  and  was  solemnly 
proclaimed  queen  of  that  kingdom  in  1741.  Frederick  of  Prussia  offered 
the  young  queen  his  friendship  on  condition  of  her  giving  up  to  him 
Silesia,  which  she  resolutely  refused,  and  he  then  invaded  that  province. 
The  Elector  of  Bavaria,  assisted  by  the  French,  also  invaded  Austria,  and 
pushed  his  troops  as  far  as  Vienna.  The  queen  took  refuge  in  Presburg, 
where  she  convoked  the  Hungarian  Diet  ;  and  appearing  in  the  midst  of 
them  with  her  infant  son  in  her  arms,  she  made  a  heart-stirring  appeal  to 
their  loyalty.  The  Hungarian  nobles,  drawing  their  swords,  unanimously 
exclaimed,  '*  We  will  die  for  our  queen,  Maria  Theresa  1 "  And  they'  raised 
an  army  and  drove  the  French  and  Bavarians  out  of  the  hereditary  states. 

In  the  meantime,  Charles  Albert,  Elector  of  Bavaria,  was  chosen  em- 
peror of  Germany,   under  the  name  of  Charles  VII.  ;  and    Frederick    of 



Prussia  soon  made  peace  with  Maria  Theresa,  who  was  obliged  to  surrender 
Silesia  to  him. 

^"  ^745  Charles  VII.  died,  and  Francis.  Maria  Theresa's  husband,  was 
eleaed  emperor.  Three  years  later  the  peace  of  Aix-la-Chapelle  termi- 
nated the  war  of  the  Austrian  succession,  and  there  ensued  a  period  of  peace. 
During  this  period,  Maria  Theresa  instituted  important  financial  reforms, 
^d  her  utmost  to  foster  agriculture,  manufactures,  and  commerce,  and 
improved  and  nearly  doubled  the  national  revenues,  whilst  the  burdens 
were  diminished. 

In  1756  began  the  Seven  Years'  War,  between  France,  Austria,  and 
Russia  on  the  one  side,  and  Prussia  on  the  other,  to  confirm  Frederick  in  the 
possession  of  Silesia.  This  was  ended  in  1763,  leaving  Austria  and  Prussia 
*ith  the  same  boundaries  as  before.  On  the  conclusion  of  hostilities  the 
oppress  renewed  her  efforts  to  promote  the  national  prosperity,  ameliorat- 
ing the  condition  of  the  peasantry,  mitigating  the  penal  code,  founding 
schook,  organizing  charitable  societies,  in  short,  promoting  the  welfare  of 
^^  subjects  by  all  the  wise  arts  of  peaceful  progress. 

After  the  death  of  her  husband,  in  1765,  the  queen  mother  associated 
"^  son  Joseph,  elected  king  of  the  Romans  in  1764,  with  herself  in  the 
government  of  the  hereditary  states.  She,  however,  retained  the  adminis- 
tration of  the  government  until  her  death,  November  29,  1780. 

l^ersonally,  Maria  Theresa  was  a  woman  of    majestic  and  winning  ap- 
pearance, and  she  was  animated  by  truly  regal  sentiments  and  an  undaunted 
^irit;  by  this  rare  union  of  feminine  tact  with  masculine  energy  and  restless 
activity,  she  not  only  won  the  affection  and  even  enthusiastic  admiration  of 
her  subjects,  but  she  raised  Austria  from  a  most  wretched  condition  to  a 
position  of   assured    power.       Although    a    zealous    Roman   Catholic,  she 
maintained  the   rights  of  her  own   crown  against  the  court  of  Rome,  and 
endeavored  to  correct  some  of  the  worst  abuses  of  the  Church. 

Maria  Theresa  was  the  mother  of  sixteen  children,  all  born  within 
twenty  years,  ten  of  whom  survived  her.  Among  these,  Josej)h  II.  suc- 
ceeded her  ;  Leo[K)ld.  Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany,  followed  his  brother  on  the 
imperial  throne  as  Leopold  II.  ;  Ferdinand  became  Duke  of  Modena  ;  and 
Marie  Antoinette  was  married  to  Louis  XVI.,  of  France. 



A.  D.  1789-1796. 


aATHARINE  II.  was  born  at  Stettin,  in  Prussian  Pomerania,  May  2, 
1729.  Her  father,  the  Prince  of  Anhalt-Zerbst,  was  a  Prussian 
field  marshal,  and  governor  of  Stettin.  She  received  the  name  of 
Sophia  Augusta  ;  but  the  Empress  Elizabeth  of  Russia  having  selected 
her  for  the  wife  of  her  nephew  and  intended  successor,  Peter,  she  passed 
from  the  Lutheran  to  the  Greek  Church,  and  took  the  name  of  Catharine 

In  1745  her  marriage  took  place.  She  soon  quarreled  with  her  hus- 
band, and  both  of  them  lived  a  life  of  unrestrained  vice.  Among  his  at- 
tendants was  a  Count  Soltikoff,  with  whom  her  intimacy  soon  became 
scandalous  ;  and  Soltikoff  was  sent  on  an  embassy  abroad.  But  the  young 
Polish  count,  Poniatowski,  almost  immediately  supplied  his  place.  After 
the  death  of  the  Empress  Elizabeth  in  1761,  Peter  III.  ascended  the  Rus- 
sian throne ;  but  the  conjugal  differences  became  continually  wider. 
Catharine  was  banished  to  a  separate  abode  ;  and  the  emperor  seemed  to 
entertain  the  design  of  divorcing  her,  declaring  her  only  son,  Paul,  illegit- 
imate, and  marrying  his  mistress,  Fllizabeth  Woronzofl.  The  popular 
dislike  to  Peter,  however,  rapidly  increased  ;  and  at  length,  he  being  de- 
throned by  a  conspiracy,  Catharine  was  made  empress.  A  few  days  after- 
ward Peter  was  murdered.  What  participation  his  wife  had  in  his  murder 
has  never  been  well  ascertained. 

Catharine  now  exerted  herself  to  please  the  people,  and  among  other 
things,  made  a  great  show  of  regard  for  the  outward  forms  of  the  Greek 
Church,  although  her  principles  were,  in  reality,  those  prevalent  among 
the  French  philosophers  of  the  eighteenth  century.  The  government  of 
the  country  was  carried  on  with  great  energy,  a'nd  her  reign  was  .re- 
markable for  the  rapid  increase  of  the  dominions  and  power  of  Russia. 
Not  long  after  her  accession  to  the  throne,  her  influence  secured  the 
election  of  her  former  favorite,  Stanislaus  Poniatowski,  to  the  throne  of 


Rcpr^iduced  from  a  i)«»rtrait  b\    K<.^>cl>n;  envcravtil  !•>   Cir.-lim    \V.ll"^ 


In  her  own  empire,  however,  discontentment  was  seriously  manifested, 
the  hopes  of  the  disaffected  being  centered  in  the  young  prince  Ivan,  right- 
.  iul  heir  to  the  throne  of  Russia,  who  was  forthwith  murdered  in  the  castle 
of  Schliisselburg. 

From  that  time  the  internal  politics  of  Russia  consisted  chiefly  of  court 
intrigues  for  the  humiliation  of  one  favorite  and  the  exaltation  of  another. 
The  revolt  of  the  Cossacks  in  1773,  though  serious,  only  ser\'ed  to  fortify 
her  throne.  The  first  partition  of  Poland  in  1772,  and  the  Turkish  war 
»hich  terminated  in  1774,  vastly  increased  the  empire.  In  1787  she  made 
a  journey  in  her  southern  provinces  through  flourishing  towns,  villages,  and 
fetive  scenes  ;  but  the  whole  was  a  sham,  having  been  gotten  up  for  the 
w^ion  by  Potemkin  to  impress  Catharine  with  the  prosperity  of  her  em- 
P^t.  Resuming  the  policy  of  expelling  the  Turks  from  Kurope,  and  reign- 
^"gat  Constantinople,  Catharine,  in  1783,  seized  the  Crimea,  and  annexed 
rt  to  her  empire.  In  1787  the  Porte  declared  war  against  her  and  hostili- 
^werc  continued  till  1792.  She  indemnified  herself  by  sharing  in  the 
^lismemberment  of  Poland,  which  kingdom  became  extinct  in  1795  ;  and 
*as  on  the  i)oint  of  turning  her  arms  against  republican  France,  when  she 
rfi«l  of  apoplexy,  November  9,  1796. 

To  :ill  her  lovers  Catharine  was  munificent,  not  only  during  their  season 

of  favor,  but  after  their  dismissal,  loading  them  with  presents   and  pensions 

to  such  an  extent,  that  altogether  they  arc  estimated  to  have  cost   Russia 

about  /' 20.000,000.      In  the  capital,  at  her  court,  and  in   her  own  circle, 

there  reigned  the  most  systematic  immorality,  which  she  encouraged  by  her 

example  in  utter  disregard  of  virtuous  restraint. 

Though  as  a  woman  the  licentiousness  of  her  character  is  inexcusable, 
yet  as  a  sovereign  Catharine  II.  is  well  entitled  to  the  appellation  of  Great. 
After  Peter  I.,  she  was  the  chief  regenerator  of  Russia,  hut  with  a  more  en- 
Iight<ne<I  mind  and  under  more  favorable  circumstances.  She  established 
sch<'Kj|>,  ameliorated  the  condition  of  the  serfs,  promoted  conmierce,  founded 
t<^F«nb.  arsenals,  banks,  and  manufactories,  and  encouragetl  art  and  litera- 
ture. She  corresjK)nded  with  the  learned  men  in  all  countries,  and  wrote 
h#-rself  Instructions  for  a  Code  0/  LmcSy  besides  several  dramatic  pieces, 
and  Moral  Tales  for  her  grandchildren. 



A.  n.  1731-1807. 


MARIE  SOPHIE  DE  LA  ROCHE,  a  talented  German  authoress, 
was  the  daughter  of  Herr  Von  Gutcrman,  a  very  learned  physician. 
She  was  born  December  6,  1731,  at  Kaufbenrcn,  and,  as  she  grew 
up,  was  educated  with  great  care.  When  she  was  only  iiivc  years  old,  it  is 
said  she  had  read  the  Bible  through.  Von  (>utcrnian  removed  to  Augsburg 
when  his  daughter  was  sixteen,  where  he  was  appointed  town  physician, 
and  dean  of  the  medical  faculty.  Here  the  daughter  had  new  opportunities 
for  mental  cultivation,  and  received  special  assistance  from  Dr.  Biancani,  of 
Bologna,  physician  to  the  Prime  Bishop  of  Augsburg.  Dr.  Biancani 
became  very  much  attached  to  his  pupil  and  wished  to  marry  her,  but  the 
father  of  Sophie  opj)Osed  the  match. 

P'rom  this  time  she  devoted  herself  to  reading  and  study  and  shortly 
after  took  up  her  residence  at  Riberach  in  the  house  of  a  relative,  Wieland 
by  name.  Here  Soj^hie  became  acquainted  witli  young  Wieland,  who  drew 
her  attention  to  (ierman  literature,  and  throughout  her  life  inspired  her  to 
literary  effort.  A  strong  attachment  sprang  up  between  them,  and  they 
became  engaged  ;  but  chiring  Wieland' s  ])rolonged  absence  in  Switzerland, 
they  were  estranged,  and  when,  in  1760,  he  returned  to  Riberach,  he  found 
Sophie  the  wife  of  M.  de  la  Roche,  counselor  of  state  in  Maine,  and  super- 
intendent of  the  estates  of  Count  Stadion.  The  friendship  of  Wieland, 
however,  was  resumed  and  continued  uninterrupted  till  their  death,  a  period 
of  more  than  fifty  years.  M.  de  la  Roche  (.lied  in  17S9,  while  his  wife  sur- 
vived until  1.S07. 

Madame  de  la  Roche  wrote  a  number  of  works  which  showed  her  to  be 
a  woman  of  intellect,  knowledge,  and  experience.  In  writing,  however,  she 
succeeded  best  in  romances,  in  which  she  exhibited  uinisn;il  ]K)wers  of  im- 
agination and  knowledge  <»f  the  human  heart.  Her  principal  works  are, 
History  of  the  iMcly  of  Stcniburir,  to  which  Witland  wrote  a  preface  ; 
Pomona,  My  \\ntin\r  Desk,  L< iters  on,  Apparitions  on  Lake 
Oneida,  Love  Cottages ^  and  J/e/usina's  Summer  A'ig/it. 



A.  D.  173S-1802. 



MARTHA  WASHINGTON  was  born  in  the  county  of  New  Kent,  Vir- 
ginia, in  May,  1732.  Her  maiden  name  was  Martha  Dandridge,  and, 
at  the  age  of  seventeen,  she  married  Col.  Daniel  Parke  Curtis,  of  the 
White  House,  county  of  New  Kent.  By  this  union  she  had  four  children  : 
a  daughter  who  died  in  infancy,  a  son  named  Daniel,  whose  early  death  is 
supposed  to  have  hastened  his  father's  ;  Martha,  who  arrived  at  woman- 
hood, and  died  in  1770  ;  and  John,  who  perished  in  the  service  of  his  coun- 
tr>*,  at  the  siege  of  York  town,  aged  twenty-seven. 

Mrs.  Curtis  was  left  a  young  and  very  wealthy  widow,  and  managed  the 
extensive  landed  and  pecuniary  interests  of  the  estate  with  surprising  ability. 
In  1759  she  was  married  to  George  Washington,  then  a  colonel  in  the 
colonial  service,  and  soon  after  they  removed  permanently  to  Mount  Ver- 
non, on  the  Potomac.  When  her  husband  became  commander-in-chief  of 
the  colonial  armies,  Mrs.  Washington,  accompanied  him  to  Boston,  and 
witnessed  its  siege  and  evacuation. 

After  General  Washington's  election  to  the  presidency  of  the  United 
States,  in  1787,  Mrs.  Washington  ptTformed  the  duties  l:)clonging  to  the 
^•fe  of  a  man  in  that  high  station,  with  dignity  and  case.  On  the  retire- 
nicnt  of  President  Washington,  she  still  continued  her  unbounded  hospi- 
t^'ty.  The  death  of  her  venerated  husband,  which  occurred  December 
M'  '799,  ^^«^^  «^  shock  from  which  she  never  recoxered,  though  she  bore 
t"C  heavy  s« )rrow  with  the  most  exemplary  resignation.  She  survived  her 
nusliand  a  little  over    two   years,    dying  at   Mount   Wrnon. 

*n  person  Mrs.  Washington  was  well  formed,  thougli  somewhat  below 
•niudU' height.  A  portrait,  made  pre\ious  to  her  marri;ige,  shows  that  she 
^M  have  l>een  very  handsome  in  her  youth  ;  whicli  comeliness  of  counte- 
^^Ce.  as  well  as  a  dignified  and  graceful  manner,  she  retained  during  life 
*^  the  home  she  was  the  presiding  genius  that  kept  action  and  order  in 
P^ect  harmony  —  a  wife  in  whom  the  heart  of  her  husband  could  safely 



A.  D.  1768-1798. 


heroine,  was  born  at  St.  Saturnin  des  Lignerets,  in  the  department 
of  Orne,  July  28,  1768,  and  guillotined  at  Paris,  July  17,  1793. 
Her  father  was  a  poor  Norman  nobleman  of  literary  tastes,  and  author  of 
works  of  a  republican  tendency.  Charlotte's  mother  died  during  her  early 
youth  ;  her  two  brothers  entered  the  army ;  one  of  her  sisters  died 
young,  and  she  and  her  remaining  sister  were  placed  by  their  father  in 
a  convent  at  Caen.  There  she  became  a  favorite  with  the  abbess  and  her 
assistant,  who  occasionally  gave  parties  to  their  intimate  friends,  to  which 
Charlotte  was  admitted.  Among  the  visitors  was  M.  de  Belzunce,  a  young 
cavalry  officer,  between  whom  and  Charlotte  a  tender  feeling  sprang  up. 

Charlotte  was  intellectual,  vehement,  and  enthusiastic  ;  she  devoured 
Rousseau's  Heioise,  sympathized  with  the  heroes  of  antiquity,  and  enter- 
tained the  most  exalted  ideas  of  the  duties  of  patriotism.  An  event  which 
made  a  deep  impression  on  her  mind  was  the  assassination  of  the  young 
officer  she  loved  by  a  mob  at  Caen,  and  she  vowed  revenge  against  those 
whom  she  conceived  to  have  instigated  the  murder. 

After  the  revolution  had  closed  the  doors  of  the  convent,  Charlotte  re- 
moved to  the  house  of  her  aunt,  an  old  royalist  lady.  Many  Girondists  had 
fled  to  Caen,  among  others  Barbaroux,  and  Charlotte  found  a  pretext  for 
calling  upon  him.  The  conversation  chiefly  turned  upon  the  tragic  fate  of 
the  Girondists,  upon  Madame  Roland,  and  upon  Marat,  for  whom  she  had 
long  felt  a  horror.  One  morning  her  aunt  found  a  Bible  lying  open  upon 
her  bed,  and  the  following  lines,  **The  Lord  hath  gifted  Judith  with  a 
special  beauty  and  fairness,"  were  underlined.  On  another  occasion  she 
found  her  weeping  bitterly,  and,  on  questioning  her  about  her  tears,  Char- 
lotte replied  :   "  They  flow  for  the  misfortunes  of  my  country." 

On  the  morning  of  July  9,  1793,  she  suddenly  left  the  house  of  her 
aunt,  on  a  pretext  of  a  journey  to  England.  On  the  eleventh  she  was  in 
Paris.     She  took  a  room  in  the  Hotel   de   la  Providence,    not  far   from 



Marat's  dwelling.     For  two  days  her  mind  was  undecidod  as  to  whether 
Marat  or  Robespierre  should  fall,  when  Marat's  journal,  L ami  du peuple , 
in  which  he  said  that  two  hundred  thousand  more  heads  must  be  lopped  off 
in  order  to  secure  the  success  of  the  revolution,  fixed  her  determination. 
She  addressed  a  letter  to  Marat  soliciting  an  audience,  in  order  to  acquaint 
him  with  the  plots  of  the  Girondists  at  Caen.     No  answer  came,  and  on 
the  morning  of  July  13,  after  having  purchased  a  knife  at  the  Palais  Royal, 
Charlotte  called  upon  Marat.     She  was  refused  admittance.     She  wrote  a 
second  note,  and  called  again  at  half- past  seven  the  same  evening.     The 
porter  seeing  her  pass  by  his  lodge  without  making  any  inquiry,  called  her 
back.     But  Charlotte  passed  on  and  ascended  the  staircase.      Marat's  mis- 
tress, Albertine,  opened  the  door,  and  on  beholding  again  the  same  young 
voman  who  had  called  during  the  morning,  rudely  refused  to  admit  her  ; 
Charlotte  insisted  ;    the  sound  of    their  voices   reached    Marat,  who  con- 
sented to  see  her.     Charlotte  was  ushered  through  two  other  rooms  to  a 
nanow  closet,  where  Marat  was  just  taking  a  bath.     He  listened  to  her  re- 
port of  the  proceedings  of  the  Girondists,  and,  taking  down  their  names,  re- 
Diarked  with  a  smile  that  "within  a  week  they  will  all  go  to  the  guillotine." 
"These  words  sealed  his  fate,"  said  Charlotte  afterward.      Drawing  from 
feieath  the  handkerchief  which  covered  her  bosom  the  knife  she  had  con- 
cealed there,  she  plunged  it  to  the  hilt  in  Marat's  heart.      He  gave  a  loud 
en*  and  sank  back  dead. 

The  news  of  the  murder  soon  spread.  The  room  became  crowded  with 
people,  and  as  they  gazed  upon  the  beautiful  girl,  who  looked  serenely  and 
calmly  upon  the  general  confusion,  they  could  hardly  believe  that  she  was 
^assassin.      She  was  transferred  to  the  nearest  prison,  the  Abbaye. 

Her  trial  took  place  on  the  morning  of  July  17  ;  she  was  sentenced  to 
^eath,  and  guillotined  the  evening  of  the  same  day.  During  her  trial  and 
Juring  the  execution  her  courage  did  not  forsake  her  for  a  moment.  She 
^evlared  that  her  project  had  been  formeil  when  the  Robespierre  party  had 
pronounced  the  doom  of  the  Girondists,  and  that  she  had  killed  one  man 
'border  to  save  a  hundred  thousand. 

When  Vergniaud  was  informed  of  Charlotte's  death,  he  exclaimed  : 
"  She  has  killed  us,  but  she  teaches  us  how  to  die. 



A.  D.  1766-1817. 



at  Paris,  April  22,  1766.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Jacques  Necker, 
the  famous  finance  minister  of  Louis  XVL  She  was  an  extraor- 
dinarily precocious  child,  figured  at  receptions  at  eleven,  and  grew  up  in  an 
atmosphere  of  admiration.  The  attention  she  received  in  her  mother's 
brilliant  salon  developed  in  her  the  intellectual  curiosity  and  scientific  spirit 
of  the  men  who  frequented  it. 

At  the  age  of  twenty,  through  the  interposition  of  Marie  Antoinette,  a 
marriage  was  brought  about  between  her  and  the  Baron  de  Stael-Holstein, 
then  Swedish  aml^assador  at  the  court  of  France.  Her  marriage  was  not 
happy,  and  she  was  later  separated  from  her  husband,  and  mainly  lived 
apart  from  him.  She  bore  him  two  sons  and  a  daughter,  and  was  present 
at  his  bedside  when  he  died  in  1802. 

Neither  the  disposition  nor  the  situation  of  Madame  de  Stael  would 
permit  her  to  remain  indifferent  to  the  general  agitation  which  prevailed  in 
France.  P^nthusiastic  in  her  love  of  liberty,  she  gave  all  the  weight  of  her 
influence  to  the  cause.  Her  salon  was  the  gathering  place  of  ftie  admirers 
of  the  English  constitution.  In  1792  she  fled  from  the  growing  violence  of 
riot  and  murder,  then  such  a  horrible  attribute  of  the  revolution  in  Paris, 
and  took  refuge  with  her  father  at  Coppet,  near  Geneva,  and  later  fled  to 

Three  years  later  she  returned  to  Paris  and  sought  to  re-establish  her 
salon.  In  the  same  year  she  fell  under  the  suspicion  of  the  Director}% 
and  withdrew  again  to  Coppet,  but  returned  once  more  in  1797,  and  her 
salon  attained  a  new  brilliancy  and  power. 

Among  its  assiduous  visitors  were  Madame  Recamier,  Madame  de 
Beaumont,  C.  Jordan,  Fauriel,  and  especially  Benjamin  Constant,  with  whom 
she  fell  in  love,  and  from  whose  capricious  and  unhappy  character  she  had 
much  to  suffer. 





RBprnducBd  frDm  the  portrait  "by  J,  Cham- 
pagna,  a  Flainlsh  painter.  Champagna  was  a 
pupil  Df  Philippe  ChampagnB,  whom  ha  assisted 
in  many  works  in  Paris.  His  talent  attracted  the 
attention  of  King  Louis  XIV./whD  emplDyed 
him  in  decorative  painting  at  the  Palace  ai  Ver- 



Her  salon  was  decidedly  hostile  to  Napoleon,  who,  in  October,  1803, 
sent  her  away  from  Paris.  After  this  interdict,  she  traveled  in  Germany 
and  Italy,  and  in  1805  established  herself  again  in  Coppet,  where  her  old 
friends  and  many  new  ones  flocked  about  her,  and  where  she  held  a  kind 
of  intellectual  court.  She  traveled  again  in  (icrmany  in  1807,  and  upon 
her  return  announced  her  religious  conversion. 

The  appearance  of  her  book  on  Germany  was  the  signal  for  still  severer 
measures  by  Napoleon.  The  French  edition  was  destroyed,  and  she  was 
ordered  to  retire  to  Coppet,  where  she  was  kept  under  surveillance,  a 
\'irtiial  prisoner,  and  forbidden  to  receive  her  friends.  She  escaped  in 
1812  and  took  refuge  successively  in  St.  Petersburg,  Sweden,  and  Eng- 
land. On  the  fall  of  Napoleon  she  returned  to  Paris  in  181 5,  but  she  was 
disappointed  at  the  tendencies  of  the  restored  monarchy. 

She  received  from  the  government  two  millions  of  francs,  the  sum  which 
h«"  father  had  left  in  the  royal  treasury  :  and,  surrounded  by  a  happy  circle 
of  congenial  minds,  she  remained  in  the  capital  until  her  death  in  July,  1817. 
'ni8ii  sfie  had  secretly  married  Albert  de  Rocca,  an  officer  but  twenty- 
tiree  years  old,  to  whom  she  bore  a  son. 

Though  her  conspicuous  influence  upon  her  contemporaries  was  wielded 
largely  by  personal  contact,  and  the  brilliancy  of  her  improvisation  in  the 
excitement  of  conversation,  yet  her  books  are  the  most  important  of  the 
pctet-revolutionary  period,  and  furnished  a  great  stimulus  to  the  new  cur- 
rents of  French  literature  that  were  preparing  romanticism.  Her  works  are 
numerous,  the  most  noted  of  which  arc,  Corin?u\  Dtlphine,  Germany,  Ten 
Years  of  Exile,  and  Considerations  on  the  French  Revolution 

The  books  of  Madame  de  Stael  are  very  little  read,  and  occupy  a  singu- 
lar position  in  French  literature.  They  are  seen  to  be  in  large  part  merely 
clever  reflections  of  other  people's  views,  or  views  current  at  the  time,  and 
the  famous  **  ideas"  turn  out  to  be  chiefly  the  ideas  of  the  hooks  or  the 
men  with  whom  she  was  from  time  to  time  in  contact.  Her  faults  are 
great  ;  her  style  is  of  a  particular  age,  not  for  all  time  ;  her  ideas  are 
ni«>stly  second  hand  and  frequently  superficial.  Nevertheless,  nothing 
save  a  very  great  talent  could  have  shown  itself  so  receptive  of  its  environ- 



A.  D.  1744-1818. 



aBIGAIL  ADAMS,  wife  of  John  Adams,  second  president  of  the 
United  States,  was  the  daughter  of  Rev.  William  Smith,  minister  of 
a  Congregational  church,  at  Weymouth,  Massachusetts,  and  of 
Elizabeth  Quincy.  She  was  born  November  22,  1744,  and  in  October, 
1767,  married  John  Adams,  then  a  lawyer  residing  at  Weymouth. 

Mr.  Adams  was  appointed  minister  plenipotentiary  to  the  court  of  Great 
Britain,  and  in  1784  Mrs.  Adams  sailed  from  Boston  to  join  him.  She 
returned  in  1788,  having  passed  one  year  in  France  and  three  in  England. 
On  the  appointment  of  her  husband  to  the  vice-presidency  in  1789,  she 
resided  in  Philadelphia,  then  the  seat  of  government,  and  also  during  his 
term  as  president.  After  the  defeat  of  Mr.  Adams  in  1800  they  retired  to 
Quincy,  Mass.,  where  Mrs.  Adams  died,  October  28,  181 8. 

Mrs.  Adams'  letters  to  her  son,  John  Quincy  Adams,  were  characteris- 
tic and  much  admired.  She  was  a  woman  of  true  greatness  and  elevation 
of  mind,  and,  whether  in  public  or  private  life,  always  preserved  the  same 
dignified  and  tranquil  demeanor.  As  the  mistress  of  a  household,  she 
united  the  prudence  of  a  rigid  economist  with  the  generous  spirit  of  a  lib- 
eral hospitality  ;  faithful  and  affectionate  in  her  friendships,  bountiful  to  the 
poor,  kind  and  courteous  to  her  dependents,  cheerful  and  charitable  in  the 
intercourse  of  social  life  with  her  acquaintances,  she  lived  in  the  habitual 
practice  of  benevolence,  and  sincere,  unaffected  piety.  In  her  family  rela- 
tions, few  women  have  left  a  pattern  more  worthy  of  imitation  by  their  sex. 

Her  letters  have  been  collected  and  were  published  some  years  since. 

Nladame  de  iStael  continued. 

Take  away  her  assiduous  frequentation  of  society,  from  the  later  philo- 
sophical coteries  to  the  age  of  Byron  —  take  away  the  influence  of  Constant 
and  Schlegel  and  her  other  literary  friends  —  and  probably  little  of  her 
will  remain. 



A.  D.  1756-1793. 

C+4J - 

archduchess  of  Austria  and  queen  of  France,  was  the  fifth  daugh- 
ter of  Maria  Theresa  and  Francis  I.  She  was  born  at  Vienna, 
November  2,  1755,  was  carefully  educated,  and  possessed  an  uncommon 
share  of  grace  and  beauty.  Her  hand  was  demanded  by  Louis  XIV". ,  for 
his  grandson,  the  dauphin,  afterward  Louis  XVI.,  to  whom  she  was  mar- 
ried in  1770,  before  she  had  attained  her  fifteenth  year. 

Her  ])osition  at  the  French  court  was  difficult  from  the  very  first,  and  it 
soon  became  dangerous.  There  was  a  difference  of  character  between  her 
ind  the  people  among  whom  she  had  come  to  live  which  proved  fatal  in 
the  end.  Her  morals  were  perfectly  pure  and  her  heart  full  of  noble  and 
generous  instincts.  During  the  first  years  of  her  residence  in  France  the 
queen  was  the  idol  of  the  people.  Four  years  from  this  period  all  was 
ehanged.  Circumstances  remote  in  their  origin  had  brought  about  in 
France  a  state  of  feeling  fast  ripening  to  a  fearful  issue. 

The  queen  could  no  longer  do  with  inij)unity  what  had  been  done  by 
her  prwUcessors.  The  extravagance  and  thoughtlessness  of  youth,  and 
a  nejjlcct  of  the  strict  formality  of  court  etiquette,  injured  her  reputation. 
She  became  a  mark  of  censure,  and  finally  an  object  of  hatred  to  the 
people,  who  accused  her  of  the  most  imj^robable  crimes.  Accused  of 
"^g  an  Austrian  at  heart,  and  an  enemy  to  I^  ranee,  e\  ery  evil  in  the 
*taie  w;is  now  attributed  to  her,  and  the  Parisians  soon  exhibited  their 
hatred  in  acts  of  open  violence. 

In  OctolKT.  1789,  the  populace  proceeded  with  rancor  to  Versailles, 
i»roke  into  the  castle,  murdered  several  of  the  bodyguard,  and  forced 
themstlvt-s  into  the  queen's  apartments.  When  (juestioned  by  the  officers 
'•'  justice  as  to  what  she  had  seen  on  that  memorable  day,  she  replied,  *'  I 
^^eseen  all.  I  have  heard  all,  I  have  forgotten  all." 

•%•  accompanied  the  king  in  his  flight  to  \'arcnnes,  in  1791,  and 
tndured  with  him,  with  unexampled    fortitude  and    magnanimity,   the  in- 



suits  which  now  followed  in  quick  succession.  In  April,  1792,  she  accom- 
panied the  king  from  the  Tuileries,  where  they  had  been  for  some  time 
detained  close  prisoners,  to  the  Legislative  Assembly,  where  she  was  ar- 
raigned. Transferred  to  the  Temple,  she  endured,  with  the  members  of 
the  royal  family,  every  variety  of  privation  and  indignity.  On  January  21, 
1793,  the  king  perished  on  the  scaffold  ;  her  son  was  forcibly  torn  from 
her,  and  she  was  removed  to  the  Conciergerie  to  await  her  trial  in  a  damp 
and  squalid  cell.  On  the  14th  of  October  she  appeared  before  the  revolu- 
tionary tribunal. 

During  the  trial,  which  lasted  seventy-three  hours,  Marie  Antoinette 
preserved  all  her  dignity  and  composure.  Her  replies  to  the  infamous 
charges  which  were  preferred  against  her  were  simple,  noble,  and  laconic. 
When  all  the  accusations  had  been  heard,  she  was  asked  if  she  had  any- 
thing to  say.  She  replied,  "  I  was  a  queen,  and  you  took  away  my  crown  ; 
a  wife,  and  you  killed  my  husband  ;  a  mother,  and  you  deprived  me  of  my 
children.  My  blood  alone  remains  :  take  it,  but  do  not  make  me  suffer 

At  four  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  i6th  she  was  condemned 
to  death  by  a  unanimous  vote.  She  heard  her  sentence  with  admirable 
dignity  and  self-possession.  At  half-past  twelve  on  the  same  day  she 
ascended  the  scaffold.  Scarcely  any  traces  remained  of  the  dazzling  loveli- 
ness which  had  once  charmed  all  hearts  ;  her  hair  had  long  since  become 
blanched  with  grief,  and  her  eyes  were  almost  sightless  from  continued 
weeping.  She  knelt  and  prayed  for  a  few  moments  in  a  low  tone,  then  rose 
and  calmly  delivered  herself  to  the  executioner.  Thus  perished,  in  her 
thirty-seventh  year,  the  daughter  of  the  heroic  Maria  Theresa,  a  victim  to 
the  circumstances  of  birth  and  position. 

No  fouler  crime  ever  stained  the  annals  of  savage  life  than  the  murder 
of  this  unfortunate  queen,  by  a  people  calling  themselves  the  most  civilized 
nation  in  the  world. 

Marie  Antoinette  had  four  children  :  a  daughter,  who  died  in  infancy  : 
the  dauphin,  who  died  in  1789  ;  the  young  Louis,  who  perished  in  the 
Temple  in  1795  ;  and  Marie  Theresa  Charlotte,  who  became  the  wife  of  th« 
eldest  son  of  Charles  X. 




A.  D.  1754-1703. 


MARIE  JEANNE  ROLAND,  one  of  the  most  conspicuous  martyrs 
of  the  French  revolution,  was  born  at  Paris,  March  i8,  1754,  the 
daughter  of  an  engraver,  who  had  ruined  himself  by  unlucky 
speculation.  From  the  first  an  eager  and  imaginative  child,  she  read 
ivcr>'thing,  even  heraldry,  and  Plutarch  made  the  young  idealist  a  repub- 
lican for  life.  At  eleven  she  went,  for  a  year,  into  a  convent  to  prei)are  for 
her  first  communion,  next  passed  a  year  with  her  grandmother,  and  re- 
turned to  her  father's  house,  where  she  read  Buffon,  Bossuet,  and  Helve- 
tius,  and  at  length  found  her  gospel  in  the  writings  of  Rousseau. 

After  the  death  of  her  admirable  mother,  in  1775,  the  girl,  solitary  and 
poor,  untouched  in  heart  by  her  many  admirers,  and  cold  toward  the  father 
through  his  misconduct,  at  length,  in  February,  1780,  married  M.  Roland, 
a  manufacturer  of  Lyons.  He  was  r)ver  forty,  thin,  yellowish,  careless  in 
dress,  abrupt  and  austere  in  manners,  and  unyielding  in  his  virtues,  a  man 
whom  few  would  have  thought  likely  to  fascinate  a  young  and  beautiful 
woman.  InherenthusLism  she  overrated  his  (lualities  :  he  j>roved  a  selfish. 
t-xacting  husband  ;  but  she  buried  the  latent  passions  of  her  heart,  and  for 
itn  years  made  herself  an  admirable  wife  and  mother,  with  perfect  domestic 
Mmplicity.     Her  only  child,  a  daughter,  Kudora,  was  born  at  Amiens. 

The  opening  of  the  French  revolution  drew  Ma(Uune  Roland  from  the 
Mirement  of  private  life.  She  accompanied  her  husband,  in  1791,  to 
^»ris,  whither  he  had  been  sent  by  the  city  of  Lyons  to  rrprtsent  it  in  the 
^tates-GcneraL  Her  beauty,  enthusiasm,  and  elo(iuence  soon  exercised  a 
^^•nderful  fascination  over  her  husband's  friends,  and  addrd  a  charm  to 
l*^triotism  that  was  irresistible.  All  the  famous  and  ill-fated  lca(Ur>, 
^•"issot,  Petion,  Buzot,  and  at  first  e\en  Robespierre  and  Danton,  met  con- 
^*^{\y  at  her  house,  and  she  was  a  deeply  interested  observer  of  all  that 
1^5^.  She  had  little  faith  in  constitutional  monarchy  ;  her  aspirations 
^trefor  a  republic,  pure,  free,  and  glorious  as  her  ideal. 
In  March,  1792,  Roland  became  minister  of  the  interior,  and  in  her  new 



and  elevated  position  Madame  Roland  influenced  not  only  her  husband  but 
the  entire  Girondist  party.  Dismissed  from  his  post  in  consequence  of  his 
celebrated  letter  of  remonstrance  to  the  king — which  letter  was,  in  fact, 
written  by  his  wife — Roland,  upon  the  downfall  of  the  monarchy,  was  re- 
called to  the  ministry. 

This  triumph  was  but  short  lived.  The  power  which  had  been  set  in 
motion  could  not  be  arrested  in  its  fearful  course,  and  the  Girondist  party 
fell  before  the  influence  of  their  bloodthirsty  opponents.  Protesting  against 
the  reign  of  terror,  they  fell  its  victims.  Both  she  and  her  husband 
drew  down  upon  themselves  the  hatred  of  Marat  and  Danton,  and  their 
lives  were  soon  openly  threatened.  Roland  escaped  ;  but  Madame  Ro- 
land was  arrested,  and  thrown  into  prison.  Here,  during  a  confinement 
of  several  months,  she  prepared  her  memoirs,  which  have  been  given  to 
the  world. 

On  November  i,  1793,  she  was  removed  to  the  Conciergerie,  and  her 
trial,  as  a  Girondist,  commenced.  She  was  condemned  to  death,  and 
November  8,  dressed  all  in  white,  her  long,  black  hair  hanging  down  to 
the  girdle,  she  ascended  the  fatal  cart.  Carried  with  her  to  the  guillotine 
was  a  trembling  printer  of  assignats  whom  she  asked  Samson  to  take  first 
to  save  him  the  horror  of  seeing  her  head  fall.  **  You  cannot,**  said  she, 
*  *  refuse  the  last  request  of  a  woman. ' ' 

It  is  usually  told  how,  on  the  point  of  entering  the  awful  shadows  of 
eternity,  she  asked  for  pen  and  paper  to  write  down  the  strange  thoughts 
that  were  rising  within  her,  but  Sainte-Beuve  thinks  it  impossible,  puerile, 
untrue  to  the  nature  of  the  heroine,  as  well  as  unauthenticated  by  good 
contemporary  evidence.  As  she  looked  up  at  the  statue  of  Liberty,  she 
exclaimed,  "  Oh  Liberty,  how  many  crimes  are  committed  in  thy  name!" 
She  died  at  the  age  of  thirty-nine. 

She  had  often  said  her  husband  would  not  long  survive  her.  Her 
prediction  was  fulfilled.  A  week  later,  the  body  of  Roland  was  found 
seated  beneath  a  tree,  on  the  road  to  Rouen,  stabbed  to  the  heart.  A 
paper  affixed  to  his  breast  bore  these  words :  *  *  From  the  moment  when  I 
learned  that  they  had  murdered  my  wife  I  would  no  longer  remain  in  a 
world  stained  with  her  enemies." 




A.  D.  1776-1810. 


T  pOUISE,  Queen  of  Prussia,  was  born  March  lo,  1776,  in  Hanover, 
J^^  where  her  father,  Duke  Charles  of  Mecklenburg-Strelitz,  was  com- 
mandant. During  the  period  of  the  revolutionary  wars,  she  lived 
for  some  time  with  her  sister  Charlotte,  the  wife  of  Duke  Frederick  of  Saxe- 
Hildburghausen.  In  1793  she  met  at  Frankfort  the  crown  prince  of 
Prussia,  afterward  King  Frederick  William  IIL,  who  was  so  fascinated  by 
her  beauty,  and  by  the  nobleness  of  her  character,  that  he  asked  her  to 
become  his  wife.     On  April  24,  of  the  same  year,  they  were  married. 

As  queen  of  Prussia  she  commanded  universal  respect  and  affection,  and 
nothing  in  Prussian  history  is  more  pathetic  than  the  patience  and  dignity 
with  which  she  bore  the  sufferings  inflicted  on  her  and  her  family  during  the 
war  between  Prussia  and  France.  After  the  battle  of  Jena  she  went  with 
her  husband  to  Konigsberg,  and  when  the  battles  of  Fylau  and  Friedland 
had  placed  Prussia  absolutely  at  the  mercy  of  France,  she  made  a  personal 
appeal  to  Napoleon  at  his  headquarters  in  Tilsit,  but  without  success. 

Early  in  1808  she  accompanied  the  King  from  Memcl  to  Konigsberg, 
whence,  toward  the  end  of  the  year,  she  visited  St.  Petersburg,  returning 
to  Berlin  on  December  23,  1809.  On  July  19,  1810,  she  died  in  her  hus- 
band's arms,  while  visiting  her  father  in  Strelitz. 

During  the  war  Napoleon,  with  incredible  brutality,  attempted  to 
<l«troy  the  queen's  reputation,  but  the  only  effect  of  his  charges  in  IVussia 
*as  to  make  her  more  deeply  beloved. 

The  Prussian  Order  of  I.oiiise,  the  Louise  School  for  girls,  and  the 
^ise  Governc^sses'  Seminary  were  instituted  in  her  honor.  There  is  a 
'^^lutifiil  monument  and  portrait  statue  of  her  by  Ranch  in  the  mausoleum 
't  Chariot  tenburg. 

yueen  Louise  was  not  only  characterized  by  great  personal  beauty 
uniied  with  dignity  and  grace  of  manner,  but  with  much  gentleness  of 
character  and  active  benevolence.  Her  visits  of  charity  were  extended  to 
nuny  homes  of  poverty  and  suffering. 



A.  D.  17R8-1816. 


ELIZABETH  HAMILTON  was  born  in  Belfast  in   1758,  and  died  in 
Harrovvgate,  England,  July  25,   18 16.     Her  father  was  a  merchant, 
of  a  Scc)ttish  family,  and   died    early,  leaving   a  widow  and  three 
children.     The  latter  were  educated  and  brought  up  by  relatives. 

A  taste  for  literature  soon  appeared  in  Elizabeth.  Wallace  was  the  first 
hero  of  her  studies  ;  but  meeting  with  Ogilvie's  translation  of  the  Iliad,  she 
idolized  Achilles  and  dreamed  of  Hector.  She  had  opportunities  of  visit- 
ing Edinburgh  and  Glasgow,  after  which  she  carried  on  a  learned  cor- 
respondence with  Dr.  Moyce,  a  philosophical  lecturer.  She  wrote  also 
many  copies  of  verses  —  that  ordinary  outlet  for  the  warm  feelings  and 
romantic  sensibilities  of  youth. 

After  the  death  of  her  brother,  in  1792,  the  literary  career  of  Elizabeth 
Hamilton  properly  commenced.  Her  first  work  was  The  Letters  of  a 
Hindoo  Rajah,  published  in  1796.  The  success  of  this  work  decided  her 
to  pursue  the  vocation  of  authorship.  She  wrote  successively,  Memoirs 
of  Modern  Philosophers,  Letters  on  Edneation,  Life  of  Agrippina,  and 
Letters  to  the  Daughters  of  Noblemen.  This  latter  was  published  in  the 
year  1806.  Soon  afterwards  Miss  Hamilton  became  an  active  promoter  of 
the  '*  House  of  Industry  "  at  Edinburgh,  an  establishment  for  the  education 
of  females  of  the  lowest  class.  For  the  benefit  of  these  young  persons  she 
composed  a  little  book,  lixereises  in  Religions  h'noicledge,  which  was  pub- 
lished in  1809.  Her  other  works  include  The  Cottagers  of  (ilenburnie, 
Jissays  on  the  Human  Mind,  and  Hints  to  Patrons  and  Direetors  of  Sehools. 

Elizabeth  Hamilton  has  shown  in  all  her  works  great  power  of  analysis, 
a  firm  grasp  of  philosophy,  and  singular  adeptnt^s  as  an  expositor  of 
educational  theory.  But  more  important  still  is  the  influence  of  her  writ- 
ings in  awakening  the  attention  of  mothers,  and  directing  their  iiujuiries 
rightly  in  the  observation  of  what  passes  in  the  minds  of  their  children, 
to  their  duties  as  mothers,  and  to  their  business  as  preceptors  of  youth. 

Miss  Hamilton  died  after  a  protracted  illness  on  July  25,  18 16. 



A.  D.  1763-1814. 


IVJL  of  the  French,  first  wife  of  Napoleon  L,  was  born  at  Trois  Ilets, 
near  St.  Pierre,  Martinique,  June  24,  1763,  and  died  at  Malmaison, 
near  Paris,  May  29,  18 14.  Her  father,  whose  family  had  emigrated  from 
the  \  icinity  of  Blois,  France,  held  the  office  of  captain  of  the  port  at  St. 

She  received  the  \ery  imperfect  education  that  was  then  imparted  to 
young  ladies  in  the  French  colonies,  but  her  native  grace  and  kindness  of 
heart  endeared  her  to  all  with  whom  she  became  accjuainted.  When  about 
fifteen  years  of  age  she  was  sent  to  F'rance,  and  one  year  later  married 
Viscount  Alexandre  de  Beauharnais,  like  herself  a  native  of  Martinique, 
and  then  a  major  in  an  infantry  regiment.  By  this  union,  which  was  far 
from  happy,  she  had  a  son,  Eugene,  afterward  prince,  and  a  daughter, 
Hortense,  who  became  queen  of  Holland  by  her  marriage  with  Louis  Bona- 
parte, and  was  the  mother  of  Napoleon  III. 

Viscount  de  Beauharnais,  although  he  had  been  one  of  the  promoters  of 
the  revolution  in  the  constituent  assembly,  and  had  faithfully  ser\'ed  his 
country  in  arms,  was  arrested  upon  suspicion  during  the  Reign  of  Terror, 
and  sent  to  the  scafTold,  leaving  Josephine  in  distress.  Her  efforts  to  procure 
tHe  release  of  her  husband  had  caused  her  own  imprisonment  ;  and  her  two 
children  were  reduced  to  such  extremities  that  Eugene  entered  a  carpenter's 
^hop  as  an  apprentice. 

At  a  reception  she  met  Bonaparte,  then  an  obscure  officer.  He  fell 
^'^perately  in  love  with  her,  although  he  was  six  years  her  junior,  and 
^^rried  her  March  9,  1796.  Twelve  days  later  he  was  apj)ointe(l  to  the 
^fe  command  of  the  French  army  in  Italy.  She  accompanied  him  in  his 
'^^ian  campaign,  and  exercised  a  great  influence  in  restraining  him  from 
^^Hasures  <A  violence  and  severity.  She  shared  all  the  honors  that  were 
•stowed  upon  her  husband,  and  was  with  great  difficulty  prevented  from 
3ccomj>anying  him  to  Eg\'pt. 



During  their  separation  and  after  his  return,  at  Malmaison,  and  after- 
ward at  the  Luxembourg  and  the  Tuileries,  she  attracted  round  her  the 
most  brilliant  society  of  France,  and  contributed  not  a  little  to  the  establish- 
ment of  her  husband's  power.  She  was  solemnly  crowned  in  Paris,  Decem- 
ber 2,  1804,  but  her  happiness  was  soon  marred  by  sad  forebodings  ;  she 
had  no  children  by  her  imperial  husband,  and  in  the  eyes  of  this  great  poli- 
tician a  direct  heir  was  essential  to  the  preservation  of  his  power.  After 
many  struggles  between  his  love  and  his  ambition,  Napoleon,  partly  by 
entreaties,  partly  by  using  his  sovereign  authority,  prevailed  upon  his  wife 
to  consent  to  a  divorce.  The  marriage  relation  was  accordingly  dissolved 
by  law  on  December  16,  1809. 

Subsequent  evidences  of  national  sympathy  for  the  fallen  empress 
showed  that  she  was  far  from  having  lost  anything  of  her  power  over  the 
French  people.  Her  enthusiastic  attachment  for  Napoleon  remained  unim- 
paired ;  and  she  would  have  been  ready  to  follow  him  in  his  exile,  after  his 
fall,  but  their  respective  situations  did  not  allow  such  a  step.  The  esteem 
in  which  she  was  held  by  the  allied  sovereigns  protected  her  during  the 
disasters  of  18 14,  and  she  was  several  times  visited  at  Malmaison  by  the 
Emperor  Alexander  of  Russia,  and  the  King  of  Prussia.  She  lived  near 
Evreux,  and  died  at  Malmaison,  May  29,  18 14.  Her  body  was  interred  in 
the  church  of  Rucl,  where,  seven  years  after,  a  monument  was  erected  in 
her  honor. 

Josephine  was  handsome  ;  her  figure  was  majestic  and  elegant  ;  but  her 
charms  were  her  grace  and  goodness  of  heart.  She  has  been  called  Napo- 
leon's "star."  His  fortunes,  it  is  said,  arose  with  her,  and  waned  when 
their  connection  ceased.  The  English,  when  they  paint  the  Empress 
Josephine,  in  their  hatred  of  Napoleon,  always  depict  her  in  the  most  glow- 
ing colors.  To  exalt  Napoleon's  repudiated  wife  is  to  censure  him.  But 
we,  who  are  less  liable  to  prejudice,  are  able  to  estimate  her  character  more 
impartially  and   to   bestow  praise  where  it  belongs. 

If  Josephine  had  been  as  eminent  for  high,  womanly  virtues  as  Napo- 
leon was  for  exalted  genius  ;  if  she  had  been  in  truth  Napoleon's  **star," 
her  fate  might  have  been  a  different  one. 



Etched  and  repraducBd  from  a  painting  by 
Henry  Holiday,  an  English  painter,  sculptor,  and 
contributor  to  the  Royal  JLcademy.  This  cbIb- 
bratad  picture  mjbs  painted  in  IBBS  and  exhibited 
in  the  GrDSveiiDr  G-allery,  LcndDii. 











OK    THE 


f  |\ HE  revolutions  which  took  place  during  the  sixteenth  century  in  the 

-L       condition  of  woman  were  not  less  important  than  those  produced 

in    Church  and  State,   in    religion,    in    the    arts   and   sciences,    in 

aculemical  institutions,  in  commerce  and  manufactures,  in  the  sentiments 

and  manners  of  the  most  celebrated   nations,  in  the  mutual 

*  *  **"        relations  of  the  countries  of  Europe,  and  in  the  situation  of 

the  latter  with  regard  to  the  other  divisions  of  the  globe. 
These  changes  must  be  contemplated  with  due  regard  to  the  conditions 
already  referred  to  as  characteristic  of  the  preceding  centuries. 

Among  nations  of  different  origin,  the  condition  of  woman  depends, 
principally,  on  the  natural  qualities  of  the  heart  and  mind,  l)y  which  each 
of  them  is  distinguished.  On  the  contrary,  among  nations  of  the  same 
origin,  such  as  the  Germans,  and  all  those  that  were  either  descended  from, 
or  conquered  by,  the  Germans,  that  state  of  the  women  is  determined  by  the 
particular  constitutions,  customs,  manners,  and  refinement  of  each  nation, 
and  also  by  the  situation,  power,  and  disposition  of  their  sovereigns.  As  a 
great  change  took  place  in  all  these  points,  among  the  European  nations, 
during  the  period  under  discussion,  so  the  condition  of  the  sex  underwent 
an  equal  revolution  with  the  causes  l)y  which  it  is  governed. 

It  was  a  rough  world  in  which  women  found  themselves  at  liberty  to 
ome  and  go,  to  taste  new  pleasures,  enjoy  fresh  luxuries,  hear  new 
opinions,  and  think  new  thoughts.  Hut  at  least  it  was  a  world  of  action, 
of  striving,  of  pushing  forward.  Despotic  as  was  the  throne,  as  opposed 
to  feudal  rule,  oppressi\  e  as  was  the  new  land-owning  class,  a  freer  spirit 
])revailed.  Social  changes  worked  gradually  and  the  germs  of  later 
ni«)<lem  intellectual  activity  began  their  growth. 

The  fact  is  am[)ly  borne  out  in  history,  that  in  no  Euro- 

*"*  pean  nation,  in  which  the  arts  and  sciences  flourished,  were 

thev  wholly  monopolized  by  the  stronger  sex.      But  during  the  era  of  the 

Rf-naissance   they   took  a  larger   share    in    both  ;    the  greater  number,   in 



order  to  cultivate  the  qualities  of  the  heart  and  understanding,  and  to  fit 
themselves  for  the  performance  of  new  social  duties  ;  but  many  with  a  view 
to  exalt  themselves  above  the  level  of  their  sex,  and  to  vie  with  the  most 
industrious  and  the  most  celebrated  men  in  the  career  of  genius  and  reputa- 

The  lively  enthusiasm  for  the  ancient  languages  and  monuments,  and 
for  the  restoration  of  all  the  arts  and  sciences,  which  was  excited  in  the 
fourteenth  and  continued  during  the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth  centuries,  was 
caught  up  by  certain  happily  organized  persons,  and  became  a  part  of  the 
spirit  of  the  times.  Women  applied  themselves  to  the  study  of  the  Greek 
and  Latin  and  even  of  the  Oriental  languages,  and  acquired,  or  at  least 
endeavored  to  acquire,  glory  by  the  fruits  of  their  industry  and  genius  ; 
several  distinguished  themselves  as  public  orators,  or  as  teachers  of  the 
languages  and  sciences. 

It  may  be  regarded  as  a  peculiar  characteristic  of  the  fifteenth  and  still 
more  of  the  sixteenth  and  the  first  half  of  the  seventeenth  centuries,  that  the 

enthusiasm  for  the  sciences  and  the  learned  languages  among 
Sill  y  o      ^omen  of  the  higher  ranks  was  strongest  and  most  general  ; 

that  at  the  very  time  when  the  majority  of  princes  and  nobles 
despised  men  of  learning  as  clerks,  and  regarded  the  sciences  as  degrading 
to  their  dignity,  women  of  the  highest  distinction  patronized  literature  and 
the  arts  with  the  most  lively  interest  ;  that  queens  and  princesses  so  far 
from  being  ashamed,  thought  it  an  honor  to  be  poetesses  and  writers  ;  and 
that  those  of  the  female  sex  who  had  received  no  instruction  in  the  learned 
languages  and  the  scholastic  sciences,  at  least  made  themselves  mistresses 
of  the  best  works  of  modern  nations,  studied  with  the  utmost  assiduity  to 
speak  and  write  their  mother  tongue  with  elegance  and  precision,  and  to 
form  correct  opinions  on  the  productions  of  wit  and  taste,  as  well  as  on 
men  and  things. 

The  country  in  which  the  classic  languages  were  first  revived  was  the 

portion  of  the  European  continent  in  which  ladies  of  distinc- 

Spread  of   ^j^^^  ^^.^^  aspired  to  the  newly  discovered  treasures  of  ancient 

wisdom.     The  examples  of  the  Italian  women  soon  excited 

the  emulation  of  their  fair  and  enlightened  sisters  in  France,  England,  Spain, 



and  Germany.     To  the  honor  of  the  P'rench  women,  it  must  be  said,  that. 

in  the   fifteenth,  sixteenth,  and    seventeenth    centuries,   they  distinguished 

themselves  above  all  the  olliers  by  their  accomplishments  in  general,  and 

their  literary  talents  in  particular,  and  in  consequence  they  justly  lK»came 

the  patterns  of  their  sex  throughout  all  Kurope. 

Next  to  the  French  women,  those  of  England  applied  themselves  with 

the  greatest  zeal  to  the  study  of  the  ancient  languages  and  of  the  sciences. 

The  latter,  however,  possessed  an  undeniable  superiority  over 

ev  va       ti^eir  continental  neiehlx)rs  in  one  important  particular,  that 
In  Bnffland  ^  .  . 

is  to  say,  they  conferred  much  greater  honor  on  their  erudi- 
tion l)y  irreproachable  manners  than  the  women  of  Francr. 

There  was  activity  in  all  departments  of  thought.  The  study  of  poetry, 
of  theology,  of  the  classics,  went  on  apace.  The  printing  press  was  letting 
loose  fi(K)ds  of  knowledge.  The  tide  swept  the  women  of  the  nobility  along 
in  its  course,  as  it  did  those  of  France.  They  stand  out  prominently  among 
the  ranks  of  scholars.  In  place  of  the  domestic  arts,  they  are  found  im- 
mersed in  classics,  divinity,  and  philosophy. 

Education  was  not  conducted  on  the  easy,  pleasant  lines  of  our  own 
day.  Knowledge  was  hard  to  obtain.  It  was  locked  up  out  of  reach  of 
the  indolent,  in  languages  to  which  there  were  none  of  the  modern  keys. 
Literature  was  the  great  study,  and  familiarity  with  (ireek  and  Latin  essen- 
tial. The  tree  of  science  had  only  just  begun  to  grow,  and  was  sorely  iK-set 
by  the  brambles  of  superstition  and  mysticism.  The  arts  in  England  cT>uld 
scarcely  Ik'  said  to  exist.  History  was  in  the  form  »>f  chronicles  and 

And  yet,  says  a  competent  authority,  "No  age  was  so  productive  of 
learned  women  as  the  sixteenth  century.  Learning  was  so  very  mo<lish 
that  the  fair  sex  seemed  to  belie\e  that  dreek  and  Latin  added  to  their 
charms,  and  that  Plato  and  Aristotle  untranslated  were  frequent  ornaments 
of  their  closets. "  Certainly  Enj^lantl  can  show  a  roll  during  that  periiHJ, 
which  is  in  striking  contrast  to  the  records  of  the  prece<ling  and  succeeil- 
ing  centuries. 

Queen  Catharine,  tht-  last  wife  (»t  Henry  VI 11.,  was  the  translator 
ot  a  notable  literary    work.      She    was  excelled  by  the  <jueens  Nhiry  and 

317  • 


Elizabeth,  both  of  whom  were  likewise  authors.  The  former  wrote 
Latin  epistles  with  elegance,  and  the  latter  was  in  the  habit 

Bioiaiiie  ^j  returning  extemporary  answers  in  the  same  languajje  to 
Polish  ambassadors. 

The  beautiful,  virtuous,  heroic,  and  unfortunate  Lady  Jane  Cirey,  who 
was  in  ever>'  respect  worthy  the  first  throne  in  the  world,  is  justly  styled  by 
Hume,  a  prodigy  in  literature.  Never  was  a  woman,  and  ver}'  seldom  a 
person  of  the  other  sex,  attached  to  learning  for  its  own  sake,  or  on  account 
of  the  pleasure  and  advantage  which  it  afforded  to  her  understanding  and 
her  heart,  as  Lady  Jane  (irey,  who  ascended  the  scaffold  with  greater  reso- 
lution than  the  throne,  and  who  consoled  her  sister  in  the  same  language  in 
which  Plato  wrote  on  the  immortality  of  the  soul.  Not  only  the  queens, 
but,  as  Hume  informs  us,  "even  the  ladies  of  the  court  valued  themselves 
on  their  knowledge.  Lady  Burleigh,  Lady  Bacon,  and  their  two  sisters, 
were  mistresst=^  of  the  ancient  as  well  as  modern  languages  ;  and  placed 
more  pride  in  their  i-rudition,  than  in  their  rank  and  (juality." 

The  house  of  Sir  Thomas  More  was  truly  the  habitatic^n  o^  the  Musi  s. 
His  three  daughters,  but  especially  Margaret,  who  afterward  married  Mr. 
Roper,  wrote,  even  in  their  childhood,  Latin  letters  of  which  veterans  in 
literature  would  have  no  occasion  to  feel  ashamed.  It  was  perhaps  these 
three  daughters  who  honored  the  memory  of  (Jueen  Margaret  <»f  Navarre  in 
Latin  poems  of  their  own  composition. 

After  the  sixteenth  century,  the  lamp  of  learning  in  Kngland  flickered  a 

good      The  air  was  very  unsteady,  and  winds  came  blowing  from  all 

quarters.      The  civil   war,  the  austerity  of  the  Puritans,   the 

••^•■****"*'*  license  of  the    Rovalists,   were   not  favorable  to   the  arts   of 

peace,  and  when  political  passions  were  dividing  the  country 
it  was  no  time  for  ])oring  over  books  and  holding  commune  with  phiIoM>- 
phers  and  poets.  The  fault  of  the  seventeenth  century  was  its  lack  «»f 
earnestness  alM)Ut  intellectual  matters.  It  combined  all  the  faults  of  all  tlur 
ages — laxity  of  morals,  indifference  to  high  aims,  combined  with  religious 
fanaticism  and  a  lack  of  appreciation  of  knt)wle(lj4e  and  learning.  Ac- 
complishments were  sought  after  rather  than  solid  acquirements.  There 
was  a  leaning  to  the  lighter  pursuits, —  music,  dancing,  needlework,  and  art. 



It  is  in  this  century  that  the  history  of  the  fine  arts,  as  far  as  women  are 
concerned,  really  begins.  About  the  middle  of  the  century,  too,  women 
first  began  to  appear  upon  the  stage.  It  was  an  unfortunate  moment  for 
the  introduction  of  actresses,  and  their  presence  gave  rise  to  many  scandals  ; 
and  this  opprobrium  has  never  left  it. 

The  eighteenth  century'  stands  out  with  a  curious  distinct  individuality. 
The  contest  between  the  moralist  and  the  sensualist  had  spent  itself,  and 

England    ^or  the  first  time  in  English   history  we  come  upon  a  period 
Elsmeentii  ^^^^^   distinctive   characteristic  was   conventionality .       Wo- 

centnry  ^len  in  everyday  life  felt  the  spell  of  this  goddess  less  than 
did  the  great  ladies.  Over  the  fashionable  world  she  reigned  supreme  ; 
but  common  women,  while  they  admired,  and,  as  far  as  possible,  imitated 
the  ways  of  their  social  superiors,  showed  themselves  mere  children  of 
nature.  There  was  more  material  than  intellectual  improvement.  The 
literary  movement  hardly  touched  women  in  everyday  life  ;  the  philan- 
thropic movement  had  not  made  any  headway,  and  as  for  politics,  it  was 
only  the  great  ladies,  with  relatives  and  friends  among  statesmen,  who  con- 
cerned themselves  with  public  affairs.  Morals  were  at  a  low  ebb,  and 
female  education  was  anything  but  inspiring. 

Returning  to  the  sixteenth  century  we  further  ol)serve  that  no  country 
of  Europe  contained  so  many  teachers,  professors,  and  patrons  of  literature 

and  real  science  in  general,  as  (ierniany  ;  accord inglv  a  por- 

tion  of    the  universal  enthusiasm   for  the  ancient  languages. 

and  for  the  restoration  of  religion  and  letters,  could  not  fail  to  be  com- 
municated to  the  wives  and  daughters  of  the  friends  of  these  upliftinj.»^ 

It  is,  nevertheless,  a  matter  of  surprise,  that  in  thc^se  times  of  the 
greatest  fermentation  and  enthusiasm,  a  greater  number  of  German  women 
did  not  obtain  celebrity  by  their  erudition  and  their  writings.  Excepting 
the  princesses  of  the  house  of  Austria,  very  few  (ierman  women  of  the 
sixteenth  century  and  following  distinguished  themselves  by  their  literary 
attainments,  or  their  patronage  of  the  learned.  Charitas,  an  abbess  of  the 
convent  of  St.  Clara,  at  Nurnberg,  read  Oreek  works  and  wrote  Latin 
letters,    a   small    collection    of   which    is    still    preserved.       Constantia,    a 




daughter  of  the  learned  Peutinger  of  Augsburg,  has  received  worthy  men- 
tion by  Ulrich  von  Hutten  ;  but  other  examples  of  participation  in  learning 
and  letters  by  women  of  Germany  are  rare. 

Spain  remained  very  far  behind  all  the  other  civilized  countries  of 
Europe  in  regard  to  the  number  and  zeal  of  the  friends  of  learning.  That 
kingdom,  nevertheless,  produced  more  women  than  Ger- 
many, who  were  acquainted  not  only  with  the  Greek  and 
Latin,  but  also  with  the  Hebrew  and  other  Oriental  languages,  or  stepped 
forward  as  public  orators,  to  fill  the  pope  and  the  cardinals  with  astonish- 
ment, or  to  convert  the  ol^stinate  Jews. 

In  the  next  century,  on  the  continent,  as  in  England,  the  partiality  of 
the  sex  to  ancient  literature  and  the  study  of  the  sciences,  properly  so 
called,  was  considerably  diminished.  At  the  same  time,  however,  the 
desire  of  acquiring  a  knowledge  of  the  modern  languages  and  their  best 
works,  and  the  ambition  of  speaking  and  writing  the  mother  tongue  with 
elegance  and  precision,  gradually  became  more  general,  especially  in 

The  state  of  female  society  in  America  bore  a  general  resemblance  to  the 
English,  though  considerably  modified  by  the  peculiar  circumstances  of  the 
country.  Great  value  was  placed  upon  education  from  the 
beginning  ;  and  marked  privation  for  the  sake  of  placing  the 
children  in  good  schools  was  not  uncommon.  There  were,  during  this 
period,  not  many  instances  of  the  thorough  and  elegant  female  education, 
which  the  higher  classes  of  the  French  and  English  received,  but  women 
were  generally  intelligent  and  well  informed  ;  a  good  knowledge  of  history, 
the  popular  sciences,  Latin,  French,  and  Italian,  were  common  acquisitions. 

And  now,  having  passed  in  rapid  review  the  intellectual  conditions  sur- 
rounding women  during  thc^se  three  centuries,  what,  we  must  inquire,  were 
csenerai  some  of  the  social  and  moral  conditions?  If  the  learning  and 
conduiotis  attainments  acquired  by  the  fair  sex  in  the  sixteenth  century 
In  Europe  had  been  more  general  than  they  were,  still  they  would 
scarcely  have  proved  sufficient  to  protect  female  virtue  against  the  new 
dangers  and  charms  of  a  Rfe  at  court  and  all  that  it  entailed. 

During  the  reign  of  Louis  XH.  the  life  and  character  of  that  ruler  and 



his  wife  kept  the  ladies  and  gentlemen  of  the  court  witliin  proper  bounds. 
Under  Francis  I.,  on  the  contrary',  the  virtue  of  few  of  the  women  attend- 
ant on  the  court  was  proof  against  its  incessant  dissipations  and  amuse- 
ments, the  continual  artifices  of  bold  and  cunning  seducers,  and  the  influence 
of  illustrious  examples.  It  even  became  a  prevailing  opinion,  that  the  loss 
of  female  honor  was  a  thing  of  no  kind  of  consequence,  but  that  it  was 
creditable  when  it  was  compensated  by  wealth,  honors,  and  the  favor  of 
the  great. 

Unfortunately,  it  was  not  the  ladies  of  the  court  alone  in  whom  the  sense 
of  virtue  and  decency  was  extinguished.  The  court  infected  the  capital, 
and  the  capital  communicated  the  contagion  to  the  other  cities  of  the 

Aca)rding  to  the  unanimous  testimonies  of  historians  and  obser\'ers, 

"^ostofthe  courts  and  nations  of  Europe  copied  with  increasing  avidity 

^UtiA       r  ^^^  pomp,  the  diversions,  and  the  fashions  of  France.     This 

I'reiicli       mania  for  imitating  the  French  overcame,  among  many  peo- 

anera     ^^^    ^j^^,  most  violent  and  dee[)-rooted  national  antipathy.      It 

.    'irstH-ized  the  courts  and  the  superior  ranks,  and  gradually  descended  to 

^^^'  middle  and  lower  classes. 

In  this  state    of  things  the  character    of    woman    was    warped    by    the 

temptations  and  impulses  of  the  tinus.      In  tin*  court  of  I^Vance,  as  has  been 

''hser\cd,  in  the  houses  of  the  nobility  generally,  cuul  indt-ed  almost  every- 

*h*Te.  womankind  was  not  respected,  nor  did  woman  res[)ect  herself.      The 

•Nate  wiLS  governed  by  vanity,  by  the  love  of  luxury  and  extravagance,  by 

the  eagerness  for  self-indulgence,  and  i)y  the  absence  of  any  respec  t  for  true 

di^nitv.      France  entered  upon   the  sixteenth    (cntury  with    all    the  social 

:'\iU  «»f  the  fifteenth,  and  with   new  dangers  before  her.      I 'or  in   the  midst 

•»f  the  ruin  of  the  old  society,  religion  as  well  as  social   order  ]ia<l  become 

♦  mhrnilcfl,   and    the  Church  had   run   herself    into  a>  much  danger  as  the 

Sute.      Fa<ls  like  the  following  ^how  u>.  how   far  the  sex  had  been  taught 

ro  throw  aside  all  those  (|ualiti<s  which  natnrall\  lulong  to  it. 

After  the  (Conspiracy  of  Amboise  in  I5(><>,  when  the  prisoners  were  taken 
«Mit  ciaiiy  by  dozens  to  be  executed,  we  are  assured  that  the  (luises  reserved 
the  principal  prifwners  for  the  purpose,  bv  th<*ir  torments,  (»f  affording  amuse- 



ment  to  the  ladies  of  the  court  after  dinner,  who  then,  with  the  king  and 

his  brothers,  placed  themselves  in  the  windows  of  the  castle 

Example  o    ^^  Amboise,  in  which  the  court  was  residine,  while  the  vic- 
Perverslon  ° 

tims  were  brought  into  the  courtyard  of  the  palace,  a  few  every 

day,  and  put  to  death  in  the  most  barbarous  manner,  in  view  of  the  ladies. 

We  are  told  further,  that  the  chancellor,  Olivier,  a  man  of  more  gentle- 
ness in  his  character,  was  so  horrified  by  the  atrocities  committed  on  this 
occasion,  that  he  took  to  his  bed,  and  died  before  the  end  of  the  month. 

Such  were  some  of  the  qualities  which  seem  to  have  prevailed  more  or 
less  among  womankind  in  France  at  the  commencement  of  the  great 
troubles  of  the  latter  half  of  the  century  of  which  we  are  speaking. 

Among  the  aristocratic  classes,  especially  among  those  which  were 
naturally  taken  for  imitation,  virtue  had  long  been  at  a  discount,  and  vice 
reigned  without  any  control.  The  pages  of  Brant6me  and  Pierre  de 
I'E^toile  depict  scenes  of  profligacy  and  sensuality  among  women  which 
cannot  here  be  transcribed.  We  see  them  there  displaying  their  immorali- 
ties almost  to  the  open  day. 

The  civil  war  of  1580  was  ascribed  almost  entirely  to  the  maids  of 
honor  of  Queen  Marguerite  of  Navarre  and  the  young  beauties  of  the 
court,  who,  in  their  feeling  of  hostilities  against  the  king  of  France,  Henry 
III.,  distributed  their  last  favors  almost  indiscriminately  to  all  who  would 
join  in  the  insurrection  against  him,  to  such  a  degree  that  it  was  popularly- 
called  "  the  war  of  the  lovers."  This  character  of  license  had  become  so 
strongly  imprinted  on  the  French  character,  that  it  remained  more  or  less 
attached  to  it  until  comparatively  recent  times. 

The  courts  of  Turin  and  Milan  were  those  that    first  and  most  nearly 

resembled   the   court   of    France.       During    the   whole   first    half   of    the 

eighteenth  centurv  the  court  of  Turin  had  the  reputation  of 
Courts  of  ^  ' 

Xnrln  and   being  one  of  the  first  schools  of  politeness  and  politics  not 
Milan        Qi^iy  in  Italy,  but  in  all  Europe.     Young  men  of  rank,  who 
were  destined  to  figure  in  the  great  world,  were  more  frequently  sent  to 
Turin  than  to  any  other  center  of  elegance. 

In  the  latter  years  of  King  X'ictor  Amadeus  the  court  of  Turin  was  soli- 
tary and  gloomy,  rather  than  animated  and  agreeable.     The  jealoas  king 



was  displeased  if  his  servants  and  courtiers  formed  an  intimacy  with  foreign 
ambassadors  and  other  strangers.  So  much  the  more  free  and  uncon- 
troDedwere  the  ladies  of  Turin.  Each  lady  had  not  only  a  professed  lover, 
but  also  an  agent  or  intermediate  person  to  negotiate  her  love  affairs. 

At  Milan  also  the  alternate  presence  of  Spanish,  French,  and  German, 
armies,  and  of  other  foreigners,  had  produced  such  a  revolution  in  the 
genius  of  the  inhabitants  towards  the  middle  of  the  century  under  discus- 
sion, that  they  allowed  their  women  as  great  liberty  as  the  fair  sex  enjoyed 
ij  France. 

Women  of  the  highest  rank  gave  and  went  to  masquerade  balls  in  the 

house  of  a  certain  iraiteiir,  who  had  formctl  such  an   establishment  as  to 

Forms  of    enable  him  to  Entertain  the  most  respectable  and    the  most 

andCm^     numerous  companies  in   a  manner  suitable  to  their  condition. 

piojmiciit    Husbands  had   no  objection  to  suffer  their  wives  to  go  on  a 

party  of  pleasure,  accompanietl  by  as   many  of  the  opposite  sex  ;  to   take 

with  them  silver  plate,  costly  wines,  and  other  necessaries  and  conveniences, 

and  to  bear  all  the  expenses  of  such  an  excursion.     It  was  not  ladies  of 

quality  alone  that  had  shaken  off  the  former  restraints. 

Women  were  seen,  as  at  Paris,  behind  iht:  counter  of  almost  every  shop. 
Milliners  and  si-amstresses  worked  in  public  siiops.  in  whicli  large  com- 
panies very  often  assembled.  The  nuns  received  \isit«>rs  in  their  parlors 
like  other  women  ;  they  laughed,  they  jested,  they  diverted  themselves 
*ith  music  like  the  ladies  of  the  court,  and  had  assemblies  a>  frecjuently  as 

In  no  other  city  of  Italy  were  the  nuns  under  so  little  discipline  and 
r<^traint  as  at  X'enice  ;  especially  in  those  convents  which  were  provided 
'•■r  the  reception  of  the  daughters  of  the  nobles.  Nuns  of  noble  birth 
^f>t  only  received  their  friends  and  acquaintances  in  the  private  parlor, 
"Ut  paid  visits  out  of  their  convents,  and  kept  their  hntrs  almost  in 

In  the  public  promenades,  at  the  tiieater.  and  at  balls,  the  women  never 
appeared  othi-rwise  than  masked  ;  and  this  ( untinual  disguise  embarrassed 
•heoperali<»ns  r)f  jealousy  in  the  same  [)roportion  as  it  f.uilitated  the  plans 
^>rt}u'  gratification  of  private  wishes. 



Of  all  the  great  courts  of  the  continent,  the  German  imperial  court  dur- 
ing the  reign  of  Charles  VL  relinquished  the  least  of  its  ancient  etiquette, 
and  was  least  inclined  to  adopt  the  French  manners  and  fash- 
Gcnnati  -^^^^  jj^^  emperor  commonly  ate  with  the  empress  and  the 
archduchesses  ;  and  both  their  majesties  were  always  waited 
upon  at  table  by  the  first  officers  of  their  court.  The  only  difference 
between  the  common  and  the  gala  tables  of  the  imperial  family  was,  that,  at 
the  latter,  the  dinner  was  attended  with  music.  The  imperial  palaces, 
pleasure-houses,  gardens,  and  furniture  were  so  mean  as  to  produce  a  disa- 
greeable impression  on  all  foreigners.  The  court  appeared  in  its  greatest 
brilliancy  on  the  name-days  of  the  emperor  and  empress.  The  emperor 
was  more  devout  than  gallant,  and  had  a  great  partiality  for  religious  festi- 
vals. He  obliged  not  only  all  the  ladies  and  gentlemen  of  his  court  but 
likewise  the  foreign  ambassadors  to  attend  all  his  exercises  of  devotion. 

The  inhabitants  of  Vienna  took  part  with  great  zeal  in  all  the  religious 

festivals,  and  multiplied  those  of  the  court  and  of  private  families  as  much  as 

possible.      The  Baron  von  Pollnitz    gives  a  rather  complete 
Vienna  .    ,  r    i        • 

picture  of  the  women  of  the  time. 

• '  They  are, ' '  says  he,  ' '  rather  more  handsome  than  pleasing.  They 
are  tall,  well  shaped,  and  walk  well  ;  but  when  they  courtesy,  they  do  it  in 
such  an  awkward  manner,  that  you  would  think  their  backs  in  danger  of 
breaking.  In  dress  they  are  gaudy  rather  than  elegant.  Excepting  few, 
none  of  them  use  rouge  and  much  less  white  paint.  In  a  word,  they  have 
nothing  about  them  that  denotes  coquetry.  They  do  not  easily  become 
familiar,  and,  notwithstanding  their  vanity,  tliey  are  cold  like  all  our  Ger- 
man women. 

"They  are  not  so  fond  of  gallantry  as  of  gaming,  luxury,  and  magnif- 
icence. They  know  no  books  but  their  prayer  books,  are  consequently 
very  credulous,  and  regard  exercises  of  devotion  as  the  essentials  of  reli- 
gion. This  ignorance  renders  their  conversation  rather  insipid,  unless  it  be 
animated  by  love.  They  have  at  least  as  high  a  notion  of  Vienna,  as  the 
women  of  Paris  have  of  that  metropolis.  All  these  little  defects,  however, 
are  compensated  by  a  certain  greatness  of  soul  and  uncommon  generosity. 
They  are  warm  friends  of  those  whose  interests  they  once  espouse.*' 


ReprDducBd  frnni  a  painting  by  W,  Camp- 
hausen,  a  Dusssldarf  painter,  and  ana  of  the  fora- 
mnst  painters  of  battles  of  any  schnnl  nr  time, 
Camphausen  was  a  mernbar  of  the  Berlin  and 
Vlanna  Academies,  and  receivEU  numEraus 
medals  from,  the  leadintJ  Falons. 



Maria  Theresa  was  the  first  German  regent  to  relax  the  rigid  etiquette 

b'ith  which    her  forefathers  had  fettered  themselves.     She  admitted   high 

and  low  to  her  presence,  listened  to  the  complaints  and  peti- 

***'**        tions    of    her    servants  and    sul)jccts   with    sympathy   and 

I)atience,  and  returned  them  such  answers  as  a  mother  gives 
to  her  children.  She  honored  persons  of  merit  of  both  sexes  with 
invitations  to  her  table,  which  had  never  been  done  before  at  the  Austrian 
court.  She  gave  the  court  of  Vienna  more  liberty,  more  animation,  and 
more  brillianc>'  than  it  had  ever  before  exhibited.  The  French  manners 
supplemented  or  at  least  gained  ascendency  over  the  Spanish  and  Italian 
habits  and  languages,  which  had  heretofore  been  predominant. 

It  is  cestainly  a  remarkable  characteristic  of  the  eighteenth  century, 
that  it  produced  a  greater  number  of  female  sovereigns  of  talent  than  of 
cOstinguished  princes  ;  that  the  most  important  events  during  that  period 
were  brought  about  by  these  princesses  ;  and  that  for  nearly  three  fourths 
of  it,  one  of  the  most  powerful  nations  of  Kurope  was  go\erne(l  by  females. 
Amoi^  these  Maria  Theresa  and  Catharine  II.  indisputably  deserve  the 
foremost  rank,  not  only  for  the  greatness  of  their  minds,  but  also  for  the 
goodness  of  their  hearts,  and  the  ardent  zeal  with  which  they  endeavored 
to  promote  the  welfare  of  their  subjt-cts.  Xeillier  of  these  sovereigns  was 
without  fanks,  any  more  than  the  j^n.-atest  and  the  l)est  princes. 

If  Catharine  II.  had  fewer  female  virtues  than  Maria  Theresa,  on  the 
other  hand  she  possessed  a  more  masculine  mind  and  attaiiunents,  and 
conferred  greater  benefits  on  her  em[)ir(r  tlian  tlur  latter,  by  means  of 
establishments  and  institutions  of  general  utility. 

The  court  of  X'ienna  itself  ditTere<l  less  from   that  of  1*' ranee,  than   the 

Pnissian  court  under  King   I-Vederick  William.      This  monarch  suppressed 

Canrt Jtf     ''^^   ^^^^'   P^^"M^ '^"^^   '^^^  ^'^^'  diversion  in  which   hi>  father  had 

Pnctfcrlck   emulated  the  l*Ven(*h  court.       The  muses  and  graces  tlrd  fn>m 

'"     the  orgies  r)f  this  Milu*r\vi>e  threat  kin;;  U>  tin-  roidente  of  his 

still  greater  son,  who  ke[)t  a  court   mr)re  distini^uishcd  for  elegance  than 

splendor,  at  the  Rheinsburg. 

'/ntil  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century,  tiie  drink in;^  of  toasts  was 
d  common  jiractice  at  the  court  of   Berlin,  and  at  most  of  the  other  <  ier- 


man  courts.  Drinking  matches  were  thought  creditable ;  and  though 
drunkenness  was  not  deemed  honorable,  yet  it  incurred  no  disgrace. 
Moderate  intoxication  was  not  taken  amiss  even  in  ladies.  The  wildest 
orgies  were  held  in  their  presence  ;  and  the  participants  in  them  were  not 
ashamed  to  reel  from  the  bottle  into  associations  with  the  gentler  sex. 

This  public  practice  of  drinking  toasts,  and  this  habit  of  intoxication, 
were  wholly  inconsistent  with  the  manners  of  the  French.  Only  in  private 
festivals,  which  were  inaccessible  to  all  but  their  most  intimate  confidants, 
did  the  French  court  surrender  to  such  immoderate  practices. 

As  early  as  the  reign  of  Frederick  Augustus,  the  Saxons  were  regarded 
as  the  French  of   Germany,  and  the  Saxon  women  were   thought  to  ap- 
proach nearest  to  those  of  France.     It  would, ^however,  ap- 
saxon         ^^j.  ^1^^^  ^j^^  women  of  Saxony  copied  the  French  in  their 
attire  and    ornaments,    rather  than  in  their   sentiments   and 
manners.     When  the  former  gave  way  to  love,  their  passion  was  of  the 
heroic  cast ;  and  this  elevated  sentiment  they  were  taught  by  the  romances 
of  chivalry,  which  were  their  favorite  amusement.     They  were  not  so  much 
occupied  with  gallantry  as  to  be  prevented  from  attending  to  their  domestic 
concerns,  or  to  polite  female  employments. 

During  tlie  first  half  of  tlie  period,  French  fashions  had  but  few,  and 
the  French  way  of  living  scarcely  any,  adherents  in  the  great  commercial 
Prencii  In-  ^^^^^^    ^^   Germany.     The   court    cities  alone    had  been    the 
fluencein    mimics.     The  women  of  Hamburg  were  almost   as    closely 
cermany    confined  as  the  women  of  the  East.     They  went  scarcely  any- 
where but  to  church  ;    or,  if  they  walked  or  drove,  they  were  always  ac- 
companied by  their  husbands.      The  patricians  of   Augsburg,    Niirnberg, 
and  Ulm  were  almost  utter  strangers  to  conviviality  and  hospitality.      In 
these  imperial  cities,  both  sexes  rigidly  adhered  to  the  ancient  fashions  in 
dress.      Even  natives  of  the  other  sex  were  not  admitted  into  the  female 
circles,  unless  they  were  near  relatives  or  intimate  friends. 

Not  until  the  Se\'en  Years'  War  did  the  new  epoch  in  the  social  and 

CiTects  of    ^^"^^'stic  life  of  Germany   begin.      From  this  time    forward, 

tiie  Seven    the  eighteenth  century  was  characterized  by  a  wonderful  al- 

Years'  'War  f^^ation.     The  numerous  garrisons  of  foreign  troops,  and  the 



ennui  of  gay  and  young  officers  in  winter  quarters,  produced  a  multitude 
of  societies  and  social  amusements  which  were  afterwards  continued,  and 
proved  the  fruitful  parents  of  a  still  more  numerous  progeny. 

From  this  time  arose  the  mixed  societies,  under  the  names  of  concerts, 
picnics,  clubs  ;  the  practice  of  having  separate  apartments  for  husbands, 
wives,  and  children  ;  the  unobstructed  visits  of  men  to  persons  of  the 
other  sex  ;  the  more  liberal  education  of  females,  their  admission  into  large 
mixed  societies,  their  increasing  consequence,  and  their  improved  modes  of 
dress ;  and,  finally,  genuine  hospitality  to  strangers,  true  conviviality 
among  friends,  games-  of  hazard,  taste  and  elegance  in  furniture  and 
equipages,  the  desire  for  fashion  and  luxuries,  fondness  for  reading  and 
amusement,  and  the  habit  of  travel, —  all  of  which  brought  to  womankind 
of  the  following  century  a  priceless  heritage. 

No  period  in  history  has  probably  been  more  remarkable  in  its  influence 
upon  women  than  the  so-called  period  of  the  French  revolution,  embracing 
the  regal  decades,  also,  leading  uj)  to  this  remarkable  subver- 
■tion  ^J^f^-     Under   the   immediate   successor  of   Louis   XV. ,  the 
most  ancient  and  to  all  appearances  the  most  firmly  estab- 
lished throne  in  Europe  was  subverted,  and  the  most  brilliant  court  sud- 
denly dissolved. 

A  nation  which  had  hitherto  considered  its  inviolable  attachment  and 
loyalty  to  its  monarchs  as  one  of  its  principal  virtues,  which  had  viewed 
even  the  vices  and  foibles  of  its  rulers  and  of  those  who  enjoyed  their  favor 
^'ith  reverential  awe,  first  incarcrratrs  the  best  of  sovrreij^^ns.  the  most 
liable  of  kings,  in  a  dungeon  of  misery,  tluMi  draj^s  him  to  the  fatal  scaf- 
Wd,  and  both  under  circumstances  the  most  rcpiij^nant  to  ivery  ft-ding 
*^Qrt  The  same  nation  renounccrs  the  religion  of  its  ancestors,  for  which 
'^had  fought  for  centuries  ;  annihilates  its  ancient  constitution,  and  with  it 
^"^two  higher  orders  of  society,  which  it  had  been  acxustomed  to  consider 
^  the  strength  or  flower  of  the  community  :  abrogates  its  laws,  its  institu- 
tions for  instruction  and  education  ;  relincjuislies  its  former  way  of  thinking 
*^d  modes  of  life,  and  even  no  small  part  of  its  peculiar  char;ict(  ristics  ;  in 
^ing  the  first  steps  toward  f)romised  freedom,  is  invohetl  in  the  most 
l^minious  slaver)'  ;  endures  and  perpetrates  the  most  atrocious  crimes. 



and,  at  the  very  time  when  it  is  bleeding  under  the  axes  of  its  tyrants, 
achieves  the  most  brilliant  victories,  which  excite  not  less  admiration  than 
the  enormities  committed  and  tolerated,  inspire  detestation  and  contempt. 

The  French  revolution  is  one  of  those  phenomena,  the  causes  of  which 
no  finite  intellect  can  fully  enumerate,  and  still  less  can  it  accurately  appre- 
ciate the  effects  of  each  of  these  causes.  Upon  the  whole  it 
may  be  asserted,  that  whatever  tended  to  establish  the  arbi- 
trary power  of  the  French  monarchs,  and  encouraged  the  abuse  of  that 
power  with  its  attendant  vices,  corruption,  oppression,  and  financial  em- 
barrassment, must  be  reckoned  among  its  concurrent  causes. 

During  the  reign  of  Louis  XIV.,  the  disorders  of  the  court  and  the 
distractions  of  the  kingdom  increased  with  a  rapid  progress.  In  the  first 
twenty  years  of  the  reign  of  Louis  XV. ,  Cardinal  Fleury  retarded  the  fall 
of  the  tottering  kingdom  by  his  frugality  and  solicitude  for  the  preserva- 
tion of  peace.  But  after  his  death  it  advanced  with  accelerated  velocity 
towards  its  dissolution,  which  could  not  even  be  checked  by  the  accession 
of  so  promising  a  monarch  as  Louis  XVI. 

Under  Louis  XVI.,  as  under  his  predecessors,  the  women  were  very 
important  factors  in  governing  the  men  who  enjoyed  the  confidence  of  the 
monarch.  The  deficiency  of  virtue  and  talent,  however,  proved  more 
detrimental  than  did  in  other  times  the  greatest  criminality.  This  defi- 
ciency both  of  great  vices  and  crimes,  and  of  great  virtues  and  abilities,  is 
perhaps  one  of  the  most  certain  symptoms  of  decline  or  degeneracy. 

The  principal  vices  of  the  nobles  under  the  reign  of  Louis  XVI.  were 
their  inordinate   love  of   gaming,   of    horse-racing,   of   mistresses,  and    the 

soclet        destructive   profusion    into  which    these  passions    led    them. 

micler  Tlic  reigning  vices  of  the  men  became  also  the  vices  of  the 
i^oa  s  XVI.  ^yQi^^^p  Ladies  of  rank,  or  those  who  wished  to  be  consid- 
ered as  such,  gamed,  squandered  their  fortunes  and  involved  themselves  in 
debt,  like  the  men.  They  had  lovers  and  expensive  gewgaws,  as  the  men 
had  their  mistresses  and  horses.  They  also  murdered  their  time  with  the 
same  frivolous  amusements  and  dissipations  as  the  men. 

Happy  marriages  and  conjugal  fidelity  became  more  rare  than  ever. 
Public  illicit  connections  with  other  men  than  those  whose  name  they  bore, 



were  the  prevailing  fashion,  and  therefore  ceased  to  give  any  offense.  Peo- 
ple married  in  compliance  with  the  will  of  their  parents,  or  for  other  motives 
of  convenience,  that,  after  the  nuptial  knot  was  tied,  they  might  enter  into 
a  still  closer  private  union  with  the  objects  of  their  hearts. 

These  connections  assumed  the  exact  character  of  matrimonial  unions, 
and  the  perpetual  change  of  lovers  and  mistresses,  which  was  formerly  so 
much  in  vogue,  disappeared  almost  entirely.  With  married  women,  none 
of  their  male  acquaintances  were  more  rarely  seen  than  their  husbands, 
and  with  none  did  they  less  frequently  meet  in  society.  The  lover  gen- 
erally defrayed  the  expenses  of  the  toilet  and  other  contingent  expenses  of 
his  mistress.  But  if  he  was  too  poor,  or  not  sufficiently  liberal,  to  satisfy 
the  continual  demands  of  fashion  and  the  love  of  display,  the  lady  applied 
to  the  person  whose  name  she  bore  ;  and  it  was  only  when  she  had  ac- 
counts to  settle  with  milliners,  jewelers,  and  other  dealers  in  fashionable 
••ares,  or  when  her  purse  recjuired  to  be  replenished  after  losses  at  gaming, 
that  she  bestowed  a  civil  look  or  word  uj)on  her  nominal  husband. 

One  of  the  principal  causes  of  the  corruption  of  morals  in  the  capital  of 

France  had    long   been    the   different   theaters,   and   especially   the  grand 

opera.     The  ministers  of  Louis  X\'I.,  in  compliance  with  the 

**"  wishes  of  that  virtuous  sovereign,  endeavored  to  correct  the 

Opera  ^ 

scandalous  abuses  j^cMU-ratcd  in  this  school  of  voluptuous- 
ness and  vicf.  and  to  restrain  tin-  loose  conduct  of  the  actors  and  actresses 
hynmickin*!  of  discij)lini-.  Hut  all  tluse  allcnipls  at  the  reformation  of 
the  <)pt;ra  were  without  the  smallest  permanent  effect.  The  opera  re- 
"^inwl,  or  iK-came  even  in  a  hij^her  decree  tiian  it  had  been  before,  a 
^'hrM.1  of  debauchery,  which  contained  none  but  the  most  prolligate  charac- 
^^'^^  and  which  received  no  additions  but  such  as  wtmr  furnished  by 
^  licentiousness  of  a  corrupted  capital.  It  was,  and  remained,  the 
rtceptade  of  prostitution,  adultery,  and  e\ery  kind  of  i^^ross  sensuality. 
*'^  and  enormities  of  every  description,  which  were  safe  nowhere  else, 
^nd  refuge  in  the  bosom  of  the  i^rand  opera. 

The  French  revolution  began  in  tin-  UK^nth  of  June,  17S9,  when  a  part 
^  the  States-Cieneral,  without  the  concurrence  of  the  two  higher  orders, 
^In  opposition  to  the  will  of  the  kuvj^,  constituted  themselves  a  national 



assembly,  and  were  acknowledged  by  the  nation  as  their  representatives  with 

unlimited   powers.      From   the   very   first   moment  of  the  Revolution,  an 

incredible  infatuation  seized  the  minds  of  almost  the  whole 

Beff  nn  tiff  of  ^^  ^^^  nation.     Liberty  was  the  maeic  word  which  inflamed 
tlie  carnage  ^ 

every  imagination  ;  and  the  love  of  liberty  became  a  reign- 
ing fashion,  which,  under  a  variety  of  shapes,  drove  a  fickle  and  volatile 
people  from  one  extreme  to  another,  and  impelled  men  destitute  both  of 
virtue  and  of  patriotism,  to  sacrifice  their  own  real  interests,  nay,  their 
lives  themselves,  not  merely  without  murmuring,  but  even  with  a  playful 

In  a  city  so  sunk  in  effeminacy  and  voluptuousness  as  Paris,  the  love  of 
liberty  must  have  seemed  as  great  a  stranger  as  luxury  in  ancient  Sparta. 
And  yet  the  people,  or  the  mob  of  Paris,  raised  insurrection  after  insurrec- 
tion, till  the  throne  and  all  that  surrounded  it  was  laid  in  the  dust,  and  out 
of  its  ruins  rose  the  monster  of  anarchy,  to  which  nowhere  so  many  victims 
were  sacrificed  as  in  Paris  itself.  The  fashion  of  liberty  was  just  as 
capricious  and  changeable  in  Paris  as  any  other  fashion  ;  but  finally,  after 
the  most  dramatic  oscillation  between  monarchy  and  democracy,  the 
national  convention  decreed  the  abolition  of  monarchy. 

Neither  the  nobility  nor  the  dignified  clergy  lost  more  by  a  change  of 

the  established   constitution  than  the   female   sex,  which  for  nearly  three 

centuries  past  had  reigned  at  the  French  court,  and  from  the 

A  vital      court  had  extended  its  swav  over  every  town  and  province  of 
Question  '  ^  ^ 

the  kingdom.     If  there  were  to  be  no  more  despotic  kings, 

no  ruling  ministers  or  favorites  of  monarchs,  no  more  festivities,  levees,  and 
brilliant  assemblies  at  the  court,  how  could  the  all-influencing  mistresses  of 
kings  and  ministers,  how  could  the  arbitresses  of  taste  and  fashion,  of 
literary  and  every  other  kind  of  merit,  continue  to  exist?  Yet  even  the- 
womei)  sacrificed  all  the  advantages  which  had  formerly  been  the  most  dear 
to  them,  with  enthusiastic  ardor.  They  took  the  most  active  part  in  a// 
the  festivals  of  liberty,  particularly  in  the  memorable  festival  of  confedera- 
tion, held  at  Paris  on  July  14,  1790. 

The  women  in  the  provinces,  who  were  not  able  themselves  to  attend 
this  festival,  expressed  their  attachment  to  the  cause  of  liberty  by  going  in 


procession,  in  their  l)est  attire,  to  meet  tlie  sons  of  the  countr}'  going  to 
swear  the  sacred  oath  of  liberty  and  ecjuality,  or  h\i  attending  them  on  their 
return,  and  presenting  them  witli  refreshments.  In  some  places  the  wo- 
men waited  for  hours  and  days  upon  tlie  high  roads,  in  orthr  to  receive  the 
deputies  to  the  festival  of  confederation,  and  to  invite  tiiem  to  civic  enter- 
tainments and  dances.  If  tlu*  patriots  accepted  these  invitation^,  the  ladies 
took  of!  their  martial  accoutrements  with  their  own  fair  hands,  and  the  depu- 
ties imagined  tliemselves  transported  l)ack  into  tlie  romantic  ages  of  chivalry. 
When  dangers  e.xternal  and  internal  Ix-^an  to  threaten  the  newborn 
liberty  of  France,  the  women  not  (»nly  encouraged  their  husbands,  brothers, 
and    lovers  bra\cly   to    defend    their  couiUry.    but    they  e\- 

oman  •    ^.^.^^.^j   themselves  to  the  utmr)st    to  contribntr  toward  its  de- 

fense.      After  the  e.\ampl<*  of  the  women  «»f   our  t)wn    country 

during  the  war  (►f  American  independenre.  many  thon^and^  of  zealous 
female  patriots  laid  tluir  trinkets,  their  pin-money,  or  the  irnit>  of  their 
ec(momy  upon  the  altar  <»f  the  <'ounlry.  Many  wi»men.  in-^pired  with 
enthusiastic  patriotism  and  l(»\e  of  libert\ ,  renounced  the  eharaeter  (»f  their 
se.x.  and  taking  their  posts  among  the  eomb.itant^  for  freidom.  L:aine<l  the 
laurels  of  victory,  or  died  the  d«Mth  of  heroines  in  th<-  !i<ld  «»f  bl.»od. 

Hut  the  heads  of  ruling  parlies  forgot  the  proofs  of  patriot i-^m  and  anw- 
age  which  the  I*Veneh  women  had  ilisplayed  from  the  beniinnini^  <»f  the 
Revoluti<ui.  as  readily  as  tin  y  did  the  voluntary  >airihre>  of  the  king,  the 
nobles,  and  the  eleri^y.  The  fair  se\  was  ne\ir  treated  iu  so  cruel  and 
shameful  a  manner,  nor  did  it  e\  ir  display  such  ^reat  antl  at  tin-  ^ame  time 
such  oilious  qualities  as  during  the  Reii^n  of  Terror,  which  be^an  August 
io,  1790.  an<l  in  the  course  of  the  succ^eedin^  \t'ar  its  luiex.impled 
horrors  over  all  I-Vancc.  Purine  th<>e  days  of  l)h)od.  iiuited  by  party 
leaders,  the  rabble  learned  to  trainj)le  upon  justice,  inuoci nee,  hum.uiity. 
decency  :  to  pay  resj)ect  neither  to  rank,  nor  s<.\,  nor  ai^e. 

One  of  the  rir>t  an.l  n]o>t  shocking  atrocities  of  tlnse  days  was  the 
massacre  of  the  Princess  L.imballe.  with  the  hoi  rid  indiiiniiie>  tliai  were 
aftenvards  offered  to  lit  r  body,  and  the  e.iirxiML:  of  her  head  o!i  .«  jiike 
through  the  streets,  and  even  to  the  r«inj«le.  for  the  express  purp<ise  ti\ 
exhibiting  it  to  the  view  of  the  (pieen  and  family. 



The  wife  of  the  bloodthirsty  Le  Bon  even  secured  lists  of  the  persons 

arrested,  brought  to  her  ever}-  evening  by  the  officers,  and  with  her  own 

hand  placed  the  letter  G  against  the  names  of  those  that  were 

Bia  ame     ^^  ^^  guillotined  the  next  morning. 
Ij^  Bon  ^  ^ 

One  day  an  extraordinary  spectacle  was  to  be  exhibited, 

in  the  execution  of  twenty-eight  persons  at  once,  among  whom  were  thir- 
teen young  girls.  Le  Bon  issued  orders  that  the  people  shculd  attend  this 
spectacle,  and  these  orders  no  one  dared  disobey,  except  at  the  hazard  of 
his  life.  A  widow,  who  on  account  of  indisposition,  was  no\  able  to  be 
present  at  the  execution  herself,  sent  her  daughter  in  her  strad,  having  pre- 
viously given  her  a  strict  charge  not  to  show  the  least  sign  of  sympathy  for 
the  persons  whose  execution  she  was  about  to  witness. 

The  daughter  promised  to  keep  command  over  herself,  and  actually  did 
suppress  her  emotions  till  the  sixteenth  victim  was  brought  on  the  scaffold. 
In  her  she  beheld  one  of  the  most  intimate  friends  of  her  youthful  years,  of 
whose  sentence  she  had  not  had  the  least  j)rrvious  intimation.  At  this 
afflicting  sight,  tears  burst  from  her  eyes  in  spite  of  all  her  endeavors  to 
restrain  them.  Unfortunately  the  stroke  of  the  guillotine  (hd  n<^t  completely 
sever  the  head  from  the  body,  so  that  the  executioner  was  obliged  to  tinish 
his  work  with  a  knife.  At  this  horrid  sj)eclacle  the  young  lady  fainted, 
which  being  observed  !)y  the  wife  of  Le  Bon,  who  constantly  sat  upon  the 
scaffold,  the  sanguinary  tiend  exclaimed,  "  Look  at  that  monster  of  an 
aristocrat  I     Secure  her  !  " 

Both  the  mother  and  the  daughter  were  innnediately  taken  into  cus- 
tody ;  and  the  latter,  two  days  after,  atoned  for  her  tears  .md  fainting  with 
her  life.  Many  similar  atrocities.  e(|ually  inconsistent  and  revolting,  are 
met  with  during  the  Reign  of  Ternjr. 

Long  before  the  Revolution,  the  I'Vench  women  had  been  reproached  for 
attending  public  executions,  regardless  of  tin-  delicacy  and  nindcsty  natural 

to  their  sex.    This  pecuii.irity  in  their  character  was  displayed 

Public         ,     .         ,      ,,        I     •        •       1  1  •  'iM 

— ,  ^.  (hirmirthe  Kevohition  \\\  tlie  nin>t  ^trikniv-  manner.       1  lie  ex- 

Kxecniionit  '^ 

ecution^  daily  and  hourly  in<'r<a>in^  in  nnni!)er.  >«»  far  fn»m 
fatiguing  and  satiating  either  the  women  or  men.  seein«(l  only  to  in*  rease 
their  thirst   for  blood,  and  their  desire  of  witnessing   the^e  horrible  sights. 




ReprDducBd  frnm  a  painting  by  Paul  LlBla- 
rache,  ana  of  the  graatsst  history  and  portrait 
painters.  EelarachB  was  a  niamher  of  the  lusti- 
tutB  of  FrancB,  and  also  of  tha  AcadBmias  at 
AmstBrdam  and  St.  PBtersburg.  "  Esath  of 
GuBBn  Elizabath,"  "  Joan  of  Rvc  in  Prison/' 
"  Massacra  of  St.  F^BrthnlomBw,"  and  "  Childrsn 
Caught  in  Storni"  arn  among  his  niastBrpiacEs. 




The  spectators  went  from  these  scenes  of  carnage  to  the  theaters,  which 
even  in  the  days  of  the  execution  of  the  kinj^  and  of  the  queen  were  not 
less  numerously  attended  than  at  other  times,  there,  possibly,  to  forget  their 
crimes  of  contemplation  amid  other  diversions. 

Such  arrests,  such  imprisonments,  such  tribunals,  and  such  executions  as 
France  exhibited  during  the  Reign  of  Terror,  had  never  been  witnessed  in 
any  civilized  nation  of  modern  times  :  neither,  also,  the  undaunted  fortitude 
and  the  cheerful  alacrity  with  which  thousands  of  every  age,  rank,  and  sex 
met  death.  It  does  not  appt^ar  surprising  tiiat  military  men.  magistrates, 
and  courtiers  should  meet  death  with  fortitude  ;  but  it  justly  excites  aston- 
ishment, that  mere  striplings,  and  even  frmak-s,  some  of  them  quite  young 
girls,  some  of  them  newly  married  women,  who  had  but  just  l>egun  to  enjoy 
the  pleasures  of  life,  should  ascend  tlie  scaffold  with  the  s;une  tranquil 

Among  the  persons  who  j)rincipally  contributed  to  this  spirit  of  heroism 
were  the  fair  fanatic  Charlotte  Corday  and  the  unfortunate, Marie  Antoin- 
Citarloite  ^^^^'  Charlotte  Corday,  who  had  stabl>ed  to  his  death, 
antf^Marle  «'^^'^*"^^^'^l  ^^^^"  scaffold  biMUtiful  as  an  angel,  and  adorned  like 
Antoinette  ji  bridt-.  The  exam pk-  of  this  amiable  hcroini-  firrd  the  imag- 
ination of  all  young  men  and  womt-n  of  enthusiastic  minds  throughout 

As  the  sufferings  of  the  (jucen  exceeded  beyond  comparison  those  of 

any  other  victim  lA  the  Revoluii(»n.  so  her  fortitude  during  tlie  latter  period 

of  her  life  and  at    her  death    surpassed   every  other  example  «)f  hert)ism. 

Divorced  from  the  affections  of  the  people,  inhumanly  separated  from  her 

husband  and  children,  subjected    t«)    iniuitneral)le    insults  and    indignities, 

confined  in  a  dreary  and  noisome  prison.  Marie  Antoinette  maintained  the 

same  dignity  of  dep<irtmenl  as  in  the  splendi<l  apartments  of  Trianon  :  and 

she  never  afforde<l  her  lormenters  the  gratitiration  of  seeing  her  sink  pusil- 

lanimously  under  her  sufferings. 

On  the  dav  of  her  death  there  were  onlv  two  moments 
Scenes  at  ; 

Bxecntlon  in  which  >he  yielded  to  her  emoti«)ns.      She  had  i-xpected  that 

she  should  Ih'  conveyed  to  the  place  i»f  execution  as  the  king 

had   been,  in  a  coach.     When,  therefore,  she  s;iw  the  cart  in    which  she 


was  to  be  conveyed,  she  blushed  and  wiped  her  eyes.  When  she 
ascended  the  guillotine,  her  aspect  struck  such  awe  into  the  executioner, 
that  he  involuntarily  uncovered  himself  and  made  a  profound  obeisance. 

By  the  same  commanding  aspect  she  caused  the  invectives  and  execra- 
tions which  till  then  had  continued  without  intermission,  to  cease  for  a 
short  time.  To  atone  for  the  crime  of  his  involuntary  respect,  the  execu- 
tioner tore  off  the  queen's  neck  handkerchief  with  brutal  violence.  The 
miscreant  rabble  raised  a  shout  of  exultation.  Neither  the  brutality  of  the 
executioner  nor  the  ferocity  of  the  sanguinary  mob  produced  the  slightest 
alteration  in  the  queen's  features.  But  when  the  ruflfian  proceeded  to  pull 
off  her  cap,  and  cut  off  her  hair,  turned  gray  with  affliction,  which  he 
trampled  under  his  feet,  her  anguish  became  too  strong  for  nature  to 
endure,  and  the  queen  began  to  weep.  The  tears  of  the  illustrious  sufferer 
produced  a  solemn  silence,  which  continued  till  the  sufferings  of  the  im- 
perial victim  were  ended. 

The  total  overthrow  of  the  ancient  and  the  establishment  of  a  new 
system  of  government,  the  disappearance  of  the  court  and  everything  con- 
nected with  it  ;  the  emigration,  execution,  or  impoverishment  of  the  princi- 
pal landed  proprietors  and  other  persons  of  rank  or  wealth  ;  the  important 
events  of  the  Revolution,  and  particularly  the  great  calamities  and  crimes  to 
which  it  gave  occasion,  produced  many  changes  in  the  way  of  thinking 
and  the  mutual  relations  of  the  sexes  which  became  very  conspicuous  in 
the  next  century. 

French  manners  and  customs,  French  fashions  and  way  of  living,  were 

as  extensively  diffused  in  the  other  courts  and  among  the  other  people  of 

Diffuaioii  of  ^"^^^P^  during  the  reign   of  Louis  XVl.  as  under  any  pre- 

Krencli      ceding  sovereign  of  I'Vance.       Among  the   European    coun- 

BlannerH     ^^.j^^^  which  were  called  polished,  Portugal  was  the  only  one 

that,  during  the  latter  years  of  the  monarchy,  ado])t(xl  neither  the  manners 

nor  the  fashions  of  the   French.      In  Spain  and   Italy,  on  the  other  hand, 

both  made  a   greater  progress  during  the  last  (juarltr  of    the  eighteenth 

century  than  they  had  done  in  the  foregoing  two  cintnries  and  a  half. 

In  Germany  and  the  north  of  Furope,  the  j)artialily  for  l^Vench  manners, 
fashions,  and  language  still  maintained   the  ascendency  ;  though  in  many 



parts  the  inhabitants  began  to  imitate  the  English.  The  latter  renounced 
everything  that  they  had  borrowed  from  the  French,  at  the  very  time  when 
the  French  were  seized  with  the  Anglomania. 

It  was  a  well  known  proverb  throughout  all  Europe,  even  at  this  time, 
that  England  is  the  paradise  of  women.     The  customs  of  the  people  of  all 
xiie         classes  in  England,  however,  were  more  favorable  to  the  sex 
Bnsriisii     than  the  laws.     The  English  women  superintended  the  edu- 
otnan      ^.^tion  of   their  children  and    the  domestic  economy,  with  a 
fidelity  that  did  them  honor.     They  attended  to  the  kitchen,  to  the  cleanli- 
ness of  the  houses  and  apartments,  to  the  furniture  and  linen,  with  a  care 
and  assiduity  that  were  equaled  in  few  countries  and  surpassed  in  none. 

In  return,  the  men  relieved  them  from  all  the  drudger}',  not  only  of 
rural  but  also  of  domestic  irconomy.  Persons  of  the  weaker  sex  were 
seldom  or  never  obliged  to  assist  in  agricultural  labors,  as  on  the  continent, 
nor  in  brewing  and  baking.  Even  the  milking  of  cows  was  performed  by 
men.  Hence  it  is  very  easy  to  conceive  why  the  English  country  girls 
were  upon  the  whole  more  beautiful  and  more  blooming  than  those  of  the 
other  nations  of  the  north  of  Europe  :  and  why  female  servants  were  able 
to  appear  neater  and  cleaner  than  in  other  countries. 

In  no  nation  of  Europe  did  woman  yet  enjoy  equal  civil  rights  with 
man,  either  in  respect  of  inheritance  or  succession,  or  the  management 
ineaaaiit  *^"^^  disposal  of  property  ;  and  still  less  in  regard  to  the 
of  ^nrofnaii*H  administration  of  justice  or  the  particif)ation  in  the  legislative 
RiflTtitH  power.  The  rights  of  women  have  not  only  varied  in  all 
ages  among  the  different  nations,  but  even  in  the  same  nation  at  different 
periods  ;  so  that  attention  can  only  be  directed,  in  this  connection,  to  the 
most  remarkal)le  revolutions,  singularities,  and  contradictions  in  the  rights 
of  women. 

It  was  a  j)rineipal  and  fundamental  law  of  the  ancient  (iermanic  nations, 

that  women  could   not  possess  any  family  estate,  and  in  the  setjuel  any  fief, 

^:»^— ^«»  ■  «».  ''^  riulil   of  propertv,  because    thev   were  unable    to   defend 

Xonctiinir      eitlu  r  the  one  or  the  other  against  the  enemies  of  their  coun- 

^nroman        ^^^,      -y^^^^  same  weakness  of  the  sex  likewise  incapacitated 

them  for  ihe  princely  dignity. 



The  females  of  the  ancient  Germans  received  no  dowry  on  their  mar- 
riage, from  their  fathers  or  brothers  ;  and,  after  the  death  of  the  father,  the 
sons  divided  the  paternal  estate  to  the  exclusion  of  their  sisters.  Husbands 
settled  on  their  wives  a  portion,  and  jointure,  both  consisting  of  estates 
more  or  less  valuable,  of  which,  however,  the  wives  or  widows  enjoyed  only 
the  use  during  their  lives.  After  t^eir  death  the  property  reverted  to  the 
families  of  the  husbands. 

This  ancient  law  respecting  women  was  abolished^  among  all  the  Ger- 
manic  nations,  when  they  settled  in    the   Roman  provinces,  and  became 

i^ter  acquainted  with  the  Roman  laws.  They  began  with  giving 
Property  females  a  dowry,  which  at  first  consisted  only  of  slaves, 
*  *  horses  and  other  cattle.  Not  long  afterwards  they  made 
their  daughters  co-heiresses,  first  in  unequal  and  afterwards  in  equal  parts 
with  the  sons.  Bridegrooms  and  husbands  soon  imitated  the  liberality  of 
fathers.  In  many  countries  a  community  of  property  between  husband 
and  wife  was  introduced,  and  with  it  the  anti-Germanic  practice,  that  the 
survivor  should  inherit  the  joint  estate. 

Females  became  heiresses  and  ^proprietors,  not  only  of  family  posses- 
sions but  likewise  of  tiefs.  The  beneficial  effects  of  the  adoption  of  the 
Roman  law  by  the  Germanic  nittions  has  been  much  discussed  ;  but  the  one 
circumstance  which  argues  most  in  its  favor  is,  that  all  the  German  nations 
not  only  adopted  it,  but  likewise  retained  it  during  the  periods  of  their 
highest  civilization. 

According  to  the  English  laws,  married  women  were  not  only  regarded 
as  the  property  of  their  husbands,  but  as  children  who  have  no  will  of  their 
own,  or  as  slaves  whose  will  must  be  subservient  to  their  masters.  An 
Englishman  who  was  tired  of  his  wife  might  publicly  sell  her  like  any 
domestic  animal,  provided,  however,  he  had  her  tacit  consent  to  the 

So  far  were  the  English  laws  from  allowing  that  a  married  woman  had 
any  will  of  her  own,  that  when  husband  and  wife  were  jointly  concerned 
in  the  commission  qf  any  crime,  the  husband  alone  was  liable  to  punish- 
ment. He  was  likewise  subjt'ct  to  arrests  and  prosecutions  for  the  debts 
and  misdemeanors  of  his  wife.     All  these  laws  encouraged  baneful  licenses. 












A.  D.  1800  TO  A.  D.   i900 





A.  I>.  1745-1S33. 


J+  +J 

^^ANNAH  MORK,  distinguished  for  her  talents  and  the  noble  manner 
K^/  in  which  she  exerted  them,  was  the  fourth  daughter  of  Jacob  More, 
a  schoolmaster.  She  was  born  in  Stapleton,  (}loucestershire,  Feb- 
ruary' 2,  1745,  and  died  in  Clifton,  September  7,  1833.  She  received  her 
education  at  a  seminary  kept  by  her  sisters  in  Bristol,  in  the  direction  of 
which  she  afterward  became  associated. 

At  the  age  of  sixteen  she  composed  a  pastoral  drama,  The  Search  After 
Happiness.  In  1774  appeared  her  tragedy  of  The  Inflexible  Captive,  and 
in  1775  two  legendary  poems.  .SV;-  Jildrcd  of  the  Bower,  and  The  Bleeding 
Rock.     Ciarrick,  the  great  actor,  brought  out  her  tragedy  of  Percy  in  1777. 

Abcnit  1779,  religious  imj)ressions  induced  Miss  More  to  cease  writing 
for  the  stage.  A  volume  of  Sacred  Dramas,  Florio,  a  satirical  tale, 
and  Relii^ion  of  the  Fashionable  World  were  among  her  next  productions. 
She  began  at  Bath,  in  1795,  a  nionthly  peri(xlical  called  the  Cheap  Reposi- 
tory, consisting  of  short  moral  tales  written  by  herself,  among  which  was  the 
Shepherd  of  Salisbmy  Plain.     The  work  attained  an  enormous  circulation. 

Miss  More  removed  to  Cheddant,  founded  there  several  schools,  and 
so(^n  extended  her  eliarilal)le  etTorts  for  the  education  of  the  poor  into  all 
the  surrounding  country.  After  the  appearance  of  her  Strictures  on  the 
Modern  .System  of  Female  Fducation,  in  1799,  she  was  invit(*d  to  draw  up  a 
plan  of  instru(  ti(»n  for  the  Princess  Charlotte  of  Waks,  and  prcKluced  Hints 
Toicard  Form  in  i^  the  Character  of  a  Youni^  Princess.  Cielebs  in  Search 
of  a  Wife,  lu  r  most  popular  work,  went  through  ten  editions  in  one  year. 
It  was  followed  i>y  /Practical  Piety,  Christian  Morals,  and  Modern  Sketches. 

In  1S2S  slie  r«niove(i  from  Barleywood  in  (iloucestershire,  where  she 
had  lived  tor  scxcial  years  with  her  sisters,  to  Clifton.  She  accumulated 
by  her  writings  about  5150,000,  one  third  of  which  she  be(|uealhed  for 
charitai)le  j)in])<)ses.  In  her  latter  days  the  severity  of  her  relij^ious  views 
intnxhiced  a  SMUnwhat  unner(.*ssary  gloom  into  her  life,  though  all  the 
powers  <.t  her  mind  were  devoted  to  the  solid  imj)rovement  of  s«>ciety. 



A.  I>.  17ff0-1848. 


eAROLINE  LUCRETIA  HERSCHEL,  sister  of  Sir  William  Her- 
schel,  was  born  in  Hanover,  Germany,  March  i6,  1750,  "and  died 
there,  January  9,  1848.  She  lived  in  Hanover  till  her  twenty-sec- 
ond year,  when  she  went  to  England  to  join  her  brother  William  at  Bath. 
Here  she  turned  her  attention  to  astronomy,  giving  great  assistance  to  her 
brother,  not  only  taking  the  part  of  an  amanuensis,  but  frequently  perform- 
ing alone  the  long  and  complicated  calculations  involved  in  the  observa- 
tions. For  her  valuable  assistance  to  the  great  astronomer  she  received  a 
pension  from  George  III. 

Miss  Herschel  took  many  separate  observations  of  the  heavens  with  a 
small  Newtonian  telescope  which  her  brother  had  made  for  her.  With  this 
she  devoted  herself  particularly  to  a  search  after  comets,  and  between 
1786  and  1805  discovered,  alone,  eight  of  these  bodies,  of  fiv^e  of  which 
she  was  the  first  observer.  Her  contributions  to  science,  most  of  them  in 
her  brother's  works  and  under  his  name,  are  very  valuable.  She  took  the 
original  obser\ations  of  several  remarkable  nebulae  in  her  brother's  cata- 
logue, and  computed  the  places  of  his  twenty-five  thousand  nebulae.  Hum- 
boldt speaks  of  a  still  unresolved  nebula  as  discovered  by  his  friend.  Miss 
Herschel.  In  1798  she  published  her  Catalogue  of  Stars,  taken  from  Mr. 
Flamsteed's  observations. 

After  her  brother's  death  she  returned  to  her  native  city  and  passed  the 
rest  of  her  days.  In  1828  she  completed  a  catalogue  of  the  nebulae  and 
stars  observed  by  her  brother,  for  which  she  received  a  gold  medal  from 
the  Astronomical  Society  of  London,  and  was  elected  an  honorary  member 
of  it. 

In  1847  she  celebrated  the  ninety-seventh  anniversary  of  her  birth, 
when  the  King  of  Hanover  sent  to  compliment  her  ;  the  Prince  and  Princess 
Royal  visited  her  ;  and  the  latter  presented  her  with  a  magnificent  armchair 
embroidered  by  herself ;  and  the  King  of  Prussia  sent  her  the  gold  medal 
awarded  for  the  *  *  extension  of  the  sciences. ' ' 



A.   ]>.  1756-1832. 


aANNAH  ADAMS,  one  of  the  earliest  female  writers  in  America,  the 
aiithorc^ss  of  a  \le7c of  Religious  Opiniojis,  a  History  of  Neiv  Eng- 
land,  and  a  History  of  the  Jncs,  was  born  at  Medfield,  near  Boston, 
in  1756,  and  died  at  Brookline,  Mass.,  November  15,  1832.  Her  father, 
who  kept  a  country  store,  was  a  man  of  literary  tastes,  and  rather  better 
educated  than  persons  of  his  class  usually  were  at  that  time.  She 
showed  at  an  early  age  a  fondness  for  study,  and  acquired  a  knowledge 
of  Greek  and  Latin  from  some  tlivinity  students  l:x:)arding  with  her  father. 
So  great  was  her  love  for  reading,  that  when  very  young  she  had  committed 
to  memory  much  of  Milton,  Pope,  Thomson,  Young,  and  several  other 

Her  father  failed  in  busint»ss  when  she  was  but  seventeen,  thus  obliging 
his  family  to  pro\'ide  for  themselves.  During  the  Revolutionary  war  she 
supported  herself  by  making  lace,  and  afterwards  by  teaching.  Her  first 
work  was  published  in  17S4,  and  met  a  ready  sale.  Her  History  of  Neu^ 
England  next  appeared,  in  1799,  and  was  .likewise  successful,  but  the  labor 
that  it  cost  seriously  inij)aired  her  health.  Her  writings,  though  ex- 
tensively read,  brought  her  very  little  pecuniary  profit  :  yet  they  secured 
her  many  friends,  some  of  them  persons  in  high  staticm,  among  whom 
President  Adams  and  the  Ablx*  Gregoire  may  be  enumerated. 

The  latter  part  of  her  life  she  passed  in  Boston,  in  the  midst  of  a  large 
circle  of  friends,  by  whom  she  was  warmly  esteemed  and  cherished  for  the 
singular  excellency,  j^urity,  and  simplicity  of  her  character.  During  the 
closing  years  <»f  her  life  she  enjoyed  an  annuity  provided  by  the  liberality 
of  some  admirers.  She  was  the  first  person  whose  remains  were  interred  in 
Mt.  Auburn  ( cnutery. 

Her  literary  work  showed  great  candor  and  liberality  of  mind  and  ex- 
tensive research  :  and.  although  they  were  popular,  yet  they  brought  her 
deserved  fame  which,  linked  with  her  gentleness  of  manners,  made  her  a 
loved  figure  in  our  early  literary  life. 



A.  D.  176«-18ffl. 


JOANNA  BAILLIE  was  born  in  Bothwell  Manse,  in  Lanarkshire,  Sep- 
tember II,  1762.  Her  father,  a  Presbyterian  minister,  in  1776  became 
professor  of  Divinity  in  Glasgow  ;  her  mother  was  the  sister  of  William 
and  John  Hunter.  She  received  a  superior  education,  and  soon  began  to 
manifest  those  talents  which  subsequently  excited  the  admiration  of  the 
public.  Her  career  was  a  singularly  happy  one,  but  devoid  of  all  striking 

In  1784  she  went  to  reside  in  London,  where  her  brother,  Matthew  Bail- 
lie,  had  established  himself  as  a  physician.  In  1806  she  and  her  sister  took 
a  house  for  themselves  at  Hampstead,  and  here  she  remained  until  her 
death,  which  occurred  on  February  23,  1851.  Agnes,  her  sister,  survived 
till  1 86 1,  being  then  a  hundred  years  old. 

No  authoress  ever  enjoyed  a  larger  share  than  Joanna  Baillie  of  the 
esteem  and  affection  of  her  literary  contemporaries.  All  vied  in  showing 
her  a  courteous  respect,  and  even  America  sent  its  votaries  to  her  little 
shrine  at  Hampstead.  Her  greatest  achievement  is  undoubtedly  the  nine 
Plays  on  the  Passio7is,  which,  though  erroneous  in  conception,  are  full  of 
noble  and  impressive  poetry,  and  often  characterized  by  intense  dramatic 
power.  The  principle  upon  which  Miss  Baillie  proceeded  in  the  construc- 
tion of  these  plays,  was,  like  Marlowe  and  George  Meredith,  to  take  a 
single  passion  as  the  subject  of  a  work,  and  to  exhibit  its  influence  on  an 
individual  supposed  to  be  actuated  by  nothing  else. 

The  most  popular  as  well  as  the  most  powerful  of  her  works  is  the 
tragedy  of  De  Monfort,  Her  Family  Legend,  produced  at  Edinburgh 
under  Scott's  auspices  in  18 10,  was  a  great  success. 

Many  of  Miss  Baillie' s  minor  pieces  are  very  sweet,  simple,  and  beauti- 
ful ;  and  are  marked  by  a  spriglitly  grace  of  versification,  and  a  playful 
serenity  of  spirit,  which  pleasantly  remind  one  of  the  author's  personal 
character.  She  was  under  the  middle  size  but  not  diminutive  ;  her  form 
was  slender,  and  her  countenance  showed  high  talent,  worth,  and  decision. 



A.  I>.  175S.1840. 


- ■»    »  '<»  - 

nrVRANCES  BURNEY  was  born  at  Lynn  Regis,  in  Norfolk,  England, 
-L  1752.  Her  mother  was  of  distant  F*rench  descent  and  died  when 
she  was  but  nine  years  old  ;  her  father  was  a  professor  of  music. 
Her  sisters  were  sent  to  school,  but  she,  as  she  tells  it  herself,  **  never  was 
placed  in  any  seminary,  and  never  was  put  under  any  governess  or  in- 
structor whatever. "  At  ten  years  of  age  she  had  taught  hei*self  to  read 
and  write,  and  became  an  incessant  scribbler  both  of  prose  and  verse,  and 
ardently  fond  of  reading. 

Six  years  after  his  wife's  death  her  father  married  again  ;  and  from  her 
fifteenth  year  onward,  I-^anny  lived  in  the  midst  of  an  exceptionally  brilliant 
social  circle,  which  included  the  chief  musicians,  actors,  and  literary  men  of 
the  day,  and  not  a  few  of  her  father's  aristocratic  patrons.  Her  father's 
drawing  room  was  in  fact  Fanny's  only  school,  and  not  a  bad  one. 

Her  first  published  novel,  Evtlina,  was  published  clandestinely,  and  had 
been  received  and  praised  everywhere  before  her  father  knew  of  the  event. 
Her  fame  sj)rea(l.  Johnson  had  declared  that  there  were  passages  in 
Evelina  which  might  tlo  honor  to  Richardst>n  :  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  could 
not  be  ])ersuaded  to  eat  until  he  had  finished  the  story  ;  and  Burke  had  sat 
up  all  night  to  read  it.  The  second  story,  Cecilia,  greatly  increased  her 

In  i7Sr>  Miss  Hurney  obtained  a  post  in  the  service  of  Queen  Charlotte, 
consort  of  ( ieoij^e  ill.,  and  seven  years  later  became  the  wife  of  NL  D'Ar- 
blay.  a  IVeiuh  ofiuer  of  artillery,  who  with  Madame  de  Stael,  Talleyrand, 
and  other  refugees,  lived  at  *' Juniper  Hall,"  Dorking.  Her  only  child, 
afterward  the  Rev.  A.  D'Arblay,  was  born  in  1794. 

Madame  D'Arblay  died  at  Bath,  1S40,  and  her  celebrated  ^wrwa/ rtwfl^ 
Letters  wtre  editt-d  by  her  niece  and  published  in  1842-6.  Her  memoirs, 
the  rambling  recollections  of  an  old  lady,  are  full  of  imperfections:  but  de- 
spite the>e  and  her  extraordinary  affections  of  style,  the  book  gained  con- 
siderable ])opularitv. 



A.  D.  1753-1891. 


^  LIZABETH  INCHBALD  was  the  daughter  of  John  Simpson,  a 
^^  farmer  of  Stanningfield,  near  Bury  St.  Kdmunds  in  Suffolk,  Eng- 
land, where  she  was  born  October  15,  1753.  When  sixteen  she 
secretly  left  her  family,  prompted  by  an  irrepressible  desire  to  visit  London  ; 
and  when  eighteen  she  accepted  a  theatrical  engagement.  After  escaping 
many  dangers  in  a  series  of  strange  adventures,  she  betook  herself  to  her 
relatives.  During  this  period  she  met  Joseph  Inchbald,  an  obscure  actor, 
whom  she  married  on  June  9,  1772. 

Having  now  adopted  the  stage  as  a  career,  she  went  to  Bristol,  where 
she  made  her  debut  as  Cordelia  on  September  4,  1772;  and  for  some  years 
she  played  in  provincial  theaters.  Her  husband  died  suddenly  in  1779, 
and  in  1780  she  appeared  in  London,  playing  Bellario  in  Philaster,  at 
Co  vent  Garden.  Here  she  remained  for  nine  years,  but  never  rose  beyond 
mediocrity,  an  impediment  in  her  speech,  which  was,  however,  supposed 
to  be  cured,  being  certainly  a  bar  to  her  progress. 

After  1789  she  devoted  herself  solely  to  literary  labors,  in  which  she 
found  her  true  vocation.  Her  earliest  efforts  were  plays,  her  first  being  The 
Mogul  Tale,  a  farce,  produced  in  1784.  She  wrote  or  adapted  nineteen 
plays,  her  best  being  the  comedies,  Such  Things  Are,  The  Midnight  Hour, 
and  The  Wedding  T>ar ;  the  hwccs,  A/>/>eara?iee  is  Against  Them,  a.nd  The 
U'idou'\9  Vo7c ;  and  her  adaptation  from  Kotzebue,  Lore's  Vows.  But 
her  fame  rests  not  upon  her  dramatic  work  so  much  as  upon  her  novels. 
A  Simple  Story  and  Nature  and  Art  rank  among  English  standard  novels. 

Mrs.  Inchbald,  who  was  a  Catholic,  became  very  devout  in  her  later 
years,  and  died  at  Kensington  House,  August  i,  1821.  One  who  knew 
her  well  thus  describes  her  personal  appearance  :  "  '  The  fair  muse,'  as  she 
was  often  termed,  was  above  the  middle  size,  rather  tall,  of  a  striking  figure, 
but  a  little  too  erect  and  stiff.  She  was  naturally  fair,  slightly  freckled,  and 
her  hair  was  of  an  auburn  hue.  Her  face  and  features  were  beautiful,  and 
her  countenance  was  full  of  spirit  and  sweetness. '  * 



A.  D.  17X5-1831. 


'  ARAH  SIDDONS  was  the  daughter  of  Roger  Kemble,  a  respectable 
manager  of  a  small  traveling  theatrical  company,  whose  circuit  was 
in  the  midland  and  western  parts  of  England.  Sarah  was  the  eld- 
est child,  and  was  born  at  Brecon,  July  5,  1755.  From  her  earliest  child- 
hood she  was  a  member  of  her  father's  company,  and  in  a  playbill,  dated 
February  12,  1767,  her  name  appears  in  the  production  of  Charles  the  Firsts 
assigneil  to  the  character  of  the  Princess  Elizabeth. 

When  only  seventeen  she  formeil  an  attachment  to  Mr.  Siddons,  who 
was  a  member  of  her  father's  company,  and  after  considerable  opposition 
from  her  parents,  she  was  married  to  him  on  November  26,  1773.  She  was 
shortly  afterward  recommended  to  (iarrick  by  the  Earl  of  Ailesbur>',  and 
the  result  was  an  engagement  at  Drury  Lane,  where  she  made  her  first 
appearance  in  the  character  of  Portia.  At  the  end  of  the  season  she  was  not 
re-engaged,  and  for  six  years  she  played  in  the  provinces,  making  her 
greatest  successes  in  York  and  Bath  :  but  her  reputation  grew  so  fast  that 
in  17S2  she  was  invited  to  return  to  Drury  Lane.  She  accepted  the  offer 
and  made  her  reaj)pearance  as  Isabella  in  The  Fatal  Marrianre,  Her  suc- 
cess was  immediate  and  permanent,  and  from  this  time  to  her  retirement 
she  was  the  inKinestinned  (jueen  of  the  stage.  After  her  retirement  from 
the  staj^e,  Mrs.  Siddons  gave  occasional  public  readings,  from  Shakespeare 
and  Milton.  She  died  on  June  S,  1831,  and  was  buried  in  Paddington 

As  an  aetros  Mrs.  Siddons  stands  unapproachetl,  so  far  as  can  be  judged 
from  recorded  criticism,  in  every  line  of  tragetly  —  her  pathos,  her  rage, 
her  despair,  her  >iitTering,  her  grief,  all  being  i)erfect  in  exprt^sion  and  con- 
vincing in  n.ilinalness.  Endowed  by  nature  with  a  gloriously  expressivv' 
and  beautiful  face,  a  (jueenly  figure,  and  a  voice  of  richest  power  and  flexi- 
bility, she  worked  as>iduou^ly  to  cultivate*  her  mental  and  physical  gifts 
until  she  rt'ac  lied  a  luiv^ht  <»f  i)erfecti(Mi  which  has  probably  never  l>een  sur- 
I)a>s((l  l»y  any  i)layer  «>t  any  age  or  country. 



A.  D.  1767-1849. 


^TTHIS  English  writer  was  the  daughter  of  Richard  Lovell  Edgeworth, 
®  I  fe  an  inventor  and  author.  She  was  born  in  Berkshire,  January  i, 
1767,  and  died  in  Edgeworthtown,  Ireland,  June  13,  1849.  She 
was  fifteen  years  of  age  when  her  father  succeeded  to  the  family  estate  in 
Ireland,  where  under  his  direction  she  pursued  her  studies,  formed  habits 
of  sharp  observation,  and  developed  that  cheerfulness  which  made  her 
always  beloved  in  society,  and  that  hope  and  confidence  which  are  requisite 
to  a  full  exertion  of  mental  powers.  Early  indicating  her  taste  for  literary 
pursuits  she  seems  never  to  have  wished  to  be  married  ;  and  as  it  had  been 
the  delight  of  her  father  to  assist  in  developing  her  talent,  she  in  return 
loved  to  remain  by  the  family  hearth,  gratifying  his  earnest  but  less  gifted 
mind  by  her  literary  successes,  and  repaying  in  his  old  age  those  attentions 
which  she  received  in  youth. 

The  series  of  her  novels  began  with  Castle  Rackrent,  and  continued 
without  interruption  till  1817,  during  which  period  there  appeared  from  her" 
pen,  Belinda^  Popular  Tales,  Leonora ,  Tales  of  Fashionable  Life,  Patron- 
age, Harrington,  and  Ormond.  The  aim  of  Miss  Edgeworth,  like  Joanna 
Baillie  in  her  dramas,  was  to  make  each  novel  an  elucidation  of  one  particu- 
lar passion  or  vice. 

On  the  death  of  her  father  in  18 17  her  career  of  authorship  was  for  a 
time  interrupted.  She  did  not  resume  her  works  of  fiction  till  she  had 
expressed  her  affection  for  him  by  completing  the  memoirs  which  he  had 
begun  of  his  own  life.  Not  until  1834  was  her  exquisite  story  of  Helen 
published  ;  and  her  literary  career  ended  with  the  child's  story  of  Orlandifio, 
which  appeared  in  1847.  With  the  exception  of  a  trip  to  the  continent  and 
a  short  residence  at  Clifton,  she  ])asscd  the  latter  years  of  her  life  at  Edge- 
worthtown, unspoiled  by  literary  fame,  loved  in  the  family  c  ircle  which 
daily  assembled  in  the  library,  and  admired  by  all  as  a  i)attern  of  an  intel- 
lectual and  amiable  woman. 

Among  the  most  ardent  admirers  of  her  novels  was  Sir  Walter  Scott 



A.  D.  1775-1817. 

<^i*e-j>^->«>  - 

JANE  AL'STEN  was  born  December  i6,  1775,  at  Steventon,   Hamp- 
shire, of  which  parish  her  father  was  the  rector.      Here  she  spent  the 
first  twcnty-f'ivc  years  of  her  peaceful  Hfe.     She  was  the  youngest  of 
seven  children,  among  whom  she  had  but  one  sister,  and  of  her  brothers 
two  ultimatriy  rose  to  the  rank  of  admiral  in  th<5  navy. 

Her  father,  who  used  to  augment  a  slender  income  by  taking  pupils, 
gave  her  a  better  education  tlian  was  common  for  girls  towards  the  close  of 
the  eighteenth  century.  Jane  learned  French  and  Italian,  and  had  good 
acquaintance  with  luiglish  literature,  her  favorite  authors  being  Richard- 
son, Johnson,  Cowper,  Crabbe,  and  later  Scott.  She  sang  a  few  old  ballads 
with  much  sweetness,  and  was  very  dexterous  with  her  needle.  In  her  life 
there  is  a  hint  of  an  affection  for  a  lover  who  died  suddenly. 

In  iSoi  she  went  with  her  family  to  Bath,  anil  after  her  father's  death, 
in  1H05,  removed  to  .Southampton,  and  finally,  in  1809,  to  Chawton  near 
Winchester.  .She  had  written  stories  from  her  childhood,  but  it  was  here 
that  she  first  gave  anything  to  llie  world.  Four  stories  were  published 
anonymously  during  her  lifetime  :  Smsr  and  Sensibility,  Pride  and 
Prejudice,  Mansfield  Park,  and  limma.  The  first  two  were  written  before 
the  gifted  anthoix-ss  was  more  llian  twenty -two  years  old. 

Marly  in  1S16  her  health  began  to  give  way.  In  May  of  1817  she 
resorted  f«)r  medical  ad\  ice  to  Winchester,  and  here  she  died  two  months 
later,  July  iS,  1S17.  She  was  buried  there  in  the  cathedral.  Xorfhan^er 
Abbey  and  PerMtasion  wrre  published  in  1S18,  when  the  authorship  of  the 
whole  six  was  fn>t  acknowledged. 

Jane  Auslt^ii's  novels  are  the  earliest  examples  of  the  so-called  domestic 
novel  in  Fui^land.  nor  within  their  own  limits  have  they  been  surpassed  or 
even  e(|ualetl  since.  Her  worltl  is  the  gentry  of  the  England  of  her  time, 
and  she  portrays  ii^.  exeryday  life  with  marvilous  truthfulness  of  insight. 
Her  characters  are  perfectly  distinct,  and  more  alive  to  us  than  many  of  the 
persons  among  whom  we  actually  live. 



A.  D.  1777-1849. 


T  brated  French  woman,  was  probably  the  most  beautiful  and  j^raceful 
^^  woman  of  her  day.  She  was  born  in  Lyons,  December  3,  1777,  and 
died  in  Paris,  May  11,  1849.  ^^^e  was  the  daughter  of  a  post  office  con- 
tractor named  Bernard,  and  in  April,  1793,  married  a  rich  banker  of  Paris 
many  years  older  than  herself.  By  the  brilliancy  of  her  conversation  and 
the  charm  of  her  person  and  manners  she  made  her  home  a  great  place  of 
resort  for  men  of  education  and  genius.  Under  the  rule  of  the  French 
directory  and  during  the  consulate  and  empire  her  house  was  constantly 
frequented  by  such  distinguished  personages  as  Lucien  Bonaparte,  Moreau, 
Bernadotte,  La  Harpe,  Benjamin  Constant,  and  David. 

The  salon  of  Madame  R^camier  took  on  a  form  of  opposition  to  the 
government,  by  and  by,  and  she  was  obliged  by  Napoleon  to  leave  Paris. 
She  resided  for  some  time  at  Lyons,  then  with  the  celebrated  Madame  de 
Stael  at  Coppet,  then  went  to  Italy,  and  did  not  enter  France  until  the  fall 
of  Napoleon,  when  she  returned  to  Paris  and  reopened  her  salon.  In  con- 
sequence of  a  reverse  of  fortune,  she  retired  in  18 19  to  the  Abbaye-aux-Bois 
near  Paris,  but  her  house  nevertheless  continued  to  be  the  resort  of  eminent 
men,  among  whom  was  Chateaubriand,  who  was  her  de\oted  admirer. 
Through  her  connection,  which  regarded  Madame  de  Stael  as  its  chief,  she 
exercised,  although  herself  producing  nothing,  a  considerable  influence 
upon  French  literature. 

For  some  years  before  her  death  she  became  blind,  an  affliction  which 
she  bore  with  the  most  gracious  serenity  ;  never  comj^laining  of  it  except  as 
it  prevented  her  attentions  to  her  friends.  Her  distinguishing  traits  were 
an  extreme  sweetness  of  disposition  and  tenderness  of  heart,  which  obtained 
her  the  affection  of  all  about  her.  It  should  be  noted  that  she  was  quite 
unspoiled  by  the  homage  that  was  paid  to  her  extraordinary  beauty  ;  beauty 
copied  by  painters,  and  perpetuated  by  Canova  in  marble. 



A.  I).  1778-1863. 


^)mP:RICANS  ha\ 
-^A-     Domestic  Life 

have  not  generally  loved  Mrs.  Trollope.  She  wrote 
Jfe  of  the  Americans  after  a  three  years'  residence  in 
the  United  States.  She  was  a  keen  obser\'er,  especially  of  faults, 
and  she  described  what  she  saw  in  a  most  caustic,  satirical,  and  sometimes 
vulgar  manner.  She  pictured  Americans  as  coarse,  selfish,  intemperate, 
affected,  indelicate,  and  generally  ridiculous.  The  descriptions  were  over- 
drawn and  were  a  hjtter  medicine  to  the  people  described,  while  they  af- 
forded  a  vast  fund  of  amusement  to  the  English.  America  was  then  young 
(1832)  and  probably  profited  by  Mrs.  Trollope's  satire,  even  though  it  was 

After  a  few  years  she  renewed  her  attack  on  America  in  The  Adventures 
of  Jonathan  Jefferson  Whitlaic.  This  was  well  founded  in  fact,  for  she  pic- 
tured the  miseries  of  the  colored  people  of  the  Southern  States.  The 
Dear  of  Wrexhi/i  is  counted  her  best  work.  Other  books  came  at  the 
rate  of  two  or  more  a  year.  She  wrote  A  Visit  to  Italy  in  n>uch  the  same 
caustic  style  kA  Iut  books  concerning  America,  but  people  had  too  much 
revert-nce  for  that  classical  coinitry  and  did  not  relish  her  ridicule,  as  they 
did  when  she  dealt  with  unclassical  and  upstart  America. 

She  at  Icni^th  proceeded  to  satirize  people  of  her  own  land  in  Margrave^ 
Jessie  Phillips,  and  The  Lanrinirfons.  The  first  deals  with  the  man  of 
fashion,  tin-  second  with  the  new  poor-laws,  and  the  third  with  the  **  su- 
perior peo|)le,"  the  "bustling  Hotherbys  "  of  society. 

One  e«^j)ecially  interesting  thing  about  the  life  of  Mrs.  Trollope  is  that" 
she  intered  njxm  literary  work  to  win  bread  when  she  was  over  fifty  years 
of  age.  Her  Inisband  was  a  lawyer  who  had  not  been  successful  and  was 
in  poor  health.  Tluy  had  six  children,  non<'  of  whom  could  add  to  the 
scant  income.  Mr>.  Trollope  took  to  writing,  gained  tinancial  success  with 
the  fust  \<.)linne.  and  continued  to  write  until  far  advance(l  in  years.  She 
was  the  moilur  of  Anthony  Trollope  and  Thomas  Adolphus  Trollope  who 
became  noted  authors. 



A.  D.  1776-18fiO:    1780-1882. 


^TTHEIR  father  was  an    Irish  officer,  who  died  when  they  were  quite 
1        young.     The  care  of  the  children  devolved  upon  the  mother,  who 
had  but  limited  means  for  their  support  and  education. 

Mrs.  Porter  removed  to  Edinburgh  for  the  education  of  her  children. 
Here,  Walter  Scott,  then  a  student  in  college,  became  a  fast  friend  of  the 
family,  and  often  entertained  the  little  girls  with  stories  of  *  *  witches  and 
warlocks.  * ' 

The  family  afterward  removed  to  Ireland  and  later  to  London,  chiefly 
for  educational  reasons. 

Miss  Jane  Porter  became  the  authoress  of  two  well  known  books,  Thad- 
deus  of  Warsaw  and  The  Scottish  Chiefs,  The  first  is  considered  the  better 
book.  The  Scottish  Chiefs  is  not  a  correct  representation  of  national  life 
and  manners.  The  patriot  William  Wallace  is  represented  as  too  much  of 
a  drawing-room  hero.  But  the  book  has  been  widely  read  and  is  full  of 
vivid  picturesqueness. 

Thaddeus  of  Warsaw  has  been  translated  into  several  foreign  languages 
and  gained  for  Miss  Porter  admission  as  lady  canoness  into  the  **  Teutonic 
Order  of  St.  Joachim." 

Miss  Anna  Porter  became  a  writer  at  the  age  of  twelve,  and  altogether 

•  produced  over  fifty  volumes.     Among  them  are.   The  Lakes  of  Killamey, 

A  Sailor's  Friendship  and  a  Soldier's  Love,   The  Hungaria7i  Brothers,  Don 

Sebastian,  Ballad  Romances  and  other  Poems,  and  The  Knight  of  St.  fohfi, 

the  latter  being  the  joint  work  of  the  sisters. 

Sir  Robert  Ker  Porter  was  their  brother,  about  one  year  older  than 
Jane.  He  was  an  artist  of  note,  whose  best  productions  were  battle  pieces. 
His  Storming  of  Seringapatam  was  a  painting  120  feet  long.  He  went  to 
Russia  in  1804  and  became  painter  to  the  czar. 

His  sister  Jane  spent  some  time  with  him  in  St.  Petersburg. 

We  here  give  honor  to  the  mother  for  the  careful  training  of  her  three 
fatherless  children,  who  attained  to  eminence  in  artistic  and  literary  lines. 



A.  D.  1780.1872. 


HE  was  the  daughter  of  Admiral  Sir  William  Fairfax.     When  about 
twenty-five  years  of  age  she  married  Samuel  Greig.     Three  years 
later  she  was  left  a  widow  with  two  sons,  but  with  a  considerable 

She  applied  herself  to  a  thorough  course  of  mathematics,  which  was  the 
foundation  of  her  careful  scientific  writing  in  later  years. 

After  completing  her  studies  she  married  her  cousin,  Dr.  William  Som- 
erville,  who  was  of  much  assistance  in  her  further  studies.  Dr.  Somerville 
was  inspector  of  the  army  medical  board  and,  aside  from  his  professional 
duties,  was  able  to  give  some  time  to  special  scientific  pursuits. 

Mrs.  Somerville  was  invited  by  Lord  Brougham  to  rewrite  in  a  popular 
form  The  Celestial  Mechafiis9ri  of  the  Heavens  by  Laplace.  This  was  re- 
ceived with  great  enthusiasm  and  gave  Mrs.  Somerville,  at  once,  a  reputa- 
tion as  a  scientific  writer. 

Later  she  wrote  Connection  of  the  Physical  Sciences,  Physical  Geography^ 
Microscopical  and  Molecular  Sciences, 

She  was  honored  with  membership  in  the  Royal  Astronomical  Society 
and  several  other  British  and  foreign  scientific  societies. 

She  thus  became  one  of  the  pioneers  of  this  century  in  scientific  stud- 
ic-s.  There  was  no  financial  necessity  for  her  becoming  a  writer.  She 
possessed  ample  means  and  might  have  been  a  woman  of  fashionable 
leisure,  but  she  chose  to  be  a  student  and  add  to  the  world's  treasure  of 

She  ga\  e  the  years  of  her  early  widowhood  to  studies  which  to  most 
minds  are  anything  but  attractive.  By  this  thorough  discipline  gained  by 
persistent  work,  she  made  a  place  and  a  name  for  herself  in  a  department 
of  literature  which,  in  the  first  part  of  our  century,  was  ornamented  with 
the  names  of  but  few  women. 

Much  of  the  popularity  of  her  writings  is  due  to  their  clear  and  crisp 
style,  and  the  iniderlying  enthusiasm  which  pervades  them. 



A.  D.  1786-1855. 


/JJI'NYONE  who  wishes  to  obtain  a  picture  of  English  rural  life  should 
^^^     read  the  works  of  Miss  Mitford.     It  is  said  that  she  obtained  her 
idea  of  this  kind  of   writing  from  Irving' s  Sketch  Book,  but  she 
showed  herself  a  pupil  to  do  honor  to  her  teacher. 

She  was  born  in  Alresford,  Hampshire,  England.  Her  father  was  a 
physician  and  at  one  time  possessed  considerable  wealth.  On  one  occasion 
he  won  $100,000  in  a  lottery,  which,  as  usual,  proved  a  great  misfortune, 
for  he  soon  squandered  that  and  all  else  that  he  possessed. 

When  twenty  years  of  age  Miss  Mitford  published  three  volumes  of 
poems,  somewhat  in  the  style  of  Sir  Walter  Scott.  These  met  with  a  fair 
degree  of  success,  but  she  was  not  satisfied  with  them,  and  for  several  years 
gave  herself  again  to  reading. 

The  financial  reverses  of  her  father  made  it  necessary  for  her  to  do 
something  to  win  bread  and  she  again  took  up  the  pen  to  support  both  her- 
self and  him.  As  we  read  her  charming  productions,  we  are  not  sorry  that 
she  was  obliged  to  resume  writing. 

Her  sketches,  Our  Viliafre^  were  not  ai)preciated  at  first  and  many  pub- 
lishers of  magazines  refused  them.  They  at  length  found  a  place  in  one  of 
the  minor  periodicals  and  after  a  time  the  public  began  to  relish  the  fresh- 
ness and  exquisite  finish  of  her  sketches  and  they  were  put  forth  in  book 
form.  She  loved  nature  and  helped  others  to  do  the  same.  Her  readers 
had  looked  at  things  before,  now  they  saw  them. 

Miss  Mitford  wrote  several  other  works,  Country  Stories.  Edinburgh 
Talcs,  and  several  dramas,  among  them  Ricnzi.  Also  Recollections  of  Lit- 
erary Life  in  three  volumes.  But  Our  Village  always  held  the  first  place, 
and  the  obscure  hamlet  became  a  place  of  resort.  People  came  to  searcii 
out  the  nooks  and  corners  and  haunts  and  copses  so  charmingly  described. 
One  writer  asks,  "Who  ever  threw  aside  a  sketch  of  hers  half  read?" 
Another,  "We  cannot  conceive  of  her  rural  delineation  ever  becoming 
obsolete  or  uninteresting.'* 



A.  D.  1787-1870. 



WHO    ON    THIS   SPOT    ESTABLISHED,    A.    D.    182I,   THE    FIRST    PERMANENT    SEMINARY    IN 

FRIENDS,    A.    D.    1895. 


So  reads  the  inscription  of  the  statue  at  "  Sage  Hall,"  Troy,  N.  Y. 

This  pioneer  educator  of  women  was  born  in  Berlin,  Connecticut.  She 
was  one  of  seventeen  of  her  father's  children  and  one  of  ten  which  her  own 
mother  had  borne  him.  Hers  was  a  struggle  for  an  education  and  to  a 
remarkable  degree  she  was  self-taught.  We  see  her  a  girl  of  fourteen  ris- 
ing at  four  o'clock  of  a  winter  morning  to  study  the  stars.  She  taught  the 
village  school  at  an  early  age  and  was  at  the  same  time  pursuing  advanced 
studies,  fitting  herself  for  larger  fields. 

At  twenty  years  of  age  she  was  called  to  important  positions  in  three 
different  states.  She  went  to  Middlebury,  V't. ,  where  she  took  charge  of 
the  academy.  Two  years  afterward  she  married  Dr.  John  Willard.  For  a 
few  years  she  gave  up  teaching,  but  owing  to  financial  losses  she  again 
resumed  it.  Had  Dr.  Willard  been  financially  prosperous  the  world  might 
have  been  deprived  of  a  noted  educator.  She  opened  a  boarding  school 
for  girls  and  was  at  the  same  time  planning  for  something  more  extensive. 
She  determined  to  secure  for  young  women  the  same  collegiate  advantages 
that  young  nun  enjoyed.  Like  all  pioneers  she  was  alone  and  found  little 
sympathy  and  less  aid. 

In  iSiS  slu'  sent  to  (iov.  Clinton  of  New  York  a  plan  for  a  female 
seminary.  The  governor  reconmiended  the  plan  to  the  Legislature.  The 
equal  rights  of  women  in  education  were  then  for  the  first  time  advocated 
in  legislati\e  halls.  A  female  academy  was  incorporated  and  located  at 
Waterford.      It  was  afterwards  removed  to  Troy. 

The  Troy  l\inalc  Seminary  has  been  the  educational  home  of  six  thou- 
sand young  wonun.  It  was  also  the  parent  institution  from  which  sprang 
our  seminaries  and  colleges  for  the  education  of  women. 




A.  D.  1789-1826. 


ISS    HASSELTINE  became  the  wife  of   the   pioneer   missionary, 

Adoniram  Judson,  and  with  him  sailed  for  Calcutta  in  1812.     They 

were  ordered  by  the  East  India  Company  to  quit  the  country,  as 

the   Company  was   bitterly  opposed    to    missionary   effort.      They  finally 

settled  in  Rangoon,  Burmah. 

In  1824,  there  being  war  between  the  Burmese  and  the  British,  Dr. 
Judson  and  some  others  were  made  prisoners  at  Ava,  the  capital  of  the 
Burman  empire,  and  for  two  years  endured  untold  sufferings.  Mrs.  Judson 
was  not  made  a  prisoner  and  was  permitted  to  visit  her  husband  and  the 
others,  as  they  were  in  chains,  and  as  far  as  her  means  would  allow,  min- 
ister to  them.  Their  lives  were  thus  saved,  though  we  marvel  that  they 

In  addition  to  these  horrors  her  children  had  smallpox  and  she  was 
obliged  to  care  for  them  as  well  as  look  after  the  prisoners.  She  wore  out 
her  precious  life  for  the  saving  of  others,  and  in  1826  died.  She  will  ever 
be  known  as  one  of  the  heroines  of  missionary  history. 

We  give  in  part  the  testimony  of  one  of  the  English  prisoners  : 
**  While  we  were  all  left  by  the  government  destitute  of  food,  she  with 
unswerving  perseverance,  by  some  means  or  other,  obtained  for  us  a 
supply.  When  the  unfeeling  avarice  of  our  keepers  confined  us  inside 
or  made  our  feet  fast  in  the  stocks,  she,  like  a  ministering  angel,  never 
ceased  her  applications  to  the  government,  until  she  secured  some  relief  to 
our  galling  oppression.*' 

When  we  remember  that  she  lived  two  miles  from  the  prison,  was  her- 
self in  poor  health  and  without  any  means  of  conveyance,  our  hearts  are 
moved  with  deep  reverence  for  this  noble  and  devoted  woman. 

For  the  great  work  afterwards  accomplished  by  Dr.  Judson,  the  world 
and  the  church  are  greatly  indebted  to  Ann  Hasseltine  Judson.  who  was  the 
first  American  woman  to  leave  her  home  and  become  a  martyr  to  the  mis- 
sionary cause  on  the  foreign  field. 



A.  T>.  1TR0.1867. 


MISS  SED(;WICK'S  father.  Theodore,  was  at  the  time  of  his  death' 
one  of  the  judges  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Massachusetts. 

Stockbridge,  Massachusetts,  was  the  place  of  her  birth.  Her 
first  book  was  entitled  A  Nnv  England  Life.  She  intended  it  for  a 
religious  tract,  but  it  grew  upon  her  until  it  became  a  book.  The  book 
was  both  praised  and  censured.  As  a  literary  production  in  clear,  vigorous 
style,  it  was  well-nigh  perfect,  but  many  considered  it  too  severe  a  picture 
of  New  Kngland  Puritanism. 

Her  next  book  Redwood  was  a  great  success,  being  republished  in  Eng- 
land and  translated  into  French  and  Italian,  German  and  Swedbh.  She 
now  ranked  among  the  very  best  of  women  writers  of  America. 

Her  Red'a'ood  somewhat  resembled  the  works  of  Cooper  and  in  the 
French  version  was  attributed  to  him.  She  was  a  keen  observer  and  her 
works  will  be  of  permanent  value  as  pictures  of  New  England  in  the  first 
half  of  this  century. 

She  wrote  also  The  Traveler,  If  ope  Leslie,  or  Early  Times  in  Jfassa- 
ehnsetts  ( which  is  one  of  her  best ),  The  Poor  Rieh  A  fan  and  The  Rieji  Pour 
Man,  Live  and  Let  Live,  Means  or  finds,  or  Self  Training,  Morals  and 

Hut  Miss  Sedgwick  was  an  educator  as  well  as  a  writer.  She  took  the 
management  <>f  a  private  school  for  young  ladies  soon  after  the  death  of 
her  father  and  continued  that  work  along  with  her  literary  pursuits  for  fifty 

In  the  inidsl  of  her  arlivilies  she  spent  one  year  in  Europe  and  described 
her  travels  in  Letters  from  Abroad  to  Kindred  at  Home,  which  was  published 
in  two  volnnus.  To  \\\v  descriptions  of  people,  places,  and  customs  in 
Euro|)<'  she  brought  the  same  masterly  ability  that  is  seen  in  her  books 
about  thinjL^s  Anieri('an. 

She  was  horn  Heeember  2.S,  17H9,  and  died  n«ar  Roxbury,  Massachu- 
setts. July  31.   1X67. 



A.  U.  1703-1835. 



'(T>ELICIA  DOROTHEA  HEMANS  was  born  at  Liverpool,  September 
I^        25,  1793.      Her  father,  George  Browne,  was  a  Liverpool  merchant 
of  Irish  extraction  ;  her  mother,  whose  maiden  name  was  Wagner, 
was  of  mixed  Italian  and  German  descent. 

Felicia  was  distinguished  by  her  beauty  and  precocity,  and  at  an  early 
age  she  manifested  a  taste  for  poetry,  in  which  she  was  encouraged  by  her 
mother.  Family  reverses  led  to  the  removal  of  the  Brownes  to  Wales, 
where  the  young  poetess  imbibed  a  strong  passion  for  nature,  read  books 
of  chronicles  and  romance,  and  gained  a  working  knowledge  of  the  German, 
Italian,  Spanish,  and  Portuguese  languages.  She  also  cultivated  her  excel- 
lent musical  taste. 

Her  first  volume  was  published  in  1808,  when  she  was  only  fifteen  years 
of  age,  and  contained  a  few  pieces  written  about  four  years  earlier  ;  her 
second,  entitled  The  Domestic  Affections y  appeared  in  181 2.  In  the  same 
year  she  married  Captain  Hemans  of  the  4th  regiment,  who  settled  in  Italy 
in  1 8 18.  After  this  time  they  never  met  again  ;  their  marriage  was  under- 
stood not  to  have  been  happy.  Mrs.  Hemans,  though  in  poor  health,  now 
devoted  herself  to  the  education  of  her  children,  to  reading  and  writing, 
and  spent  the  rest  of  her  life  in  North  Wales,  Lancashire,  and  latterly  at 
Dublin,  where  she  died  May  16,  1835. 

Her  principal  works  are,  The  Vespers  of  Palernio,  a  tragedy  which 
proved  a  failure  when  acted  at  Co  vent  Garden  ;  The  Siege  of  \  aieucia. 
The  Forest  Sanctuary^  The  Songs  of  the  Affections,  Hymns  for  Childhood y 
and  Scenes  and  Hymns  of  Life. 

Mrs.  Hemans,  without  great  originality  or  force,  is  yet  sweet,  natural, 
and  pleasing.  But  she  was  too  fluent,  and  wrote  much  and  hastily  ;  her 
lyrics  are  her  best  productions  ;  her  more  ambitious  poems,  esj)ecially  her 
tragedies,  being  in  fact  quite  insipid.  Still  she  was  a  woman  of  true  genius, 
and  some  of  her  poems  are  perfect  in  pathos  and  sentiment,  and  will  live  as 
long  as  the  English  language. 


t^dian.STgoumey.    '         "Trederika Breme"^ 


A.  D.  1701-1865. 


KORWICH^nd  Hartford,  Connecticut,  are  respectively  the  places  of  her 
birth  and  death.     As  a  child  she  was  precocious  in  acquiring  knowl- 
edge, and  studied  at  Hartford  and  Norwich  schools.     In  both  cities 
she  established  and  conducted  select  schools  for  young  ladies  as  early  as  1814. 

In  18 1 5  she  published  a  volume,  Moral  Pieces  in  Prose  and  Verse ^  and 
from  that  time  she  became  one  of  the  most  popular  American  poets. 

She  wrote  extensively  in  many  departments  of  thought,  but  all  her 
works  had  a  distinctly  moral  and  religious  tone.  In  her  Letters  of  Life 
which  was  published  after  her  death,  she  mentioned  forty-six  separate  works 
which  she  had  produced,  besides  two  thousand  articles  contributed  to  three 
hundred  periodicals. 

In  charitable  and  philanthropic  work  she  was  always  active,  giving  not 
only  largely  of  her  means,  but  also  devoting  much  of  her  time  and  energy 
to  the  cause  of  humanity.  Her  interest  in  education,  also,  continued  un- 
abated throughout  her  entire  life.  So  the  world  is  interested  to  know  that 
she  was  not  a  mere  poetic  dreamer,  sitting  apart  from  a  suffering  world. 

We  mention  a  few  of  her  works  :  Trails  of  the  Aborigines  of  America ^ 
Sketch  of  Connecticut  Forty  Years  Since,  Letters  to  Young  Ladies  (which 
had  a  run  of  twenty  American  and  h\Q  English  editions).  Letters  to  Mothers, 
Past  Meridian. 

In  1840,  Mrs.  Sigourney  visited  Europe,  and  two  volumes  of  her  verses 
were  issued  in  London. 

She  married  a  Hartford  merchant,  Charles  Sigourney,  in  her  twenty- 
eighth  year  and  with  him  led  a  life  of  ideal  domesticity. 

Mrs.  Sigourney  was  sometimes  accused  of  being  an  imitator  of  Mrs. 
Hemans,  but  we  doubt  whether  the  imitation  was  deliberate  or  conscious. 
With  similarity  of  taste  and  sym{)athy  it  is  not  surprising  that  tliere  should 
be  a  similarity  of  tliought  and  expression  ;  the  feeling  of  religious  devotion 
and  moral  elevation  is  a  common  heritage,  and  often  finds  expression 
through  different  persons  in  like  symbolism. 



A.  I>.  1 793-1 8S8. 


>o;H-W-^r8«-      -    -   ■ 

T   pUCRETIA  COFFIN  was  born  in   the  island  of  Naptucket  of  noble 
^V      Quaker  stock.     She  taught  school    at    fifteen.      At   eighteen   she 
married  James  Mott,  and  this  married  life  has  been  spoken  of  as 
one  of  the  most  perfect  the  world  has  ever  seen. 

In  1818  she  became  a  minister  of  the  Hicksite  Quakers.  Her  marked 
intellectual  ability,  sweetness  of  face  and  disposition,  and  great  heartedness 
won  for  her  marked  success.  But  she  was  first  and  always  a  frugal,  pains- 
taking wife,  mother,  and  homemaker,  "one  of  the  rarest  examples  of 
womanhood  America  has  yet  produced." 

We  quote  from  Mrs.  Mott's  words  concerning  herself.  "  My  sympathy 
was  early  enlisted  for  the  poor  slaves.  The  ministry  of  Elias  Hicks  and 
others  on  the  subject  of  the  unrequited  labor  of  slaves,  and  their  example 
in  refusing  the  products  of  slave  labor,  all  had  the  effect  of  awaking  a 
strong  feeling  in  their  behalf." 

' '  The  oppression  of  the  working  classes  by  existing  monopolies  and  the 
lowness  of  wages,  often  engaged  my  attention  and  I  had  a  great  desire  for 
a  radical  change  in  the  system,  which  made  the  rich  richer,  and  the  poor 

'*  The  temperance  reform  early  engaged  my  attention  ....  and 
the  cause  of  peace  had  a  share  of  my  efforts. ' ' 

In  1833  she  helped  form  the  Anti-slavery  Society  of  Philadelphia.  In 
1840  she  was  sent  with  other  women  as  a  delegate  to  the  World's  Anti- 
slavery  Convention  in  London.  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Cady  Stanton  was  one  of 
the  number.  The  women  delegates  were  rejected  because  they  were  wo- 
men. This  greatly  exasperated  them  and  Mrs.  Mott  and  Mrs.  Stanton 
determined  on  calling  a  woman's  rights  convention  upon  their  return  to 
America,  which  they  did. 

Lucretia  Mott,  the  sweet  Quakeress,  reformer,  philanthropist,  a  woman 
of  modesty  and  courage,  gentleness  and  force,  with  a  clear  brain  and  a 
great  heart,  wrought  quietly  but  mightily  for  God  and  humanity. 



A.  I>.  1796-1874. 


MISS  STRICKLAND  occupied  a  field  almost  all  her  own  ;    viz,y  the 
writing  of  tlie  lives  of  royalty  and  especially  the  female  rulers. 

She  began  writing  historical  romances  in  verse  form,  something 
after  the  manner  of  Sir  Walter  Scott.       Worcester  Field  is  one  of  them. 

She  next  turned  to  the  writing  of  prose  histories,  especially  adapting 
them  to  the  young.  Here  she  gained  the  quality  of  being,  first  of  all,  inter- 
estiug.  Pilgrims  of  liaising  ham  and  Tales  and  Stories  from  History  belong 
to  this  period. 

The  next  step  was  out  into  her  own  field.  Her  reputation  was  estab- 
lished by  the  first  book  in  the  line  of  royal  biography,  The  Lives  of  the 
Queens  of  England,  the  list  extending  from  Matilda  of  Flanders  to  Queen 
Anne.  In  this  work  as  in  some  others  she  was  assisted  by  her  sister 

Agnes  was  a  strong  partisan  for  royalty  and  the  Church,  and  yet  she 
does  not  seem  to  have  allowed  her  sympathies  to  warp  her  judgment. 

Her  pictures  of  manners  and  customs  are  a  valual)le  contribution  to  our 
literature.  She  edited  the  Letters  of  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  and  as  she  was 
a  firm  believer  in  the  innocence  of  the  cjueen,  she  ardently  championed  her 
cause.  Later  she  wrote  Lizes  of  the  Queens  of  Scotland,  /.ires  of  the  Bach- 
elor  Kiui^s  of  Lngland,  Lizes  of  S^zrn  /^isho/>s,  and  /.ires  of  the  Last  Lour 
Stuart  /^rincesscs.  Part  of  this  period  was  employed  in  producing  an 
abridged  version  of  her  Queens  of  /uigland. 

Toward  the  dose  «)f  her  life  she  received  a  civil  list  pension  of  one  hun- 
dred ])onnds  in  recot^nition  of  her  merits. 

In  this  book  about  women,  Agnes  Strickland  certainly  deserves  a  place 
for  having  so  industriously  written  about  royal  women,  placing  it  in  a  read- 
able form  f»»r  coniiiiiLi  generations. 

It  is  interestini;  to  observe  that  the  first  two  stages  of  her  literary 
work  were  <»t  almost  unconscious  preparation  for  her  distinguishing 



A.   D.  1797-1840. 


lyi  T.   HOLYOKE  COLLEGE  is  her  monument. 

J[^^  She  was  born  at  Buckland,  Mass.  Her  parents  were  of  sturdy 
New  England  stock.  The  death  of  the  father  when  Mary  was 
quite  young  left  the  family  in  straitened  circumstances.  She  had  a  nat- 
ural thirst  for  knowledge,  but  there  seemed  little  prospect  of  gratifying  that 
thirst.  However,  she  toiled  and  studied  so  diligently  that  at  the  age  of 
eighteen  she  obtained  a  position  as  teacher  at  Shelburne  Falls  —  salary' 
seventy-five  cents  per  week. 

She  was,  after  a  time,  enabled  to  attend  the  Ashfield  Academy,  where 
she  is  said  to  have  studied  twenty  hours  a  day,  and  soon  stood  at  the  head 
of  her  class.  Subsequently  Miss  Lyon  attended  the  school  of  Rev.  Joseph 
Emerson  of  By  field,  and  was  afterwards,  for  three  years,  assistant  principal 
of  the  Ashfield  Academy,  the  first  time  the  position  had  been  held  by  a 

For  ten  years  she  was  an  instructor  in  the  academy  for  girls  at  Derry, 
N.  H.  Here,  in  1824,  six  young  women  were  given  diplomas  on  the  com- 
pletion of  a  three  years  course  ;  the  first  instance  in  the  history  of  edu- 

But  she  had  higher  aims,  namely,  the  founding  of  an  institution  where 
young  women  might  be  trained  for  highest  usefulness.  Her  aims  were  con- 
sidered visionary,  her  motives  were  misunderstood,  and  she  was  subjected 
to  ridicule.  Knowing  she  was  right,  she  persevered  and  in  1836  the 
governor  signed  the  charter  incorporating  Mt.  Holyoke  Seminary.  Then 
came  the  securing  of  funds,  a  most  discouraging  task,  but  she  was 
victorious.  Nearly  two  hundred  students  were  refused  the  first  year  and 
four  hundred  the  second  year,  for  want  of  room. 

On  the  marble  above  her  grave  is  this  sentence,  which  she  uttered 
shortly  before  her  death  in  a  talk  to  her  students  :  ' '  There  is  nothing  in 
the  universe  that  I  fear,  but  that  I  shall  not  know  my  duty,  or  shall  fail 
to  do  it." 



A.  D.  1T97-I8e0. 



^T  S  a  writer  on  matters  of  <irt  aiul  taste  Mrs.  Jameson  probably  sur- 
t^K  passed  all  other  woman  writers  and  on  the  literature  of  art  she  is* 
conceded  by  many  to  stand  next  to  Ruskin.  She  possessed  an  in- 
tense love  of  the  beautiful,  a  cultivated  and  discriminating  taste,  and  her 
breadth  of*  knowledj^e  was  almost  phenomenal.  Added  to  these  were  her 
natural  and  cultivated  powers  of  eloquent  description. 

In  quantity  her  writings  were  as  surpassing  as  in  quality,  and  the  former 
does  not  seem  to  have  impaired  the  latter. 

Here  again,  i)irth  and  early  training  had  a  marked  influence.  Her 
father,  Mr.  Murphy,  was  painter  to  the  Princess  Charlotte  (daughter  of 
Cieorge  I\'.,  who  married  Prince  Leopold,  afterward  King  of  Belgium)  and 
by  him  her  inborn  artistic  tastes  were  trained  with  great  care. 

She  became  the  wife  of  Mr.  Jameson,  who  received  a  government  ap- 
pointment to  Canada.  The  marriage  was  not  a  happy  one  and  they  lived 
apart.  After  traveling  extensi\ely  in  Kurope,  she  devoted  herself  to 
literary  work,  at  first  chiefly  in  biographical  lines  and  relating  specially  to 
women,  /.oirs  of  the  Pods  is  a  series  of  sketches  showing  the  influence  of 
women  on  poetic  minds.  Lizrs  of  Celebrated  Female  Smrreij^fis  needs  no 
explanation.  Chafaefen'sties  of  /(c^;;/<7/ deals  with  the  female  characters  of 
.Shakespeare's  plays.  She  also  prepared  a  work  on  Beauties  of  the  Court 
of  Charles  //. 

In  artistic  lines  her  work  began  with  translating  a  (icrman  work  on  the 
life  and  genius  of  Rul)ens.  She  was  now  discovering  her  special  forte. 
Next  came  A  Ifandhook  to  the  London  Art  (lallcrics,  and  a  Companion  to 
the  Private  Calleries  of  Art  in  London. 

This  (l(\(l<»pnient  is  interesting.  Having  begun  with  writing  bio- 
graphical sketth<s  and  then  having  taken  up  descri[)tions  of  great  works 
of  art,  she  combined  the  two  and  wrote  Memoirs  of  the  Early  Italian 
Painters  and  of  the  Proj^ress  of  Paint ini^  in  Italy.  Then  came  Memoirs 
and    Essays.   an<l    Sacred  and  Legendary  Art. 



A.  D.  1901-1865. 


(TTVREDRIKA  was  born  in  Finland,  but  when  that  country  was  annexed 
-L  to  Russia,  her  father,  a  wealthy  merchant,  removed  to  Sweden  with 
his  family.  The  daughter's  education  received  careful  attention. 
After  enjoying  th6  best  advantages  Sweden  could  afford  she  was  sent  to 
Paris  and  on  her  return  became  a  teacher  in  an  academy  for  girls  in 
Stockholm.  She  was  a  person  of  great  mental  vigor  and  her  intense  nature 
began  to  express  itself  in  writing  —  merely  as  an  outlet  for  her  pent-up 
feelings  —  before  she  entered  her  teens. 

Her  first  novel,  The  Neighbors,  was  translated  into  German,  French, 
Dutch,  Russian,  and  English.  This  gives  us  an  idea  of  the  popularity  of 
the  work.  Some  of  her  other  books  are.  The  Home,  Life  in  Dalecarlia, 
The  Midnight  Sun,  The  Homes  of  the  Neuf  World  (an  account  of  her 
observations  in  America),  England  in  i8^r  (giving  views  of  the  coun- 
try and  people  as  she  saw  them  during  a  residence  there).  Most  of  her 
novels  present  pictures  of  home  life  in  her  own  Scandinavia. 

As  a  woman  and  a  writer  she  was  greatly  beloved  in  many  lands. 

"  She  has  brought  the  dim  old  Scandinavian  world,  that  seemed  com- 
pletely hidden  by  the  cloud  of  fable  and  curtain  of  time  from  the  western 
hemisphere,  before  us,  with  an  enchanter's  wand.  Her  little  white  hand 
has  gently  led  us  up  among  primeval  mountains  covered  witli  eternal  forests 
of  pine,  and  along  the  banks  of  deep  lakes,  where  the  blue  waters  have 
slept  since  the  creation.  She  has  done  more,  she  has  led  us  'over  the 
threshold  of  the  Swede,'  introduced  us  into  the  sanctuary  of  their  cheerful 
homes  and  made  us  friends  with  her  friends." 

After  the  death  of  her  father,  in  1830,  she  lived  for  some  years  in 
Norway  with  a  friend,  after  whose  death  she  resolved  to  gratify  a  long- 
repressed  desire  to  travel.  In  autumn  of  1849  she  set  out  for  America,  and 
after  spending  nearly  two  years  here  returned  through  England.  The 
admirable  translations  of  her  works  by  Mary  Howitt  secured  for  her  a  warm 
and  kindly  reception  in  both  America  and  England. 



A.  D.  1802-1876. 


'py'ER  ancestors  were  French  and  moved  to  England  upon  the  revocation  of 
j^M      the  Edict  of  Nantes.     Her  education  was  as  thorough  as  the  times 

®  afforded  for  women.  Hers  was  a  strong  character.  While  she  had 
earnestness,  courage,  and  sincerity,  she  was  self-willed,  self-opinionated,  and 
self-conscious.  She  says  of  herself  in  her  autobiography,  that  she  was  pos- 
sessed of  a  temper  '*  downright  devilish  *'  and  had  a  '*  capacity  for  jealousy 
which  was  something  frightful,"  at  the  age  of  four  years. 

She  was  the  sixth  child  in  a  household  of  eight.  It  was  a  busy,  hard- 
working family.  She  was  early  afflicted  with  deafness,  which  increased  with 
years  and  her  mind  was  much  shut  in. 

She  found  it  necessary  to  do  something  which  could  be  performed  apart 
from  others,  and  turned  to  study,  which  became  a  passion.  Her  father  lost 
his  property  and  all  were  obliged  to  do  something,  not  merely  for  an  occu- 
pation but  for  a  livelihood. 

1825-26  was  a  time  of  speculations,  collapses,  and  crashes.  The  bitter 
experiences  of  her  family  influenced  her  literary  career.  In  this  school  of 
experience  she  learned  to  write  on  the  burning  questions  of  State,  and 
especially  political  economy.  Her  experiences  and  vehement  disposition 
made  these  works  mightily  trenchant. 

Eminent  statesmen  asked  her  to  write  on  almost  ever\'  conceivable  topic 
connected  witli  legislation.  Lord  Brougham  offered  to  collect  evidence  for 
her  Scn'rs  on  the  Poor  Laics  and  place  it  at  her  disposal.  The  Series  was 
successful  beyond  her  dreams.  She  tells  her  experience  of  a  visit  into  the 
outer  air  for  the  t'lrst  thorough  holiday  taken  for  nearly  three  years. 

She  came  to  the  I'nited  States  on  her  completion  of  her  Rji owlish  Politi- 
cal  Talcs.  ICverywhere  she  was  graciously  received,  though  her  strong 
anti-slavery  utterances  detracted  from  her  pc^pularity  in  some  places.  But 
this  is  to  her  honor. 

She  was  impatient  of  applause  and  cared  only  to  speak  the  truth  with 
the  greatest  possible  force. 



A.  D.  1802-1887. 


ONE  of  the  most  wonderful  women  of  this  or  any  other  century.  A 
frail  and  overworked  body,  a  gentle,  loving  disposition,  butwitKa 
will  like  steel,  such  was  Dorothea  Dix.  She  worked  against  apathy 
and  other  fearful  odds  and  she  never  failed  but  once. 

She  had  no  childhood,  for  the  support  and  education  of  two  younger 
brothers  devolved  upon  her.  She  opened  a  school  for  girls  in  Boston  to 
support  herself  and  family.  While  burdened  with  the  care  of  the  school 
she  became  interested  in  ameliorating  the  condition  of  the  state  convicts. 

In  1833  she  was  prostrated  by  hemorrhages  of  the  lungs,  due  to  over- 
work. She  visited  Europe  and  returned  after  a  few  years  much  improved 
and  ready  for  new  undertakings  in  behalf  of  paupers,  prisoners,  and  luna- 

She  taught  a  Sunday  School  class  in  the  East  Cambridge  House  of 
Correction.  She  then  visited  the  jail  and  found  some  insane  persons  con- 
fined in  unheated  rooms.  In  order  to  correct  the  abuse  she  was  obliged  to 
bring  the  matter  into  court. 

Her  soul  was  so  stirred  at  the  abuses  she  discovered  elsewhere  that  she 
visited  every  jail  and  almshouse  in  the  state,  giving  careful  study  to  the 
condition  of  the  insane. 

Armed  with  a  terrible  array  of  facts,  she  petitioned  the  legislature  "  in 
behalf  of  the  insane  paupers  confined  within  the  Commonwealth  in  cages, 
closets,  cellars,  stalls,  pens  ;  chained,  naked,  beaten  with  rods,  and  lashed 
into  obedience." 

She  was  successful  in  Massachusetts,  the  abuses  were  to  a  large  extent 
corrected.  This  encouraged  her  to  undertake  reform  in  otlier  states.  New 
Jersey  was  her  next  field,  where  by  careful  investigation  and  wise  presenta- 
tion she  won  victories  for  the  insane  and  criminals. 

Her  record  of  less  than  four  years'  work  was  that  of  eighteen  states 
prisons,  three  hundred  county  jails  and  houses  of  correction,  and  more 
than  five  hundred  almshouses  visited  and  investigated.     Everywhere  she 



A.  U.  1806-1804. 


^  HIS  gifted  singer  appeared  on  the  stage  at  Frankfort  when  but  five 
Vi  ^  years  of  age.  She  received  the  most  careful  training  and  appeared 
T  in  both  Cierman  and  Italian  music.  At  the  age  of  twenty-five  she 
easily  outshone  all  other  operatic  stars  of  her  own  land. 

When  at  the  height  of  her  career  she  married  Count  Rossi,  an  Italian 
noble,  and  retired  to  private  life.  Her  husband  was  Ambassador  of  Sardinia 
at  the  Hague  at  the  time  of  her  marriage. 

During  her  retirement  she  was  noted  for  her  princely  charities  and  was 
a  great  favorite  at  court. 

Pecuniary  re\erses  and  embarrassments  came  and  she  returned  to  her 

Jenny  Lind  had  achieved  great  success  in  America  and  Henriette  decided 
to  visit  these  shores.  She  was  enthusiastically  received,  and  made  a  tour 
of  the  United  States  and  Mexico.  In  the  midst  of  her  triumphs  in  Mexico 
she  was  attacked  by  the  cholera  and  died. 

Uorotliti'M   I-.  IJix  continued. 

met  sights  which  were  sickening  and  horrible,  but,  though  weak  in  body 
and  at  times  sick,  she  bravely  toiled  on. 

Miss  Dix  visited  Halifax  and  Toronto,  wrought  reform  in  Scotland, 
visited  hospitals  in  Norway,  Holland,  Italy,  Russia,  and  (irecce.  She 
awakened  the  slumbering  moral  sense  of  the  people,  and  the  treatment  of 
tlie  inmates  of  asylums  and  |)risons  was  revolutionized. 

At  the  outbreak  of  iht-  civil  war  in  America  she  gave  herself  to  the 
work  of  nursing  in  th<-  army  and  was  made  chief  of  army  nurses.  It  was 
she  who  warn<(l  President-elect  Lincoln  of  his  danger  on  the  way  to  Wash- 
ington. Slu  (lied  at  Trenton  Asylum  after  five  years  of  suffering.  The  asylum 
was  offered  lur  as  a  rttreat  and  she  lovingly  called  it  her  "  firstborn  child." 
*'  On  no  oth<  r  |)aj4c  of  tin-  annals  of  purely  merciful  reform  can  be  read  such 
a  series  of  moral  triumphs  over  apathy,  ignorance,  and  cruel  neglect." 



A.  D.  1802-1880. 


KV  ER  father,  David  Francis,  was  a  baker  in  Medford,  Mass.     Miss  Fran- 

(q\     ^^^  showed  a  marked  craving  for  books  when  quite  young. 

Her  first  novel,  Hobomok,  was  occasioned  by  an  article  in  the 
North  American  Review  in  which  the  writer  enthusiastically  set  forth  the 
adaptation  of  early  New  England  history  to  the  purposes  of  fiction.  She 
had  never  written  for  the  press,  but  the  thought  seized  her  and  she  wrote 
the  first  chapter  of  her  novel  the  same  day.  In  six  weeks  the  story  was 
finished  and  upon  being  published  was  so  well  received  that  she  wrote  next 
year  The  Rebels ;  oi\  Boston  Before  the  Revolution. 

She  next  opened  a  private  school  in  Watertown,  Mass. ,  and  about  the 
same  time  %X.7\x\^A  Juvenile  Miscellany,  a  children's  magazine. 

When  twenty-six  years  of  age  she  married  David  Lee  Child,  a  Boston 
lawyer.  She  wrote  The  Mother  s  Book,  The  GirV  s  Own  Book,  The  His- 
tory of  Women,  and  Biographies  of  Good  Wives. 

She  was  now  happily  married,  enjoyed  a  generous  income,  and  was  sur- 
rounded by  friends  of  high  social  standing.  But  a  change  came  because  of 
herself  and  husband  becoming  identified  with  the  anti-slavery  movement. 
The  sale  of  her  books  fell  off,  subscriptions  to  her  magazine  were  withdrawn, 
and  the  homes  of  many  former  friends  were  no  longer  open  to  her. 

But  she  had  taken  her  position  as  a  matter  of  conscience  and  no  loss  of 
friends,  fame,  or  fortune  could  cause  her  to  turn  back.  She  wrote  and  pub- 
lished Ayi  Appeal  on  Behalf  of  that  Class  of  Americans  Called  Africaris. 
From  a  quiet  and  remunerative  literary  life  she  was  thus  thrust  into  the 
midst  of  a  fierce  fight. 

In  1844  Mr.  and  Mrs.,  Child  removed  to  New  York  and  became  joint 
editors  of  The  Anti-Slavery  Standard.  Mr.  Child's  health  was  poor  and 
much  of  the  time  the  wife  worked  on  bravely  and  ahiiost  alone.  One  of 
her  biographers  has  said,  "No  man  or  woman  of  that  period  rendered 
more  substantial  service  to  the  cause  of  freedom  or  made  such  a  great 
renunciation  to  do  it.' 



(••OEORQE   SAND"). 
A.  D.  1804-1876. 


rHIS  woman  became  the  most  celebrated  French  writer  of  her  age  in 
the  department  of  fiction.      But  her  genius  and  celebrity  cannot 
hHnd  our  eyes  to  this,  that  she  lived  in  the  most  pronounced  con- 
tempt for  morality  and  purity,  was  mother  of  two  illegitimate  children,  and 
denounced  the  whole  system  of  marriage. 

Her  father,  Maurice  Dupin,  died  when  she  was  but  four  years  of  age  and 
she  was  left  to  the  care  of  hrr  grandmother,  the  Countess  de  Hover,  who 
was  the  illegitimate  daughter  of  the  famous  Marshal  Saxe,  who  in  turn  was 
the  illegitimate  son  of  Augustus  II.,  king  of  Poland  ;  so,  while  there  was 
royal  blood  in  her  veins,  there  was  little  occasion  to  boast  of  it. 

After  spending  her  early  years  with  her  grandmother,  she  piissed  three 
years  in  a  convent,  where  she  became  so  zealous  that  her  teacher  even 
remonstrated  with  her.     There  then  came  a  reaction  with  great  despondency. 

At  eighteen  she  married  M.  Dudevant,  an  officer  in  the  French  army,  a 
man  of  modest  fortune  and  good  character  but  not  brilliant.  They  lived 
together  lor  nine  years  in  matrimonial  misery,  when  she  fled  to  the  society 
of  a  lover.      While  li\  iiii^  with  him,  she  wrote  her  first  novel,  hidiana. 

Having  h  tl  her  h)\ cr,  she  went  to  Paris  and  wrote  for  a  livelihocKi. 
.She  threw  oft  all  woni.nily  restraints  and  assumed  the  dress  of  a  man. 

Her  novels,  uhieli  appeared  in  the  Rcvm  dts  Ihux  Mondts,  proved 
popular.  Her  Lvlia  (it  aled  a  sensation  by  its  advocacy  of  infidelity  and 
social  (lis<»r<ler. 

.She  wrote  in  all  about  >i.\ly  novels  and  twenty  plays,  h'or  more  than 
a  (juarter  of  a  ctnlury  slie  continued  year  by  year  to  gladden  the  world  by 
some  n«\v  rreatiMii. 

'•  She  has  stayed  in  many  camps,  and  lent  her  |)en  to  many  causes,  she 
has  had  many  friends  anrl  many  loxers,  but  to  one  cause  only  has  she 
remained  <  on>taiU  -the  cause  of  human  progress;  and  the  only  master  in 
whose  service  she  has  ne\er  wearie<l  is  Art." 



A.  D.  1809-1861. 


yj^HE  highest  place  among  modern  poetesses  belongs  to  Mrs.  Browning, 
V  ^     and  she  far  outranks  most  of  our  modern  poets.    Her  pure  and  lofty 
T        sentiment  and  intellectual  power  are  inferior  only  to  Tennyson. 

She  was  born  in  London  and  was  from  infancy  a  delicate  child.  She  was 
naturally  retiring  and  loved  solitude.  At  fifteen  she  sustained  an  injury  of 
the  spine  which  further  weakened  her  physical  powers.  Being  deprived  of 
the  usual  pursuits  and  pleasures  of  young  people  she  gave  herself  to  study 
and  began  to  write.  She  could  see  little  of  the  world  and  so  she  found  or 
made  a  world  of  her  own. 

In  1839  she  burst  a  blood  vessel  of  the  lungs  and  was  removed  to  a 
milder  climate.  Soon  afterwards  her  favorite  brother,  with  two  other  young 
men,  was  drowned  while  sailing.  These  physical  and  mental  shocks  so 
weakened  her  that  for  years  she  lived  in  a  darkened  room,  visited  only  by 
her  family  and  a  few  intimate  friends.  Vet  from  that  fairy  hand  came  works 
of  power  which  made  the  world  marvel.  She  settled  down  to  her  lot  with 
sweet  resignation,  in  no  wise  questioning  her  Master's  goodness  and  love. 

Then  came  a  change.  Robert  Browning  had  already  won  for  himself  a 
name.  He  had  learned  to  love  the  invalid  poetess  through  her  works  and 
sought  her  in  marriage,  to  the  amazement  of  her  family  and  friends.  He 
believed  that  she  need  not  be  an  invalid  all  her  days.  Love  could  win  her 
to  health  she  had  never  known. 

They  were  married  and  spent  four  years  in  Trance  and  Italy.  When 
they  returned  to  England  Mrs.  Browning  was  a  new  creature.  Hope, 
Love,  and  Italy  had  wrought  marvels.  Theirs  was  as  perfect  a  union  as 
the  world  often  sees.  Each  had  poetic  brilliancy  and  power.  Each  had  a 
marked  individuality.      Each  was  the  complement  of  the  other. 

Mrs.  Browning  possessed  the  unusual  combination  of  a  masculine  under- 
standing and  a  thoroughly  feminine  heart.  She  could  treat  social  problems 
in  a  masterly  way  and  at  the  same  time  she  could  set  forth  the  tenderest, 
deepest  sentiments  of  woman's  heart. 



A.  D.  1810-1850. 


§ER  father,  Timothy  Fuller,  gave  much  personal  attention  to  her  edu- 
cation.    She  proved  a  remarkable  scholar,  for  at  six  years  of  age 
she  could  read  Latin  and  at  eight  read  extensively  in  Shakespeare, 
Cervantes,  and  Moliere.     Being  much  by  herself  she  became  melancholy 
and  reserved  and  was  given  to  freaks  of  passion. 

She  studied  at  Ciroton,  Mass. ,  where  her  eccentricities  were  a  trial  to 
her  teachers  and  friends.  I'pon  her  return  home  she  began  an  extensive 
course  of  studies,  mastering  the  German  and  the  chief  authors  in  that 

In  1840  she  became  editor  of  the  Dial,  a  quarterly  journal.  Ralph 
Waldo  Elmerson  was  one  of  her  associates  in  the  work.  Woman  in  the 
Nincteerith  Century,  written  by  Miss  Fuller  for  this  journal,  was  afterward 
issued  in  lx)ok  form. 

In  1S44  she  became  connected  with  the  New  York  Tribune.  Her  time 
was  chiefly  given  to  reviews  which  were  subsetiuently  issued  as  a  volume 
entitled  Papers  on  Art  and  Literature. 

In  1847,  having  taken  up  her  residence  in  Rome,  she  became  the  wife  of 
a  Roman  nobleman,  the  Marcjnis  Giovanni  Angelo  Ossoli.  During  the  two 
following  years  she  saw  stirring  times  in  the  "eternal  city."  In  1848 
occurred  the  revolution  and  in  1849  the  city  was  besieged  by  the  F*rench. 
She  rendered  good  service  as  directress  of  one  of  the  hospitals. 

In  1850  hhe  set  her  face  toward  her  native  land,  accompanied  by  her 
husband  and  little  son.  The  voyage  had  a  tragic  ending.  The  barque  was 
driven  ashore  on  Fire  Inland  beach.  While  the  vessel  was  going  to  pieces, 
Margaret  sang  little  Angelo  to  sleep  and  her  husband  calmed  the  passen- 
gers by  |)rayer.  .After  twelv<-  hours  of  suspense,  some  of  the  passengers 
were  sa\ed,  but  ()ssoli,  wife,  and  child  perished. 

Hers  was  a  strong  character,  a  marked  indi\  iduality.  Her  struggle  and 
solitary  habits  made  her  less  winsome  than  some  other  writers,  but  her 
works  form  a  substantial  contribution  to  American  literature. 



A.  D.  1810-1865. 


'^  ER  great  work  was  Mary  Barton  ;  a  Tale  of  Manchester  Life,  The 
^J  book  was  to  the  factory  people  of  England  what  Uncle  Toni  s  CcU>in 
became  to  the  colored  race  in  America.  She  was  among  the  first  to 
get  at  the  heart  of  the  great  multitude  of  factory  operatives.  Her  portrayal 
is  pathetic  and  even  painful,  but  she  had  to  deal  with  a  painful  subject, 
and  she  was  true  to  life  in  her  descriptions.  Hard  times,  political  agitation, 
and  strikes  —  all  the  great  questions  as  between  labor  and  capital  are 
brought  out  in  this  book,  which  appeared  in  1848.  The  labor  question  is 
not  a  new  one.  Mrs.  Gaskell  was  a  pioneer  novelist  in  this  line.  We  can- 
not do  better  than  to  allow  her  to  speak  for  herself.  Note  the  sympathetic 
heart  and  the  keen  observation  in  the  following  :  — 

**  I  had  always  felt  a  deep  sympathy  with  the  careworn  men  who  looked 
as  if  doomed  to  struggle  through  their  lives  in  strange  alternations  between 
work  and  want.  A  little  manifestation  of  this  sympathy,  and  a  little  atten- 
tion to  the  expression  of  feelings  on  the  part  of  some  of  the  work  people, 
had  laid  open  to  me  the  hearts  of  the  more  thoughtful  among  them.  I  saw 
that  they  were  sore  and  irritable  against  the  rich.  Whether  the  bitter  com- 
plaints made  were  well  founded  or  no,  it  is  not  for  me  to  judge.  It  is 
enough  to  say  that  this  belief  of  the  injustice  and  unkindness  which  they 
endure  from  iheir  fellow  creatures,  taints  what  might  he  resignation  to 
God's  will  and  turns  it  to  revenge  in  too  many  <»f  the  poor  uneducated 
factory  workers  of   Manchester." 

Mrs.  Gaskell's  husband  was  a  I'nitarian  clergyman  of  Mancliester. 

Her  other  works  were,  in  j)art,  Moorland  Cottaj^c,  Xort/i  and  South, 
Right  at  Last,  Wives  and  Damrhters.  Tlic  tme  that  attracted  greatest  at- 
tention was  The  Life  of  Charlotte  Bronte.  This  was  charmingly  written 
and  furnishes  many  interesting  incidents  and  details  of  the  private  life  of 
Miss  Bronte,  as  the  two  women  were  close  pers(^)nal  friends. 

In  her  novels  she  occasionally  introduces  the  Lancashire  dialect  with 
great  effectiveness.  As  a  portray er  of  the  lights  and  shades  of  artisan  life, 
Mrs.  Gaskell  has  few  equals. 



(MRS.   F»ARTON). 
A.  D.  1811 -ISTS. 


'ARA  PAYSON  WILLIS  was  born  in  Portland,  Me.  In  1817  the 
family  removed  to  Boston,  where  her  father,  Nathaniel  Willis,  be- 
came editor  of  the  Boston  Recorder  and  founder  of  The  Youth's 
Companion.  Mrs.  Willis,  the  mother,  was  a  superior  woman,  and  of  her 
the  daughter  said,  '*  All  my  brother's  poetry,  all  the  capacity  for  writing, 
be  it  little  or  much,  which  I  possess,  came  from  her." 

Miss  Willis  was  educated  at  the  school  of  Miss  Catherine  Beecher  in 
Hartford.  Miss  Harriet  Beecher,  afterwards  Mrs.  Stowe,  was  one  of  the 
teachers.  During  this  time,  her  brother,  Nathaniel  P.  W^illis,  a  student 
in  Yale,  began  to  attract  attention  as  an  author. 

She  married  Charles  H.  Eldredge,  cashier  of  the  Merchants'  National 
Bank  of  Boston,  and  lived  in  ease  and  comfort.  Three  daughters  were 
born  to  them.  But  sorrow  came.  xMr.  Eldredge  and  the  eldest  daughter 
died  and  Mrs.  Eldredge  was  obliged  to  gain  a  livelihood  for  herself  and  her 
two  remaining  girls. 

She  wrote  an  essay  for  publication,  but  several  publishers  refused  it% 
At  last  one  accepted  it  and  gave  her,  as  remuneration,  fifty  cents.  Though 
the  outlook  was  dark  she  persisted  and  after  a  few  months  journals  were 
glad  to  get  her  writings  at  her  own  price. 

A  collection  of  her  sketches  was  published  in  1853  under  the  title  of 
Feni  Leaves,  the  sale  of  which  reached  seventy  thousand  in  a  short  time. 

In  1856  she  married  James  Parton'  the  author. 

Mr.  Bonner  of  the  New  'S'ork  Ledirer,  recognizing  the  popularity  of  her 
writings,  engaged  her  to  write  an  article  each  week  for  his  journal.  This 
she  continuid  to  do  without  interruption  for  fourteen  years. 

Mrs.  Parton  was  always  a  sympathetic  interpreter  of  childhood  and 
girlhood.  .She  was  bright,  witty,  original,  and  frank.  She  hated  cant, 
pomp,  aflectation,  and  snobbery.  She  was  a  stout  champion  of  the  poor, 
the  distressed,  and  toil-worn. 



A.  D.  1812-1896. 


MRS.  STOWE  wrote  many  books,  but  by  one  book  she  is  best  known, 
her  Uncle  Tom  s  Cabin.  Probably  no  book  except  the  Bible  has 
had  so  wide  a  sale.  More  than  500,000  copies  were  sold  in  this 
country  in  ^\^  years.  It  has  been  translated  into  nearly  every  language  of 
Europe  and  into  some  Asiatic  languages.  The  sale  outside  the  United 
States  has  probably  reached  half  a  million. 

Harriet  was  the  daughter  of  Rev.  Lyman  Beecher  and  was  born  in 
Litchfield,  Conn.  Scott's  Ballads  and  Arabian  Nights  were  her  favorite 
books  when  but  a  child  and  no  doubt  these  had  much  to  do  with  the  culti- 
vation of  her  imagination. 

At  the  age  of  fifteen  she  became  assistant  to  her  sister  Catherine  in  the 
female  seminary  at  Hartford  and  continued  teaching  until  the  time  of  her 
marriage  to  Prof.  Calvin  E.  Stowe. 

Professor  Stowe  was  one  of  the  faculty  of  Lane  Theological  Seminary  at 
Cincinnati,  Ohio,  of  which  Dr.  Beecher  had  become  president. 

The  slavery  question  was  at  the  front,  and  the  '*  underground  railroad" 
was  making  it  possible  for  many  i)oor  slaves  to  escape  to  Canada. 

Professor  Stowe' s  house  was  one  of  the  "stations"  and  Mrs.  Stowe' s 
acquaintance  with  the  fugitives  served  as  fuel  for  the  fire  which  years 
afterwards  blazed  out  in  Lhicle  Toin  s  Cabin. 

The  slavery  question  was  hotly  debated  by  the  students  in  the  seminary, 
until  the  trustees  forbade  its  discussion  and  scores  of  students  left.  Soon 
after  the  passage  of  "  The  Fugitive  SIa\^  Law,"  Professor  Stowe  was  called 
to  Bowdoin  College,  Brunswick,  Me.,  and  it  was  there  that  Mrs.  Stowe 
wrote  her  famous  book. 

It  appeared  first  as  a  serial  in  The  National  Era,  then  in  book  form  ; 
and  presses  were  kept  running  day  and  night  to  meet  the  demand. 

Prince  Albert,  Earl  of  Shaftesbury,  Macaulay,  Dickens,  and  Kingsley 
received  gift  copies  and  each  wrote  a  letter  of  deep  sympathy  and  praise.  • 

When  Mrs.  Stowe  visited  Europe  the  next  year,  people  vied  with  each 



A.  D.  1814-1873. 

- — -  .^•^i^)i^-i«# —      

§ER  husband,  Theador  Mundt,  was  for  some  years  a  teacher  in  the 
University  of  Berlin,  and  afterward  became  professor  of  general 
history  and  literature  in  Breslau,  and  then  became  director  of  the 
library  of  the  Berlin  University.  In  politics  he  was  a  liberalist  and  often 
gave  offense.  For  many  years  he  was  an  invalid,  but  the  income  from  the 
works  written  by  his  wife  enabled  them  to  live  in  comfort. 

UiKler  the  pseudonym  of  "  Luise  Muhlbach,"  Mrs.  Mundt  produced 
more  than  fifty  novels,  and  her  works  comprise  about  one  hundred  volumes. 
She  was  a  pronounced  advocate  of  woman's  suffrage  and  other  radical 
changes  in  the  status  of  woman.  In  politics,  she  was,  like  her  husband,  an 
extreme  liberalist  and  actively  participated  in  several  reform  movements. 

Her  fame  rests  chiefly  upon  her  historical  romances.  In  this  field  she 
wielded  a  ready  pen.  Most  of  these  works  are  as  well  known  in  England 
and  America  as  in  (iermany.  Among  the  best  known  are  :  Frederick  the 
Ci  rent  and  His  Court,  Joseph  II.  and  His  Court,  The  Merchant  of  Berlin ^ 
Louisa  of  Prussia  and  Her  Times,  Marie  Antoinette  and  Her  Son, 
Napoleon  and  the  Queen  of  Prussia,  Queen  Hortense,  The  limpress  Jose- 
phine, (ioethe  and  Schiller,  Mohammed  Ali  and  His  House^  also  The 
Thirty    )'rars     War,  and  limperor    William. 

Hrr  works  brouj^ht  her  a  fortune  which  was  well  earned  and  she  was 
enabled  to  build  a  handsome  residence  in  Berlin,  which  became  the  meeting 
place  of  littrary  and  social  leaders. 

Htirriet  M».'c'ol  it.'r  Stowe  continued. 

other  to  do  her  honor,  and  more  than  half  a  million  women  signed  a  memo- 
rial addressed  to  lu-r. 

Mrs.  Stowr  w  rotr  many  other  books.  We  name  a  few.  The  Minis- 
ter s  Wooiui:;,  Pearl  of  Orr  s  Island,  Oldto7cn  P^olks,  My  Wife  and  I,  We 
and  Our  Xeit^hbors,  Footsteps  of  the  Master,  Bible  Heroines,  and  Key  to 
Uncle  Tom\s  Calu'fi. 



A.  I>.  1816-1876. 


WHEN  she  was  but  twelve  years  of  age  her  father  became  bankrupt 
and  it  was  necessary  for  her  to  contribute  to  the  family  sup- 
port. She  possessed  a  contralto  voice  of  unusual  quality  and 
power.  For  some  time  she  sang  in  church  choirs,  and  when  Mrs.  Wood 
came  to  Boston  in  search  for  a  contralto  voice  she  selected  Miss  Cushman.- 
After  singing  in  the  Tremont  Theater  she  went  to  New  Orleans  to  sing  in 
an  opera  there,  but  her  voice  failed,  partly  through  the  change  of  climate 
and  partly  through  seeking  to  transform  her  voice  into  a  soprano. 

This  proved  a  crisis  in  her  life.  She  was  without  funds  and  must  earn 
her  living.  She  had  previously  shown  some  dramatic  talent  and  was  asked 
to  take  the  part  of  Lady  Macbeth.  This  she  did  with  great  success  in  the 
principal  New  Orleans  theater. 

Her  next  experience  was  in  New  York.  She  accepted  a  three  years 
engagement  at  the  Bowery  Theater.  She  was  without  wardrobe,  but  the 
manager  procured  this,  arranging  to  deduct  five  dollars  a  week  from  her 
wages.  Her  mother  was  keeping  a  boarding  house  in  Boston.  She  in- 
duced her  to  come  to  New  York,  bringing  the  two  sons.  For  the  elder, 
Charlotte  secured  employment.     So  the  household  was  together  again. 

But  another  calamity  came.  She  was  prostrated  for  several  weeks  with 
rheumatic  fever  and  soon  after  she  recovered  the  theater  was  burned,  her 
wardrobe  was  destroyed,  and  her  three  years  engagement  was  at  an  end. 
Not  discouraged  she  went  to  Albany  and  had  excellent  success. 

When  she  was  but  twenty-six  she  took  the  management  of  a  theater 
in  Philadelphia  and  at  the  same  time  acted  leading  parts. 

A  few  years  later  she  went  to  Europe  and  won  success  in  London.  She 
summoned  her  family  to  her  and  they  lived  happily  in  a  cottage  at  Bays- 
water.  Her  sister  Susan  studied  with  her.  Charlotte  and  Susan  appeared 
as  *' Romeo  and  Juliet"  at  the  Haymarket  Theater.  When  she  returned 
to  America  she  had  won  a  distinguished  place  in  the  dramatic  world  and  was 
soon  the  possessor  of  a  comfortable  fortune. 



A.  D.  1816-185ff. 


MLSS  BRONTE  is  bv^st  known  by  her  novel  Jane  Eyre,  Some  of  the 
sufferings  depicted  in  the  book  are  records  of  her  own  experiences. 
The  life  of  Miss  Bronte  is  of  deep  and  pathetic  interest. 

Her  father  was  a  poor  Mnjjflish  clergyman,  eccentric  and  unlovely. 
Charlotte  was  born  at  Hartshead,  near  Leeds,  but  the  family  subsecjuently 
moved  tt)  Haworlh.  The  parsonaj^c*  was  "  bleak  and  uncomfortable,  alow, 
oblonj«;  stone  building  standinj^  at  the  top  of  the  stragg^ling  village  on  a  steep 
hill,  without  the  slielter  of  a  tree,  with  the  churchyard  pressing  down  on  it 
on  both  sides,  and  behind,  a  long  tract  of  wild  moors.'' 

By  the  father's  direction  the  children  were  fed  on  vegetable  diet  and 
clothed  in  coarse  clothes  to  make  them  hardy  and  prevent  their  becoming 
proud.  They  wen*  far  from  hardy  :  on  the  ccmtrary,  they  were  small,  fee- 
ble, antl  stunted  in  growtii.  The  mother  died  when  they  were  all  young, 
and  the  children  were  mostly  left  to  themselves. 

Four  of  the  j^irls  were  sent  away  to  school,  Charlotte  among  them. 
The  food  wa^  poor  and  insufficient  and  they  were  treated  with  inhuman 
severity.  * '  .Miss  S(  ratchhard ' "  in  Jauc  I\yrc  is  a  reprotluction  of  the  manager 
of  tin-  school.  .\  lexer  broke  out  and  the  girls  returned  home,  but  two  of 
them  dietl  a^  a  result  of  the  treatment  and  the  sickness  contracted  at  the 

When  nineteen  ye.irs  of  ai^e,  C^harlotte  became  a  teache; ,  but  owing  to 
|)oor  health  sju-  was  nbljotd  to  i^i\c  it  up.  She  next  look  a  situation  as  a 
governes>.  but  the  people  treated  her  harshly  and  this  was  abandoned. 

.She  <leternuue<l  to  establish  a  private  scho()l  with  her  sisters  Kmily  and 
Anne.  Charlotte  and  Lmilv  went  to  Brussels  to  fit  themselves.  At  the 
end  of  six  month-^  they  wen*  employed  in  the  school  they  were  attending, 
but  at  a  pitilnlly  small  salary. 

On  their  return  they  att<in|)ted  to  gather  pupils,  but  none  came.  They 
next  tried  literary  work  ;  in  fact.  th<*y  had  written  much  from  childhood  up. 



They  issued  a  volume  of  poems  but  it  met  with  little  success.  Their  next 
venture  was  in  prose  tales.  The  productions  were,  The  Professor,  by 
Charlotte;  Wuthering  Heights,  by  Emily;  and  Agnes  Grey  hy  Anne. 
Each  wrote  under  an  assumed  name.  While  those  of  Emily  and  Anne 
were  accepted,  Charlotte's  was  everywhere  rejected  and  was  not  published 
until  after  her  death. 

In  the  face  of  all  this  failure  and  discouragement,  Charlotte  proceeded 
to  write  y^w^  ZTv/'^.  It  met  with  immediate  and  immense  success.  Few 
works  of  an  unknown  author  have  been  received  with  such  sudden  and 
general  acclamation.  It  was  translated  into  most  of  the  languages  of 
Europe,  and  was  put  on  the  stage  in  England  and  Germany  under  the 
title  of  The  Orphan  of  Lowood.  She  next  wrote  Shir/eyyhuX.  it  was  much 
inferior  to  Jane  Eyre,  Her  third  novel  was  Viiiette,  which  is  a  picture  of 
life  as  she  saw  it  in  Brussels.  This  proved  exceedingly  popular.  It  pro- 
ceeded slowly  to  completion  as  the  result  of  long  interruptions  from  failing 

Her  works  became  a  passport  to  the  highest  literary  circles  of  London 
and  the  continent,  and  she  met  most  of  the  prominent  writers  of  the 
time.  But  she  was  of  a  retiring  and  sensitive  disposition,  largely  the  result 
of  a  sad  childhood,  so  that  notoriety  and  attention  were  a  source  of  pain 
and  she  returned  to  her  home 

Rev.  Arthur  Nicholls,  who  was  her  father's  curate,  desired  to  marry 
her,  but  the  father  objected.  She  was  now  past  thirty-four  years  of  age, 
and  Mr.  Nicholls  resigned.  In  the  year  following  the  father  changed  his 
mind  and  they  were  married. 

For  less  than  one  year  she  knew  the  happiness  of  true  home  life,  though 
they  lived  in  the  bleak  old  parsonage.  But  her  health,  like  that  of  her 
sisters,  had  been  poor  for  many  years  and  she  soon  followed  them.  Early 
hardships  had  left  a  physical  blight  on  each  of  them.  Her  death  occurred 
March  31,  1855. 

After  her  death  her  rejected  tale,  The  Professor,  was  published.  She 
had  what  Goethe  calls  the  true  secret  of  poetic  genius. 



A.  D.  1818-1893. 


.}e;/-5-w*ib<-         ----- 

@N  a  rocky  farm  in  West  Brookfield,  Mass.,  Lucy  Stone  was  bom. 
She  was  the  eighth  child.  The  mother  milked  eight  cows  the  night 
before  Lucy  was  born.  When  it  was  known  that  the  babe  was  a 
girl  the  mother  exclaimed,  "Oh  dear!  I  am  so  sorry  it  is  a  girl.  A 
woman's  life  is  so  hard.'*  But  Lucy's  life  was  devoted  to  making  woman's 
life  easier. 

Her  own  lot  was  one  of  toil  from  childhood.  She  had  to  perform  the 
usual  duties  of  a  farmer's  daughter,  but  all  the  time  she  was  thinking  and 
questioning.  Her  soul  rebelled  at  the  unequal  lot  of  woman  in  point  of 
education  and  wages. 

Her  two  brothers  were  helped  to  go  to  college.  Lucy  desired  to  do  the 
same.  Her  father  exclaimed,  **Is  the  child  crazy?**  To  her  he  said, 
"  Your  mother  only  learned  to  read,  write,  and  cipher  ;  if  that  was  enough 
for  her  it  should  be  enough  for  you.'* 

This  did  not  discourage  her,  it  only  gave  her  a  grim  determination  to 
win  the  way.  She  7cou/d  i^^o  to  college.  She  picked  berries  and  laid  by 
the  money  earned  in  the  h<^t  sini.  She  gathered  chestnuts  and  with  the 
money  boujL^ht  books.  She  was  able  after  a  time  to  teach  school,  at  first 
for  one  dollar  per  week.  When  at  last  she  earned  sixteen  dollars  per 
month,  it  was  thouji^ht  remarkable  f<^r  a  woman.  When  her  brother  was 
sick  she  took  his  school  for  a  time.  His  wages  were  thirty  dollars  per 
month,  but  the  committee  gave  her  but  sixteen  because  it  "  was  enough  for 
a  woman."  These  things  were  bitterness  to  her  heart  but  they  nerved  her 
for  the  struggle. 

At  twenty- five  she  had  earned  money  enough  to  enter  Oberlin  College, 
which  was  the  only  college  in  the  land  to  admit  women  at  that  time.  She 
earned  her  way  in  part  by  tutoring  and  doing  housework.  In  the  four 
years  cour-e  >he  had  l)nt  one  new  dress  and  that  was  calico. 

Kven  at  ( )l)erlin  she  found  women  were  not  treated  as  ecpials  of  men. 
Her  work  was  so  excellent  that  she  was  awarded  one  of  the  commencement 



honors,  but  was  informed  that  her  essay  would  be  read  by  one  :>f  the  pn)- 
fessors,  as  it  was  not  considered  proper  for  a  woman  to  read  or  speak  in 
public.  With  her  uncompromising  spirit  she  declined  to  prepare  the  essay. 
She  would  not  have,  honors  which  were  at  the  same  time  a  source  of 
humiliation.  When  Oberlin  celebrated  its  semi-centennial  forty  years 
after  Lucy  Stone  graduated,   she  was  one  of  the  honored  speakers. 

Oberlin  was  a  friend  of  the  slave  and  Lucy  became  a  pronounced  aboli- 
tionist. In  her  life  work  for  the  slave  and  woman,  she  encountered  opposi- 
tion and  even  insults.  Upon  one  occasion  she  was  to  speak  in  Maiden. 
The  Congregational  minister  gave  notice  that  **A  hen  will  undertake  to 
crow  like  a  cock  at  the  town  hall  this  afternoon.  Anybody  who  wants  to 
hear  that  kind  of  music  will  of  course  attend." 

She  was  sometimes  compelled  to  meet  not  merely  ridicule,  but  mob 
violence.  At  one  time  when  she  and  Stephen  Foster  were  holding  an  anti- 
slavery  meeting,  Mr.  Foster  was  attacked  and  his  coat  torn  from  his  back. 
Lucy  Stone  got  the  mastery  of  the  mob  by  her  power  of  intellect  and  will, 
so  that  before  the  meeting  closed  a  collection  of  twenty  dollars  was  taken 
and  given  to  Mr.  Foster  to  pay  for  a  new  coat. 

She  worked  for  woman  suffrage  in  Colorado  and  afterwards,  in  1893,  it 
bore  fruit  in  a  constitutional  amendment  giving  woman  the  same  rights  as 
men  in  exercising  the  election  franchise. 

Many  sought  her  hand  in  marriage,  but  in  vain.  Mr.  Henry  B.  Black- 
well  v^s,  however,  at  last  successful.  He  had  been  a  worker  in  the  anti- 
slavery  cause  and  devotedly  loved  this  kindred  spirit.  They  were  married 
in  1855,  when  Lucy  was  thirty-seven  years  old.  They  were  agreed  that  she 
should  retain  her  maiden  name  and  be  known  i^imply  as  Lucy  Stone. 
Their  wedded  life  was  one  of  happy  co-operation. 

**  As  a  pioneer  in  the  movement  for  the  legal  and  political  elevation  of 
woman,  she  lived  through  ridicule,  obloquy,  and  even  persecution,  until  at 
last  she  was  known  and  reverenced  as  the  heroine  of  a  great,  beneficent,  and 
actually  accomplished  revolution."  Lucy  Stone  had  in  her  nature  a  rare 
combination  of  strength  and  sweetness.  The  strength  had  been  devel- 
oped in  the  struggle  for  an  education.  The  sweetness  was  inherited  from 
the  toiling  but  always  sympathetic  mother. 



A.  I>.  1818-1889. 


{N  the  field  of  science  Miss  Mitchell  is  the  American  pioneer.  Hundreds 
of  women  have  in  recent  years  distinguished  themselves  in  scientific 
pursuits,  but  we  are  always  interested  in  pioneers. 

For  patient,  plodding,  persistent  work,  few  have  surpassed  Maria 
Mitchell.  She  was  born  in  Nantucket,  and,  as  the  land  has  few  attractions, 
the  people  are  natural  obserxers  of  sea  and  sky.  Maria  was  one  of  them. 
Again,  her  father  was  for  years  engaged  in  scientific  pursuits  in  connection 
with  his  work  of  teaching.  He  was  a  man  of  superior  intellect  but  of 
meager  income.  He  established  a  small  observatory  and  earned  one  hun- 
dred dollars  per  year  by  astronomical  work  for  the  United  States  Coast 

Maria  looked  back  upon  her  girlhood  days  as  *  *  an  endless  washing  of 
dishes,"  and  yet  she  managed  to  study  a  great  deal.  She  was  for  many 
years  librarian  of  the  little  Nantucket  Athenaeum  at  a  salary  of  one  hundred 
dollars  per  year.  Of  this  she  was  able  to  lay  aside  a  portion  for  future 

So  she  toiled  on,  studying  and  observing  in  astronomical  lines.  When 
she  was  nearly  thirty  years  of  age,  fame  came  to  her  as  a  result  of  her 
work.  She  discovered  a  telescopic  comet.  Her  father  communicated  the 
discovery  to  Professor  Bond  of  Cambridge.  Kdward  Everett,  president  of 
Harvard  College,  learned  that  the  King  of  Denmark  had  offered  a  gold 
medal  for  such  a  discovery  and  was  instrumental  in  securing  it  for  Miss 

She  sul)se([uently  visited  Kurope  and  was  well  received  by  such  leading 
scientists  as  Sedgwick,  Challis,  Adams,  Herschel,  and  Arnott,  as  well  as 
by  many  of  the  literary  leaders.  Her  best  years  were  given  as  professor  of 
astronomy  in  X'assar  (College,  where  she  rendered  most  acceptable  service. 

Her  father  was  with  her  and  his  closing  years  were  gladdened  by  seeing 
his  daughter  an  honored  teacher  of  the  science  of  astronomy,  the  first  les- 
son in  which  she  had  received  from  him. 



A.  D.  18201871 ;    1824-1871. 



/  I  \  HEIR  early  years  were  spent  at  Miami  \'alley,  near  Cincinnati,  Ohio. 
J-       They  both  possessed  marked  literary  tastes  and  ability,  and  began 
writing  for  the  press  while  in  their  teens. 

Their  mother  died  when  Alice  was  but  eleven,  and  their  stepmother 
had  no  sympathy  with  their  literary'  aspirations.  Candles  were  refused 
them  after  the  day's  work  was  done  and  they  used  a  saucer  of  lard  with  a 
rag  for  a  wick,  and  by  this  light  they  studied  and  wrote. 

Alice  received  no  financial  compensation  for  her  work  for  the  first  ten 
years.  She  wrote  for  the  love  of  it  —  we  may  say,  from  an  overflowing 

Alice  wrote  both  prose  and  poetry.  Phoebe  gave  her  attention  almost 
entirely  to  poetry,  having  little  taste  for  prose  productions. 

The  sisters  lived  in  a  house  by  themselves  for  some  years,  the  father 
and  stepmother  occupying  another  residence. 

In  1852,  having  received  some  means  of  their  own,  the  sisters  removed 
to  New  York  city,  where  their  home  became  the  center  of  a  choice  group 
of  people  interested  in  literature  and  art.  Here  were  held  receptions  each 
week,  which  became  deservedly  popular. 

They  died  in  the  same  year,  and  but  a  few  months  apart.  Alice  was  an 
invalid  during  her  last  years  and  the  care  of  the  household  devolved  upon 
Phoebe.  She  was  thus  deprived  of  much  time  which  would  othenvise  have 
been  given  to  literary  work  and  would  have  added  to  her  fame. 

Alice  wrote  Cloirnwok,  or  Recollections  of  our  Xei}rhhorhood  in  the  West, 
Hagar,  a  Story  of  To-day^  Married,  not  Mated,  Pictures  of  Country  Life, 
Ballads,  Lyrics,  and  Hymns.  Her  characters  are  realistic  and  her  descrip- 
tions of  domestic  life  are  charming. 

Phoebe  is  known  for  her  poem  which  begins  One  swert/y  solemn  thought 
comes  to  me  o" er  and  d er.  Poems  of  Faith,  Hope,  and  Loir,  and  other  pro- 
ductions which  were  published  in  a  volume  with  those  of  her  sister,  before 
their  removal  to  New  York. 



A.  D.  1820.1880. 


^^W  NK  comes  to  the  consideration  of  this  woman  of  j^^enius  with  a  feeling 
\^J  i»kin  to  sadness.  There  is  a  struggle  between  respect  for  her 
^  ability  and  contempt  for  her  conduct. 

Marian  K\ans  was  born  of  hmnble  parents,  who  were,  nevertheless,  of 
sterling  worth  and  who  sought  for  their  daughter  educational  advantages 
of  which  they  had  been  deprived.  They  were  religious  people  and  sent 
Marian  to  a  school  kept  by  the  Misses  Franklin,  who  were  devout  Metho- 
dists.    She  was  early  engaged  in  Sunday  school  and  other  religious  work. 

L'nder  more  advanced  teachers  she  studied  Latin,  Greek,  Italian, 
French,  and  German  ;  she  also  became  a  pianist  of  much  skill. 

Her  abilities  brought  her  into  accjuaintance  with  many  eminent  people, 
among  them  several  of  liberal,  rationalistic,  and  even  atheistic  views, 
"clever  thinkers,"  learned  doubters,  dreamy  theorists,  but  arrogant,  dis- 
contented, and  cUfiant. 

Mr.  Lewes  was  one  <^f  this  number.  To  him  she  became  attached  and, 
although  he  had  a  wife  living,  Marian  Kvans  lived  with  him  for  twenty 
years.  They  were  both  people  of  genius  and  their  tastes  were  congenial, 
but  these  things  can  never  excuse  the  ilisrei»ard  and  defiance  of  (iod's  laws. 

After  the  death  of  Mr.  Lewes,  she,  being  fifty-nine  years  old,  married 
Mr.  John  Walter  Cross,  who  was  much  younger  than  herself. 

We  may  sometimes  wish  we  had  never  known  the  private  life  of  Marian,  but  it  i.-^  best  that  we  should  knf)w.  No  doubt  she  is  one  of  the 
greatest  authors  of  this  great  literary  century. 

Her  chief  \\<»rk>  are  Adiun  /udc,  The  Mill  on  thr  hloss,  Silas  Marnc>\ 
Romola,  lulix  Holt,  Middltmanh,  Panicl  Prronda,  and  Thtophrastus 

George  l\li(»l  i^  an  artist  in  delineatini^  character  in  its  development. 
Too  ofien  il  i«.  a  t|«.\vn\vanl  de\<-loj)ment  ;  illicit  lo\ e  i>  foimd  in  nearly  all 
her  works  wwA  ytMuig  people  will  hanlly  l>e  profited  by  reading  them. 



A.   D.  1821-1S87. 



HE  was  born  in  Stockholm  and  was  the   daughter  of  a  teacher  of 

She  is  said  to  have  been  able  at  three  years  of  age  to  repeat  a 
song  which  she  had  heard  but  once.  At  ten  years  of  age  she  sang  children 
parts  on  the  Stockholm  stage.  After  two  years  her  upper  notes  lost  their 
sweetness,  and  for  four  years  she  was  in  retirement.  This  time  was  devoted 
to  the  study  of  instrumental  music  and  composition. 

At  the  end  of  the  period  her  voice  had  recovered  its  power  and  purity 
in  every  note  of  its  register  of  two  and  one  half  octaves.  For  a  year  and  a 
half  she  was  the  star  of  the  Stockholm  opera. 

She  next  gave  a  series  of  concerts  to  obtain  means  to  go  to  Paris  for 
study,  but  the  French  teacher  did  not  appreciate  her  powers  and  she  re- 
turned to  her  native  city. 

In  1844,  being  then  twenty- three  years  of  age,  she  went  to  Dresden  and 
when  Queen  Victoria  visited  that  city  the  following  year,  she  sang  in  the 
f^tes.     This  opened  the  way  to  astonishing  success  in  other  German  cities. 

In  1847  she  went  to  London  and  was  enthusiastically  received.  Here 
she  sang  for  the  first  time  in  oratorio. 

Jenny  Lind  visited  America  in  1850.  V.  T.  Barnum  was  instrumental 
in  her  coming  to.  the  country,  and  by  his  i)ower  as  an  advertiser  he  roused 
the  wildest  enthusiasm.  Tickets  sold  for  fabulous  prices  in  New  York. 
But  she  did  not  disappoint  the  wildest  expectation. 

She  subsequently  married  Mr.  Otto  Goldschmidt  of  Boston,  musician 
and  conductor.  She  appeared  on  the  stage  only  at  intervals  after  her 
marriage  and  usually  at  concerts  given  for  charital)lc  purposes.  In  this 
work  she  was  deeply  interested,  and  we  may  well  add  to  her  titlt!  of  singer 
that  of  philanthropist.  ^ 

Her  later  years  were  spent  in  London,  where  she  died  in  1887.  Her 
life  and  songs  are  a  sweet  memory. 



A.  I>.  1820-1891. 


¥HIS  remarkable  woman  was  a  Russian  by  birth,  both  her  father  and 
her  grandfather  having  been  officers  in    the  Russian  army.     Her 
remarkable  attainments  as  a  linguist  are  seen  in  this,  that  she  could 
speak  forty  languages  and  dialects.     At  the  age  of  sixteen  she  married  a 
husband  of  sixty  but  lived  with  him  only  three  months. 

After  some  time  spent  at  the  home  of  her  father,  Col.  Peter  Hahn,  she 
started  on  extensive  travels  which  continued  for  ten  years  before  she  saw 
her  home  again.  She  had  a  great  thirst  for  unusual  and  out-of-the-way 
knowledge.  She  even  visited  the  Voodoos,  a  sect  of  negroes  in  New 
Orleans  who  were  reputed  to  be  possessed  of  magical  skill.  She  visited 
Japan  and  India  and  sought  to  penetrate  into  Thibet.  After  various  wan- 
derings in  Asia  and  Europe,  she  returned  to  her  home  in  Russia.  During 
her  absence  she  became  a  Buddhist. 

She  at  one  time  sustained  a  fracture  of  the  spine  by  being  thrown  from 
a  horse  and  there  resulted  certain  mental  disturbances  which  greatly 
puzzled  the  attending  physicians.  For  a  year  and  a  half  she  lived  a  com- 
plete dual  existence. 

After  her  recovery  she  spent  several  years  in  various  parts  of  Europe, 
and  had  many  strange  experiences.  Once  she  sailed  on  a  ship  loaded  with 
gunpowder.  The  ship  was  l)l()wn  up  and  Madam  was  one  of  the  very  few 
who  were  saved.  She  traveled  in  Africa  and  sought  to  investigate  Spirit- 
ualism. .She  came  again  to  America  and  with  Colonel  Olcott  established 
the  *' Theosophical  Society." 

Among  her  hooks  is  /s/s  I  ^nveilcd.  She  at  one  time  edited  a  maga- 
zine called  lAicifcr.  the  Liirht-hrinfrcr.  Altogether,  she  is  one  of  the 
strange  characters  of  history.  One  writer  has  said,  *' There  was  a  Titanic 
display  of  strengtli  in  everything  she  did.  The  storms  that  raged  in  her 
were  cyclones."  Her  Con/essiou  rings  with  the  mingled  curses  and  mad 
laughter  of  a  crazy  mariner  scuttling  his  own  ship,  and  yet  she  could  be  as 
tender  as  a  mother. 



A.  I>.  1826-1893. 



SER  birthplace  was  Beverly,  Mass. ,  by  the  sea.     She  was  next  to  the 
youngest  of  eight  sisters.      Her  father  died    when  she    was    quite 
young,  and  the  mother  moved  to  Lowell,  which  was  fast  becoming 
a  great  mill  town. 

Here  Mrs.  Larcom  kept  a  boarding  house  for  the  mill  girls,  her  own 
daughters  being  among  the  operatives.  But  that  was  a  home,  and  quite 
unlike  the  mill-town  boarding  house  of  to-day. 

When  Lucy  was  still  quite  young,  she  entered  one  of  the  mills  as  a 
**dof[er,"  that  is,  taking  off  empty  bobbins  and  putting  on  full  ones. 

She  had  learned  to  love  good  books  before  coming  to  Lowell,  and  this 
taste  she  cultivated  as  there  was  opportunity. 

Some  kind  of  a  reading  and  literary  club  was  formed  among  the  mill 
girls  and  several  of  them  wrote  papers  to  be  read  at  their  meetings.  The 
poet  Whittier  was  then  editing  a  paper  in  Lowell,  and  became  interested  in 
these  young  women  who  were  seeking  self-improvement. 

When  about  twenty  years  of  age  she  accompanied  a  married  sister  to 
Illinois,  and  taught  school  in  a  vacated  log  building  in  a  two  mile  neighbor- 
hood. She  received  forty  dollars  for  three  months'  work.  The  commit- 
teeman remarked  as  he  paid  her,  "That's  a  lot  o'  money  to  pay  a  young 
woman  for  three  months'  teachin*.*' 

She  was  enabled  to  attend  the  Monticello  Female  Seminary  for  three 
years  and  then  went  back  to  her  beloved  Beverly.  After  teaching  private 
classes  for  a  few  years,  she  was  called  to  a  position  in  Wheaton  Female 
Seminary,  where  she  taught  for  six  years  with  great  success. 

The  strain  upon  her  health  was  too  great  and  she  turned  to  literary 
work.  For  some  time  she  edited  Oi^r  Young  Folks.  She  also  wrote  for 
many  of  the  leading  periodicals. 

She  was  a  poetess  of  friendship  and  nature.  Her  girlhood  days  at  Bev- 
erly, with  its  seaside  and  roadsides,  largely  influenced  the  substance  and 
style  of  her  writing. 



A.  D.  1826-1887. 


'HE  was  dauji^hter  of  a  clergyman  of  the  Ustahlished  Church  and  was 
born  in  Straffordshire. 
^  Her  first  novel,  The  Ogilvies,  was  an  immediate  success  and  gave 

Miss  Mulock  a  reputation  for  which  others  are  often  obliged  to  serve  a  long 
apprenticeship.  The  subtle  delineation  of  character  and  the  lifelike  scenes 
show  a  mature  mind  and  great  skill.  The  Head  of  the  Family  is  a  story  of 
Scottish  life  of  the  middle  class.  Johyi  Halifax  is  perhaps  her  greatest 
work.  It  is,  at  least,  the  best  known.  It  is  a  noble  story  of  English  domes- 
tic life,  and  passed  through  more  than  a  score  of  editions  within  a  few  years. 

Among  her  other  works  of  fiction  are,  Mistress  and  Afaid^  Christian! s 
Mistake,  Hannah,  and  The  Ubmans  Kingdom,  We  should  mention  as 
specimens  of  her  miscellaneous  works,  A  Woman' s  Thoughts  about  Women, 
Sermons  Out  of  Church,  and  her  numerous  children's  books. 

Miss  Mulock  became  the  wife  of  Mr.  George  Lillie  Craik,  author  and 
publisher,  who  wrote  'The  Pursuit  of  h'noicledge  under  Difficulties,  in  sev- 
eral volumes.  One  volume  of  this  work  related  exclusively  to  women. 
He  contributed  to  the  famous  Penny  Cyclopaedia  and  wrote  several  works 
on  the  History  of  the  English  Language  and  English  Literature. 

Mrs.  Craik,  as  a  teacher  of  high  moral  qualities  and  true  nobility  of  char- 
acter, is  probably  surpassed  by  no  modern  writer  of  fiction.  It  has  been 
well  said  that  her  mission  was  to  "show  how  the  trials,  perplexities,  joys, 
sorrows,  labors,  and  successes  of  life  deepen  or  wither  the  character  accord- 
ing to  the  inward  bent — how  continued  insincerity  gradually  darkens  and 
corrupts  the  life  springs  of  the  mind  —  and  how  every  event,  adverse  or 
fortunate,  tends  to  ^trcnLjthcn  and  expand  a  high  mind,  and  to  break  the 
springs  <»f  a  seltish  or  e\en  merely  weak  and  self-indulgent  nature." 

So  -Mrs.  Craik  wrote  with  a  j)urp()se,  and  had  at  her  command 
eloquence,  patho>.  and  genial  humor  to  bring  to  the  hearts  of  her  readers 
some  of  life's  greatest  lessons. 



A.  I>.  1828-1899. 


5H0HJ — 

HE  **  Horse  Fair*'  is,  to  Americans,  Rosa  Bonheur's  best  known  paint- 
ing. It  was  produced  when  she  was  thirty-one  years  of  age.  It 
T  was  exhibited  in  the  French  Salon  and  sold  for  $8,000.  Cornelius 
Vanderbilt  paid  $55,500  for  it  and  by  him  it  was  presented  to  the  Metro- 
politan Museum  of  Arts,  New  York. 

Her  father,  Raymond  Bonheur,  was  an  artist  and  her  first  teacher. 
Friends  opposed  her  devoting  her  energies  to  painting,  on  the  ground 
that  the  field  offered  little  opportunity  or  reward  for  the  talents  of  woman. 
Her  career  and  the  hundreds  of  women  who  to-day  use  brush  and  palette 
are  a  sufficient  answer. 

Her  first  work  was  copying  pictures  in  the  Louvre,  to  win  bread.  But 
her  father  believed  that  more  attention  should  be  given  to  painting  from 
life,  and  this  led  to  her  becoming  a  great  painter  of  animals  and  landscapes. 

She  early  adopted  masculine  attire.  There  was  no  place  for  the  study 
of  animals  except  in  stables  and  slaughter  houses.  Dressed  as  a  l)oy  she 
was  free  to  <!ome  and  go  without  attracting  attention.  She  then  found  the 
dress  of  a  man  so  much  more  conxenicnt  than  that  of  a  woman,  that  she 
continued  its  use. 

She  was  the  first  woman  in  France  to  be  decorated  witli  the  cross  of  the 
Legion  of  Honor.  Her  fame  became  international  and  all  nations  had  a 
feeling  of  ownership  in  her.  At  the  time  of  the  siege  of  Paris  Emperor 
Frederick  ordered  her  residence  to  be  spared.  "  Don't  touch  a  cabbage 
of  that  garden,"  was  his  order,  and  her  garden  and  studio  were  protected 
from  Ciermans  and  all  outsiders. 

No  one  but^R  lover  of  animals  and  who  had  made  animal  life  a  study 
could  interpret  to  us  animal  life  as  has  Rosa  Bonheur.  '  *  Weaning  the  Calves" 
is  full  of  dumb  brute  pathos  ;  "  Deer  in  the  Forest  Twilight "  almost  makes 
us  hold  our  breath  lest  we  break  the  stillness  ;  "  Plowing  in  Xivernais  '*  is  a 
rural  scene  of  quiet  vigor.  In  the  foreground  is  the  pKnvman  and  six  noble 
oxen  breaking  up  the  refractory  soil.      But  the  "  Horse  Fair"  quickens  our 



A.  D.  1830-1894. 


— »— il— *-•    

/  I  \HIS  woman,  noted  for  her  sweet  spiritual  poetry,  was  the  daughter  of 
-I-  Gal)riele  Rossetti,  an  Italian  patriot,  who  took  refuge  in  England 
from  the  troubles  of  his  native  land.  He  was  made  professor  of 
Italian  in  King's  College.  He  wrote  a  commentary  on  Dante  to  show  that 
the  In/erno  was  chiefly  political  and  anti-papal  and  that  Beatrice  was  a 
symbolic  personage. 

Christina  was  born  in  London.  When  quite  young  her  father  fell  ill 
and  she  bravely  helped  support  the  family  by  teaching.  She  was  deeply 
religious  and  gave  much  time  to  church  work  when  the  circumstances  of  the 
family  were  easier. 

Some  of  her  productions  are,  Goblin  Market,  Prince's  Progress, 
Speaking  Likcpiess,  Annus  Domini,  a  Prayer  for  Each  Day  of  the  Year 
Founded  on  a  Text  of  Holy  Scripture,  Seek  and  Find,  Called  to  be  Saints, 
and  Time  Flies. 

A  disappointment  in  love  cast  a  shadow  of  melancholy  over  much  of  her 
writing.      She  was  for  many  years  an  invalid  and  died  of  cancer. 

In  artistic  construction  and  purity  of  diction  she  surpasses  Mrs.  Brown- 
ing, with  whom  she  has  sometimes  been  compared. 

Ros»  Hoiilii-^t-ir  ooniinueil. 

pulse  as  wt'  hear  as  well  as  see  the  tread  and  j)rancing  of  the  mighty  Norman 

During  Iht  summer  study  in  the  country  at  one  time,  the  simple  peas- 
ants, never  having  strn  an  artist  at  work,  denounced  her  as  a  witch  and 
even  attai  krd  Irt  with  stones  and  other  missiles. 

lunprrss  luit^enir  became  deeply  interested  in  this  wonderful  painter, 
and  was  instrumental  in  havmg  the  cross  of  the  **  Legion  of  Honor*'  con- 
ferred upon  luT.  In  fact  the  empress  went  to  tlie  studio  in  person  and 
fastened  the  cross  upon  the  masculine  blouse  of  the  painter. 

**  Her  canvases  li\e  with  robust,  real,  vivid  life."  They  hold  us  with  a 
power  we  cannot  analyze,  but  one  great  element  is  the  heart  that  is  in  them. 



A.  D.  1829-1890. 


WHEN  but  twelve  years  of  age,  Catherine  Mumford  became  secre- 
tary of  a  little  temperance  society,  was  a  bright  and  earnest 
talker,  and  even  wrote  articles  for  publication.  The  young  heart 
was  always  on  the  side  of  the  weak  and  unfortunate.  One  day,  while  play- 
ing on  the  street,  she  saw  a  man  dragged  to  jail  by  an  unfeeling  officer  ; 
a  crowd  of  rough  boys  and  men  was  following  with  shouts  and  jeers.  Lit- 
tle Catherine  left  her  play  and  walked  beside  the  prisoner  to  the  jail. 

She  showed  also  great  sympathy  for  suffering  dumb  beasts.  It  often 
happened  that  seeing  in  the  field  a  half-fed  horse  she  would  buy  some  grain 
and  then  at  evening  carry  it  to  the  poor  animal. 

She  raised  money  for  sending  the  gospel  to  foreign  lands  and  even 
denied  herself  sugar  in  order  to  contribute  to  missions.  As  a  girl  she  was 
sickly,  having  a  disease  of  the  spine,  and  seemed  likely  to  die  of  consump- 
tion, but  by  going  to  the  seashore  she  regained  her  health  in  a  measure. 

Upon  her  return  to  London  she  met  William  Booth,  a  young  Wesleyan 
preacher,  whose  father  had  once  been  wealthy,  but  had  died,  leaving  his 
family  to  struggle  for  a  living.  The  young  man  was  working  as  an  ap- 
prentice while  preaching.  Though  they  were  both  poor,  they  joined  heart 
and  hand  for  soul  saving  and  the  uplifting  of  humanity. 

William  became  a  circuit  j)reachcr  in  a  district  some  thirty  miles  in  ex- 
tent. Later  he  became  assistant  pastor  in  a  London  church.  He  was  very 
successful  as  an  evangelist  and  many  calls  came  for  him  to  speak  in  different 
parts  of  England. 

When  he  was  but  twenty-seven  he  was  ordered  by  the  conference  to 
give  up  evangelistic  work  and  take  a  small  charge.  But  while  this  may 
have  been  done  partly  through  jealousy,  it  i)roved  a  good  school  for  Mrs. 
Booth.      Here  she  began  to  conduct  classes  and  speak  on  temperance. 

The  next  settlement  was  in  a  place  of  fifty  thousand  people.  The  little 
church  numbered  less  than  a  hundred  members,  and  about  that  number 
met  on  Sunday  evenings.      But  soon  the  place  of  worship  was  crowded 



with  nearly  two  thousand  people.  The  chapel  came  to  be  known  as  the 
*  *  Converting  Shop.  * ' 

The  stories  of  Mrs.  Booth's  ministrations  to  the  poor  and  intemperate 
are  both  pathetic  and  thrilling.  She  was  of  a  sensitive,  shrinking  disposi- 
tion and  public  speaking  was  a  source  of  great  dread,  but  feeling  that  God 
had  laid  this  upon  hiT,  she  calmly  responded,  and  there  was  given  her  a 
power  o\er  the  s<nils  of  people  that  was  manifestly  supernatural.  Hun- 
dreds were  soon  converted  under  her  speaking.  Her  husband's  health 
failed  and  she  was  constrained  to  take  his  place,  which  she  did,  and  was 
greatly  blessed.  Calls  canu?  for  her  as  well  as  for  her  husband  to  hold 
evangelistic  meetings,  but  he  was  opposed  by  the  conference  to  which  he 
belonged.  At  last,  husband  and  wife  decided  that  it  was  his  duty  to 
resign   from  the  conference  and  be  free  to  go  where  (iod  might  call  him. 

He  was  sunnnoned  to  Corinvall,  where  for  eighteen  months  they  worked 
among  miners,  fishermen,  and  all  (lasses,  with  marvelous  success.  About 
one  thousand  professed  con\ersion.  • 

The  beginnings  of  what  became  the  Salvation  Army  work  were  had  in 
the  slums  of  London,  where  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hooth  held  tent  meetings  and 
marched  through  the  streets  to  advertise  the  meetings.  Those  were  dark 
days,  they  were  without  means  of  supj)ort,  but  (iod  raised  them  up  a  friend 
in  Samuel  Morley,  a  member  of   Parliament. 

Mrs.  Booth  became  a  wonderfully  effective  preacher.  A  well  known 
publisher  offered  to  publish  her  sermons  and  give  her  the  profits,  and  some 
wealtiiy  men  offered  to  build  her  a  cluirch  similar  to  Spurgeon's.  All  these 
ofTers  she  declined,  and  with  her  husband  endured  the  abuse  and  violence 
of  the  degraded  people  whom  th(*y  were  conunissioned  to  seek  to  save  and 
the  flights  and  sneers  of  tlu'  "  respectable." 

They  passed  through  a  veritable  baptism  f)f  fire,  but  to-day  they  are 
seen  to  be  the  luroir  pi(»n(ers  of  a  great  world-wide  movement  for  evangeliz- 
ing and  elevating  the  neji^lec^ted  thousands  of  our  great  cities. 




A.  D.  1831-1885. 


T"^fHE  champion  of  the  Indian,  as  was  Mrs.  Stowe  of  the  n^ro,  her 
®  I  fe  books  A  Centur}'  of  Dishonor  zxi^  Ramona  should  rank  with  Uncie 
Tom's  Cabin. 

In  her  earlier  years  Mrs.  Jackson  wrote  poetry,  which  was  the  outflow  of 
deep  sympathetic  thought  on  the  problem  of  life's  trials  and  temptations. 
Her  verses  were  strong  and  noble  :  she  was  too  much  in  earnest  to  give  at- 
tention to  mere  prettiness  of  versification. 

She  next  wrote  Bits  of  Travel,  which  reveals  another  side  of  her  nature. 
With  genial  humor  and  subdued  pathos  she  paints  human  nature.  There 
is  nothing  sour  or  cynical  in  her  sketches.  The  tone  is  both  helpful  and 

As  a  keen  and  sympathetic  obser\er  her  attention  was  attracted  by  the 
treatment  our  American  Indians  received  at  the  hands  of  government 
agents.  But  her  nature  was  well  balanced.  She  first  made  a  painstaking 
study  of  the  situation.  She  kept  feeling  in  abeyance  and  searched  for 
facts.  When  at  last  she  was  fully  equipped  for  htr  work  she  took  up  the 
pen  in  defense  of  the  wronged  Indian.  She  was  in  pour  health.  A  fatal 
disease  had  fastened  itself  upon  her.  Tlie  consciousness  of  this  led  her  to 
write  with  almost  desperate  haste.  A  CcntKry  of  Dishonor  appeared. 
Most  elocjuently  and  passionately  did  she  pkad  for  a  change  from  the 
base,  selfish  j)olicy,  to  a  treatment  characterized  by  humanity  and  justice. 

Her  next  step  (  and  she  felt  that  the  time  was  short  )  was  to  cast  her 
materials  in  the  form  of  fiction  to  reach  a  wider  circle  of  readers.  She 
wrote  Ramojia,  which  was  her  expiring  and  supreme  effort.  It  was  in 
every  way  a  noble  book  and  will  give  the  author  lasting  fame. 

Ramona  appeared  first  as  a  serial  in  the  Christian  I  'nion,  because,  as 
one  writer  says,  "  She  wrote  at  white  heat  and  could  not  wait  for  the  longer 
delays  of  a  monthly  magazine. 

Mrs.  Jackson,  whose  maiden  name  was  Fiske,  was  horn  in  Amherst, 
Mass.,  October  i8,  1831,  and  married  Captain  Hunt  in  1852.      She  became 



A.  1>.  1830-1897. 


JEAN  INGELOW  was  born  at  Boston,  Lincolnshire,  England,  in  1820, 
aTid  died  in  July,  1897. 
Her  father  was  a  banker  and  a  man  of  superior  intelligence. 
Her  mother  was  of  Scotch  descent.  Jean  was  a  shy,  retiring  girl  and  at- 
tracted no  attention  until  she  was  over  thirty  years  of  age.  She  then  pub- 
lished a  volume  of  poems  which  in  her  quiet  way  she  had  been  preparing 
for  some  years.  Their  merit  was  at  once  recognized  and  the  authoress 
became  famous. 

Three  poems  in  thisfirst  volume  are  especially  noteworthy  :  **  Divided,'* 
"  High  Tide  on  the  Coast  of  Lincolnshire  "  and  **  Songs  of  Seven."  The 
last  named  consists  of  seven  poems  portraying  seven  epochs  in  the  life  of 

Having  been  brought  to  public  notice  and  there  being  demand  for  her 
work,  she  wrote  among  others,  Studies  /or  Stories,  Poor  Matt,  A  Sister's 
Rye- 1  (ours.  The  Monitions  of  the  I'nseen,  and  Poems  of  Love  and 

Within  ten  years  aftt^  she  came  into  public  notice  the  sale  of  her  poems 
in  Americ.i,  alone,  reached  93,(:kx)  and  her  j)rose  works  a  sale  of  35,000. 

Miss  Ingelow  niadr  London  her  home  after  becoming  a  recognized 
authorc^ss  and,  for  several  years,  gave  three  times  per  wt-ek  a  "Copyright 
DinntT  "  to  twt'hf  needy  persons  who  had  reerntly  come  from  the  hospi- 
tals. Thi>  iini(iuc  charity  was  a  fitting  channel  for  the  expenditure  of  a 
part  of  lur  income  from  her  books. 

a  contril^ntoi  to  niai^a/incs  and  periodicals,  writing  under  the  signature  of 
"  H.  H.  *  Ibr  death  o(  currcd  in  San  Francisco,  August  12.  1885,  while 
^he  wa^  examining  into  th<-  C(»nditi(»n  of  the  California  Indians  as  a  special 
government  c< )nnnissioner. 



A.D.  1831-1892. 


JjxOR  scholarship  and  variety  of  accomplishments  Miss  Edwards  has  had 
J-  few  equals  in  the  centur}-.  She  held  the  degrees  of  L.  H.D.  and 
LL. D.,  was  a  member  of  the  "Biblical  Archeological  Society,'*  of 
the  '*  Society  for  the  Promotion  of  Hellenic  Studies,"  of  the  "Oriental 
Congress/'  and  was  secretary  of  the  *'  Egypt  Exploration  Eund." 

Miss  Edwards  was  born  in  London.  Her  father  was  an  army  officer  and 
her  mother  was  of  famous  family.  Her  education  was  received  mainly  at 
home  under  the  instruction  of  her  mother  and  special  tutors. 

At  the  age  of  seven  she  wrote  a  })oem  entitled  The  Knij^hts  of  Old^ 
which  was  published  in  a  weekly  journal.  Eor  seven  years  she  continued 
to  write  for  the  press.  She  then  turned  to  music  and  composed  several 
acceptable  pieces.  Later  she  turned  again  to  literature  and  decided  to  make 
it  her  profession.  Among  her  numerous  novels  are.  The  Ladder  of  Life, 
Haifa  Million  of  Mo7ie\\  and  Lord  Breckenbur^.  The  last  named  passed 
through  fifteen  editions.  • 

.She  came  to  be  known  chietiy  as  an  Egyptologist  and  wrote,  A  Thou- 
sand Miles  up  the  Xih\  Pharaohs,  Fellahs,  and  Explorers.  .She  translated 
Maspero's  liiryptian  Areheoloi>\\  and  wrote  for  the  Encydopa-dia  Britannica 
on  Egyptology. 

Her  books  of  travel  are  scholarly  and  yet  popular.  She  has  digested  and 
presented  a  vast  amount  of  archaological  information  antl  has  rendered  a 
notable  service  to  the  world  (»f  non-tethnical  readers.  Her  books  on 
Egvptology  are  illustrated  by  sketches  made-  l)y  htrsi^lf,  and  are  written  in 
a  style  which  makes  them  as  fascinating  as  fiction. 

In  18S9  Miss  Edwards  lectured  in  the  I'nited  .St.ites.  ( )ne  who  heard 
her  savs,  "  Her  rare  and  \olnniinoiis  Itarning,  hrr  (juict  gnux-  and  perfect 
naturalness,  her  dainty  tonclies  of  humor,  (  harnu-d  and  imj^rt^sscd  one  that 
she  well  tilled  her  own  drscription  of  an  anti(juariaii,  —  '  one  possessing  in- 
domitable courage  and  will,  unswerving  |)atience  and  energy,  and  an  im- 
pregnable constitution,  besides  thehneof  disco\ering  unrevealed  history.'  " 


/jjcy  h^ejbb  /fsy^S'  /{m€ha  <B,EM*^<s r<i s • 


A.  I>.  1831-1879. 


H'irat  Hraotle/il  Totnpor/irio*.;  Keforiiior  of  tl»e»  Wlilte  Hone 


,  RS.  HAYKS  was  the  dau^rhter  of  Dr.  James  Webb.  Dr.  Webb 
removed  from  North  CaroHiia  to  Ohio,  where  he  souj^ht  to  arrange 
for  transportation  to  Liberia  of  shives  whom  he  and  his  father  had 
Hberated.  The  daiij^hter  Lucy  was  born  in  Ohio.  The  mother  was  of 
New  Enj^hmd  Puritan  descent. 

Miss  \\'ei)b  was  educated  at  the  Wesleyan  Female  Collc^ge  in  Cincin- 
nati. In  1852  she  married  Mr.  Hayes.  Her  husband  and  all  her  brothers 
enlisted  in  the  L'nion  army  durinj^  the  civil  war,  and  Mrs.  Hayes  gave 
much  time  to  nursing  sick  and  wounded  soldiers,  lx)th  in  her  home  and  at 
the  front.  .She  spent  two  winters  in  camp  and  served  in  th(?  hospital  at 
Frederick  City,  Maryland. 

She  was  an  uiuiring  worker  in  j)hilanthropic  and  religious  lines,  and  while 
her  husband  was  engaged  as  a  member  of  Congress  and  then  as  governor  of 
Ohio,  Mrs.  Hayes  devoted  mucii  time  and  talent  to  state  charities.  .She  was 
one  of  the  organizers  of  the  Ohio  .Soldiers'  and  .Sailors'  Orphans'  Home. 

In  1877  Mr.  Hayes  enter(*d  ui)on  his  duties  as  president  of  the  United 
.States  and  Mrs.  Hayes  lucame  mistress  of  the  \Vhil<!  House.  Here  she 
introduced  changes  which  (ailed  forth  ihr  contemptuous  criticism  of  many 
and  the  well  merited  praise  of  many  more.  .She  determined  that  the 
White  Hoii^e  sin  mid  l)e  a  religious  and  temperance  house  so  long  as  she 
remained  in  it.  Wine  was  not  served  evtMi  at 'the  state  dinners.  This 
was  a  startling  inno\ation  for  Washington  society,  but  Mrs.  Hayes  would 
not  go  contrary  to  her  convictions  because  of  the  sneers  of  society. 

At  the  (los<-  <»f  Mr.  Hayes'  administration,  t<-mj)erance  |)eoj)le,  among 
them  m.iny  per>oii>  of  eminence.  j)resent<'(I  Mrs.  Hayes  a  great  album  of 
testimoni.ils.  in  rri  (>|Liniti«»n  of  her  heroic  position  in  th<'  matter  of  wine 

Lucy  Webb  Hayes,  "amiable,  sincere,  a  devout  Christian,  and  a 
dexoted   wile  and   motlier."      She  died  June  25.   1S79. 



A.  D.  1832-1888. 


Hj  F2R  father  was  the  noted  A.  Bronson  Alcott,  the  **  Sage  of  Concord," 
i  I      and  intimate  friend  of  Ralph  Waldo  Emerson.     Her  early  surround- 
ings were  of  a  highly  intellectual  and  literary  character,  and  she 
naturally  took  to  writing  while  yet  ver>'  young. 

In  her  sketch  Transcendental  Wild  Oats,  she  describes  in  an  amusing 
way  the  experiences  of  a  year  at  Fruitlands,  where  an  attempt  was  made  to 
establish  an  ideal  community. 

She  was  obliged  to  he  a  wage  earner  to  help  out  the  family  income  and 
so  taught  school,  served  as  a  governess,  and  even  did  work  as  a  seamstress. 

Wearying  of  this,  she  wrote  for  the  papers  stories  of  a  sensational 
nature,  which  were  remunerative  from  a  financial  point  of  view.  Her  con- 
science was  not  easy  in  this  matter,  and  she  abandoned  it.  For  a  time  she 
serxed  as  nurse  in  a  Washington  hospital,  but  her  health  failed  owing  to 

Upon  her  recovery  she  secured  the  position  as  attendant  to  an  invalid 
lady  and  traveled  in  Furope.  After  several  more  attempts  in  literary  lines, 
she  wrote  IJttle  Uomen,  which  was  an  immediate  success.  It  reached  a 
.sale  of  87,000  copies  in  three  years.  She  wrote  from  the  heart  and  wove 
into  the  story  incidents  from  the  lives  of  herself  and  three  sisters  at 
Concord.  .She  then  wrote  rhi  Old  Fasliioned  Ciirl  and  Little  Men.  For 
the  latter  the  publishers  received  advance  orders  for  50,000  copies.  Some 
of  her  other  works  are,  Aunt  Jo  s  Scrap  Baj^.  in  six  volumes,  Modern 
Mephistopheles,  Proverb  Stories,  Spinnitii*;  Wheel  Stories,  Jo  s  Hoys,  A  Gar- 
land Jo  r  (rirls,  and  Hospital  Sketches,  the  last  a  record  of  her  own  experi- 
ences in  ministering  to  the  sick  and  wounded. 

Miss  Alcott  had  ambition  and  ability  \or  a  high  i^rade  of  literary  work. 
She  found  her  success  as  a  writer  of  children's  stories.  Her  receipts  from 
the  books  .she  had  written  amounted  to  S'^.ooo  in  six  months  of  the  year 
1888,  and  yet  she  declared  that  she  was  more  proud  of  the  first  S32  she 
received  for  her  work,  than  of  the  $8,000. 



A.  D.  18S6-1874. 


FTTHIS  noted  singer  was  born  in  Edinburgh,  Scotland,  May  7,  1836. 
®  I  '«)  Her  father  was  a  Wallachian  nobleman,  Baron  Georgiades  de 
Boyesku,  of  Bucharest.  The  baron  died  when  Parepa  was  but  a 
babe,  leaving  her  mother  a  widow  at  twenty-one  and  in  poverty.  The 
mother  took  to  singing  in  public  and  trained  her  daughter  for  the  profes- 
sion. Parepa  made  remarkable  progress  in  her  musical  studic^s  and  at  the 
same  time  learned  to  speak  with  ease,  English,  Italian,  French,  German, 
and  Spanish. 

At  sixteen  years  of  age  she  appeared  in  public  for  the  first  time  in  the 
city  of  Malta  ;  then  at  Naj)les,  Genoa,  Rome,  Florence,  Madrid,  and  Lis- 
bon, and  everywhere  became  a  great  favorite. 

In  1857  she*  appeared  in  London  and  was  so  well  received  and  so  well 
did  she  sustain  her  rej)utation  as  a  singer,  that  she  continued  in  England 
for  nine  years.  During  this  j)eriod  she  married  a  British  officer,  Captain 
Carvell  of  the  Fast  India  service,  but  he  died  within  a  short  time  of  their 

In  1866  Parepa  came  to  America  and  made  a  tour  of  the  C(juntry  with 
Levy,  the  noted  cornetist,  and  Carl  Rosa,  violinist.  She  began  with  con- 
cert work  in  New  York,  but  afterwards  took  up  also  the  oratorio  and  the 
opera.  In  1867  she  became  the  wife  of  Carl  Rosa.  In  i<S69-72  she  organ- 
ized with  her  husband  an  English  opera  company,  with  which  she  sang  in 
the  principal  cities  nf  the  I'nited  States.  During  the  winter  of  iS72-73she 
sang  at  the  Khtdive's  court  in  Egypt.  She  died  in  London,  January  21. 

Parepa  Rosa's  voice  was  a  pure  soprano  of  great  power  and  compass. 
In  the  technical  j)arts  of  music  she  was  thoroughly  trained  and  possessed  a 
perfect  mastery  of  liersdf  in  execution. 



(OA.11^  HAMILTON). 
A.  D.  1838-1806. 


^T^ANNY  FKRN  "  wittily  writes  of  Gail  Hamilton,  "She  was  brought 
M  up  as  New  England  girls  are  generally  brought  up  in  the  country  ; 

simply,  healthfully,  purely  ;  with  plenty  of  fence  for  gymnastics  ; 
plenty  of  berries  and  birds,  and  flowers  and  mosses,  and  clover  blossoms 
and  fruit  in  the  sweet,  odorous  summers  ;  with  plenty  of  romping  compan- 
ions not  subjects  for  early  tombstones  and  obituary  notices,  but  with  broad 
chests,  sun-kissed  faces  and  nimble  limbs  and  tongues." 

Her  pen  name  is  taken  from  the  last  part  of  ' '  Abigail ' '  and  Hamilton, 
the  place  of  her  birth. 

For  several  years  she  was  teacher  of  the  physical  sciences  in  the  Hart- 
ford, Conn.,  High  School.  Later  she  was  engaged  as  governess  in  Wash- 
ington, D.  C.  But  all  this  time  she  was  in  training  for  her  work  in 
literary  lines.  She  became  a  contributor  to  periodicals  and  then  began  to 
write  books.  Here  are  the  names  of  some  of  them  :  Country  IJviyig  and 
Country  Thinking,  Gala  Days,  Wool  Gathering,  Summer  Rest,  IVoman's 
Urongs,  A  Counter- Irritant,  A  flattie  of  the  Books,  First  I.oi.'e  is  Best, 
What  Think  Ye  of  Christ  f 

She  was  considered  rather  severe  in  her  criticism  of  the  male  sex.  Her 
trenchant  wit  sometimes  made  them  wince.  For  example  :  "  Man  is  a  thief 
and  holds  the  bag,  and  if  women  do  not  like  what  they  git,  so  much  the 
better.  Tht-y  will  be  all  the  more  willing  to  btconie  household  drudges. '* 
'*  Some  men  dole  out  money  to  their  wives  as  if  it  were  a  gift,  a  charity. 
A  man  has  no  more  right  to  his  earnings  than  his  wife  has.  What  ab- 
surdity, to  pay  him  his  7i'ages  and  gize  her  money  to  go  shopping  with  !" 
"She  does  not  lock  up  the  dinner  in  the  cupl)oard  and  then  stand  at  the 
door  and  dole  it  out  to  him  by  the  pailful,  but  sets  it  <>n  the  table  for  him 
to  help  himself  -J^  ^-  -J-  so  looking  at  the  matter  from  tlie  very  lowest 
standpoint,  a  woman  who  has  free  access  to  money  will  not  he  half  so  likely 
to  lavish  it,  as  the  woman  who  is  put  off  with  scanty  and  infrequent  sums." 



A.  D.  1889-1898. 


-iM- «-§-•- 

^"^HERE  may  be  some  who  feel  that  Miss  Willard  has  been  too  extrava- 
\j  ^  gantly  loved  and  praised,  if  so,  they  are  the  people  who  have  not 
y        known  the  story  of  her  life. 

In  these  pages  we  can  give  but  a  few  leading  facts  of  one  of  the  busiest 
and  most  fruitful  lives  of  this  century. 

In  the  first  place  great  honor  should  be  given  to  her  parents  for  what 
their  daughter  was  and  did. 

Frances'  early  girlhood  days  were  spent  on  a  farm  on  the  frontier  in 
what  was  then  the  territory  of  Wisconsin.  She  was  a  delicate  child  at  first, 
but  she  dressed  simply  and  lived  much  in  the  open  air.  Her  parents  were 
her  teachers.  After  some  years  a  highly  educated  young  woman  was  en- 
gaged to  instruct  Frances  and  her  brother  and  sister. 

At  seventeen,  Frances  and  her  sister  went  to  Milwaukee  Female  College, 
and  thence  to  the  Northwest  Female  College  at  Evanston,  Illinois,  where 
she  graduated  with  high  honors. 

Miss  Willard  taught  in  schools,  seminaries,  and  colleges  for  sixteen 
years,  her  last  position  being  that  of  dean  of  the  Woman's  College  of  the 
Northwestern  University.  She  was  at  the  same  time  professor  of  aesthetics 
and  natural  science. 

One  of  her  great  achievements  was  the  introduction  of  the  system  of 
self-government  among  the  students  and  bringing  to  pass  its  successful 

The  next  period  of  her  life  is  marked  by  the  temperance  crusade  in 
Ohio.  Her  soul  was  deeply  stirred,  she  determined  to  join  the  movement. 
The  making  of  the  Woman's  College  an  organic  part  of  the  University 
prevented  her  tarrying  out  her  plans  for  the  college  :  she  resigned  her  posi- 
tion as  dean  and  j)rofessor  and  joined  the  crusade  movement. 

More  than  two  thousand  pupils  had  been  under  her  instruction  and  her 
friends  numbered  many  more  thousands.     One  woman  has  the  sole  honor 



of  Standing  by  Miss  Willard  in  entering  the  crusade,  that  one  is  Mrs. 
Mary  A.  Livennore. 

From  teaching  aesthetics  in  a  university  she  became  an  apostle  of  tem- 
perance to  the  drunkards  of  Chicago.  She  often  went  without  her  noon- 
day hinch  because  she  had  no  money  to  pay  for  it,  and  she  walked  long 
and  weary  miles  because  she  was  unable  to  pay  car  fare. 

Upon  the  death  of  O.  A.  Willard,  her  brother,  in  the  summer  of  1878, 
she  became  editor  of  the  Chicago  Evening  Post,  and  also  president  of  the 
Women's  Christian  Temperance  movement  ;  while  in  1882  she  became  a 
member  of  the  executive  committee  of  the  Prohibition  party. 

She  became  president  of  the  Chicago  W^oman's  Christian  Temperance 
Union  in  * '  the  day  of  small  things. ' '  The  work  grew  ;  the  National  and 
then  the  World's  Woman's  Christian  Temperance  Union  were  formed, 
Miss  Willard  becoming  in  turn  president  of  each. 

She  was  the  originator  of  the  motto,  "For  God,  Home,  and  Native 
Land."  In  the  world-wide  movement  this  became,  "  For  (lod.  Home,  and 
Every  Land." 

Her  executive  ability  was  as  marvelous  as  her  power  over  an  audience 
was  mighty,  and  all  these  years  her  pen  was  busy  writing  along  the  many 
lines  of  the  work  of  the  L'nion. 

As  an  indication  of  how  her  character  and  work  were  regarded  in  Eng- 
land we  give  the  words  of  Lady  Henry  Somerset. 

**  She  was  welcomed  in  this  country  as  I  suppose  no  philanthropist  has 
been  welcomed  in  our  time.  The  vast  meeting  that  was  organized  to  greet 
her  at  Exeter  Hall  was  the  most  representative  that  has  ever  assembled  in 
that  historic  building.  On  the  platform  sat  members  of  Parliament,  digni- 
tiiries  of  the  Ciunch,  temperance  leaders  from  the  Roman  Catholic  Church, 
leaders  of  the  Labor  Movement,  and  of  the  Sahation  Army,  and  delega- 
tions from  the  Methodist,  Baptist,  and  Congregational  churches,  and  the 
Society  of  Friends.  The  chief  Jewish  rabbi  sent  a  congratulatory  letter 
and  signed  the  address  of  welcome." 



A.  D.  1820- 


HIS  woman   is  one*  of  those  whose  souls   have  burned  and  blazed 
because  of  the  unjust  discrimination  ajjainst  their  sex. 

Her  father  was  a  manufacturer  and  Susan  earned  her  first  dollar 
in  the  cotton  mill.  She  received  a  ^ood  education  and  began  teaching 
school  at  seventeen  years  of  age.  Her  wages  were  $1.50  per  week  and 
board.  She  continued  teaching  for  nearly  fifteen  years  and  by  the  most 
rijfid  economy  was  able  to  save  in  that  time  but  $300. 

She  was  filled  with  indignation  that  while  the  education  of  a  girl  cost  the 
same  as  that  of  a  boy  at  an  academy,  when  she  became  a  wage  earner  as  a 
teacher,  she  received  l)ut  one  third  that  of  a  young  man  doing  the  same 

These  exjHTiences  nerved  her  for  the  struggle  in  behalf  of  her  sex.  And 
every  woman  wage  earner  in  America  to-day  is  indirectly  indebted  to 
Susan  B.  Anthony. 

In  1S49  she  became  identified  with  the  temperance  movement  and 
placed  sjx'cial  emphasis  upon  the  use  of  the  ballot  for  woman's  protection. 
With  a  heart  responsive  to  every  righteous  cause  she  threw  her  influence  on 
the  side  of  the  abolition  of  slavery  in  1.S56,  .She,  with  Mrs.  Klizal)eth  Cady 
.Stanton  and  Parker  Pilisbury,  started  a  j)aj)er  in  New  York  called  The 
Ri'i'olution  in  which,  with  burning  worvls,  they  set  forth  the  claims  of 
women.  But  tiie  public  did  not  resj)ond  and  Miss  Anthony  was  left  with  a 
del)t  of  Sio/xx),  whicii  >he  proceeded  to  discharge  In'  lecturing. 

In  1S7J  she  insisted  upon  voting  for  president  and  was  arrested.  Her 
counsrl  ad\ise(l  iur  to  give  bonds  to  avoid  going  to  jail.  This  she  did, 
much  to  hi  r  n  grct  afterwards,  for  slu»  was  thus  depri\i»d  of  the  right  to 
carry  the  tasc  to  the  Suj)rcmc  Court.  The  judge  took  tlie  case  out  of  the 
hand>  (»f  the  jury,  jironounced  her  guilty,  and  fined  her  Sioo  and  costs. 
To  the  ju<lg<-  she  said,  **  R<-sistance  to  tyranny  is  obedience  to  (^lod  ;  I 
shall  never  pay  a  penny  of  this  unjust  claim."      Antl  she  kept  her  word. 

She  \\\\>  li\t(l  to  >re  a  gre;it  change  in  sentiment  if  not  in  law  concerning 



A.  D.  18^2- 


MISS  COBBE  was  born  in  Dublin  and  was  a  descendant  of  Charles 
Cobbe,  Archbishop  of  Dublin. 

Her  mother  died  when  she  was  quite  young  and  she  made 
inquiry  of  Theodore  Parker,  the  briUiant  rationalist,  concerning  the  future 
life.  Parker's  thinking  was  the  mould  in  which  much  of  her  thought  was 
afterwards  cast. 

She  wrote  Studies  A^euf  and  Old  of  Ethical  and  Social  Subjects,  Broken 
Lights,  a  statement  of  the  doctrines  of  different  divisions  of  the  English 
Church,  Essay  on  Intuitive  Morals,  probably  her  ablest  production,  Dar- 
winism in  Morals,  and  Other  Essays  in  which  she  treated  of  unconscious 
cerebration,  dreams,  and  other  questions  of  psychology. 

She  was  greatly  devoted  to  Mr.  Parker  and  was  witli  him  in  Italy  at  the 
time  of  his  death. 

Miss  Cobbe  was  interested  in  philanthropic  work.  Early  in  her  career 
she  assisted  at  the  Red-house  Reformatory,  London.  Along  with  her 
rationalistic  writings  on  religious  themes,  she  contributed  to  the  press  and 
personally  worked  in  Ixhalf  of  the  poor  and  friendless. 

Siastin  Irl    A^ntlioiiv  continued. 

women  and  especially  concerning  herself.  Once  the  press  and  the  public 
counted  her  a  rare  subject  for  jests  and  jeers.  She  suffered  persecution  for 
righteousness'  sake.  She  stood  heroically.  Her  convictions  were  too  deep 
and  luT  character  too  noI)le  for  any  faltering  or  com|)r<)mise.  Society  is 
now  honored  by  her  presence  and  the  press  is  glad  to  give  a  conspicuous 
place  to  what  she  may  choose  to  say.  The  heroic  (jualities  of  Susan  B. 
Anthony  will  be  profoundly  admired  in  the  coming  generations. 

She  has  lived  to  see  a  partial  triumph  of  her  cause.  In  one  half  the 
states  of  the  Union  women  vote  on  school  (jucstions.  In  Kansas  and 
Michigan  women  vote  on  municipal  questions,  and  in  Wyoming  and  Colo- 
rado they  vote  on  all  state  questions  on  an  ecjuality  with  men.  So  the 
cause  is  marching  on. 



A.  D.  1815- 


/  I  (his  remarkable  leader  of  women  was  the  daughter  of  Judge  Cady  of 
-L  Johnstown,  N.  Y.  She  was  reared  in  a  community  where  most  of 
the  people  were  Scotch  and  where  the  idea  of  woman's  place  and 
ability  was  somewhat  mediaeval.  Judge  Cady  had  one  son  upon  whom  he 
centered  his  hopes  and  to  whom  he  gave  an  excellent  education.  But  this 
son  died  when  the  daughter,  Elizabeth,  was  but  ten  years  of  age.  Her 
brother  had  but  just  graduated  from  Union  College. 

The  girl  saw  her  father's  grief  and  disappointment  and  determined  to 
fill  his  place.  She  applied  herself  most  diligently  to  her  studies  and  won  a 
prize  in  Greek.  She  hoped  that  her  father  would  be  pleased  and  admit 
that  a  girl  could  be  as  good  a  student  as  a  boy.  But  the  expected  com- 
mendation did  not  come.  She  then  took  up  additional  studies  and  fitted 
herself  to  enter  Union  College,  but  was  refused  because  of  her  sex. 

After  a  few  years  in  Mrs.  Willard's  school  at  Troy,  N.  Y.,  she  returned 
home  and  spent  seven  years  chiefly  in  the  study  of  law  in  her  father's  office. 

She  became  the  wife  of  H.  H.  Stanton  in  1840.  Mr.  Stanton  was  an 
advocate  of  the  anti-slavery  movement  and  the  couple  attended  the  World's 
Anti-Slavery  Convention  in  London  on  their  wedding  tour.  Here  Mrs. 
Stanton  met  Lucretia  Mott,  who,  with  others,  had  been  sent  as  delegates 
from  the  United  States. 

Upon  her  return  to  America,  Mrs.  Stanton  was  instrumental  in  calling 
the  first  woman's  rights  convrntion.  Her  father,  hearing  of  this,  feared  she 
hail  become  insane  and  visited  her  to  dissuade  her  from  the  undertaking. 
This  was  in  i«^47.  At  the  convention  she  introduced  the  resolution,  **  That 
it  is  the  duty  of  the  women  of  tiiis  country  to  secure  to  themselves  the 
sacred  right  of  tiie  chrtive  franrhise. " 

Mrs.  Stanton  was  far  in  advance  of  her  age  and  was  subjected  to  Ixjth 
Oj)|)osition  and  ridicnU-  ;  but  she  has  continued  to  be  an  educator  of  public 
oj)inion  and  many  of  iier  plans  which  were  at  first  ridiculed  are  now  treated 
with  rtspect  and  (\vrp  interest. 




A.  D.  1819- 


I ISS  WARD  was  bom  of  wealthy  parents  in  the   most  fashionable 
part  of  New  York.      The  mother  died  when  Julia  was  but  five 
years  old.     Her  father  was  ver\-  exact  in  observance  of  all  social 
forms,  and  sought  to  g^ve  his  children  the  best  literary  and  musical  advan- 
tages.    His  home  was  the  gathering  place  of  many  people  of  renown. 

After  her  father's  death,  Miss  Ward  removed  to  Boston,  where,  owing^ 
to  her  marked  abilities,  she  was  received  into  the  society  of  such  notables 
as  Margaret  Fuller,  Horace  Mann,  Charles  Sumner,  and  Ralph  Waldo 

Here  she  met  Dr.  Samuel  G.  Howe.  He  had  already  become  well 
known  for  espousing  the  cause  of  the  Greeks  against  the  Turks  and  carry- 
ing supplies  to  them  in  the  island  of  Crete  and  ministering  to  them  in  per- 
son.    He  was  best  known,  however,  as  the  teacher  of  Laura  Bridgman. 

Miss  Ward  and  Dr.  Howe  were  married  and  traveled  in  Europe. 
Charles  Dickens  had  written  about  the  wonderful  development  of  Laura 
Bridgman  and  this  was  the  means  of  the  newly  married  couple  being 
admitted  to  the  society  of  Dickens,  Thomas  Moore,  Carlyle,  Sydney 
Smith,  and  other  literary'  and  social  lights.  They  were  invited  to  visit 
Florence  Nightingale,  who  was  dreaming  and  planning  for  her  great  work, 
and  was  much  helped  by  Dr.  Howe. 

L'pon  their  return  to  America.  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Howe  l>ecame  identified 
with  the  anti-sla\ery  movement.  She  had  betn  for  years  a  bright  and 
vigv^rous  writer.      Her  pen  was  now  wieKkd  f»»r  the  race  ot  bondmen. 

During  the  war  they  were  visit inv;  the  soMiors  in  camp  near  Washing- 
ton. During  the  \isit  Mrs,  Howe  and  others  in  the  carriages  sang  *' John 
Brown.*'  in  which  the  soldiers  joined.  One  of  her  friends  told  her  she 
ought  to  write  something  better  for  the  music.  Next  morning  she  was 
awake  long  before  daun  and  wrote  tlie  famous  /^./.V.V  Hymn  ct  the  Republic. 

Mrs.  Howe  has  written  extensively  for  our  leading  periodicals  on  a  great 
\-ariety  of  themes,  and  is  widely  known  and  loved. 



A.  I>.  1830- 


/  I  \  HIS  woman  has   honored  both   her  native  land  and  her  sex  by  her 
JL       brilliant  work.     She  proved  that  Americans  can  be  sculptors,  and 
that  a  woman  can  handle  a  chisel  as  well  as  palette  and  brush. 

Her  birthplace  was  Watertown,  Mass.  Her  mother  and  older  sister 
had  died  of  consumption  and  her  father,  an  eminent  physician,  encouraged 
her  to  spend  much  time  in  the  open  air.  Studies  were  of  secondary  import- 
ance. She  soon  had  a  taste  for  hunting,  fishing,  rowing,  horseback  riding, 
and  became  an  all  around  athlete.  In  the  fields  and  forests  she  gained  a 
thorough  knowledge  of  animal  life,  and  when  still  but  a  child  she  began  to 
model  dogs,  horses,  and  other  animals  in  a  clay  pit  near  her  home. 

Her  physical  strength  enabled  her  afterward  to  wield  the  four  pound 
mallet  for  eight  or  ten  hours  per  day  in  giving  life  form  to  marble. 

Her  school  days  at  Lenox,  Mass. ,  were  not  marked  by  scholarship  or 
attention  to  the  routine  of  school  life.  Nature  was  her  school  and  teacher. 
.She  was  the  despair  of  those  who  were  appointed  to  be  her  instructors. 
Finding  that  sculpture  was  her  forte  she  went  to  St.  Louis  to  study 
anatomy,  as  she  could  not  gain  admission  to  the  conservative  medical 
schools  of  the  Kast. 

Next  she  went  to  Rome  and  became  the  pupil  of  the  famous  sculptor, 
Gibson.  For  her  work,  The  Sleepin^a^  Faun,  she  received  $5,000. 
Zcnobia  in  Chains  was  one  of  her  masterpieces.  The  proud  but  captive 
queen  of  Palmyra  is  shown  as  she  was  forced  to  march  in  the  triumphal 
procession  of  the  Roman  concjuerors.  **  She  is  a  queen  in  spirit,  unde- 
throned  by  calamity." 

The  bronze  statue  of  Col.  Thomas  H.  Benton  in  .St.  Louis  is  a  speci- 
men of  her  work.  In  accepting  the  invitation  to  prepare  the  statue,  she 
said,  amonj^^  otli<r  things,  "  Rut  I  have  also  reason  to  be  grateful  to  you  be- 
cause I  am  a  woman  :  and,  knowing  what  barriers  must  in  the  outset  oppose 
all  womanly  efforts,  1  am  indebted  to  the  chivalry  of  the  West,  which  has 
first  overleaped  them." 



A.   D.  1885- 

4— *— V 

^TLALAIS,  Me.,  was  the  birthplace  of  Harriet  Prescott.  Her  father, 
\JM  Joseph  N.  Prescott,  was  a  lumber  merchant.  He  afterwards  studied 
T  law,  and  in  1849  went  to  the  far  west  with  the  thousands  of  fortune 
seekers.  He  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  city  of  Oregon  and  was  thrice 
elected  mayor.  During  the  last  twenty  years  of  his  life  he  suffered  from 
lingering  paralysis. 

Her  mother  was  a  woman  of  great  nobility  of  character  and  left  her 
impress  upon  the  life  of  her  daughter. 

At  fourteen  Harriet  went  to  Newbur>'port  to  live  with  an  aunt,  where  she 
might  gain  an  education  which  could  not  be  obtained  in  Calais.  She  won 
the  prize  for  an  essay  on  Hamlet  and  gained  the  attention  of  some  literary 
people  who  gave  her  encouragement.  She  wrote  plays  for  the  school 
exhibitions  which  proved  acceptable.  She  afterward  studied  at  Pinkerton 
Academy,  her  mother  and  the  other  children  having  removed  to  Derry,  N.  H. 

Harriet  early  began  to  write  short  stories  to  win  bread  for  loved  ones, 
and  she  was  able  to  add  somewhat  to  their  scanty  income. 

In  1858  there  appeared  in  the  Atlantic  Monthly  a  story  from  her  pen, 
In  a  Cellar,  which  created  a  great  stir.  Sir  Rohari  s  Ghost  was  one  of  her 
great  works.  llie  South  Breaker,  taken  from  the  scenes  of  sea-faring  life 
so  familiar  at  Newburyport,  breathes  the  very  breath  of  old  ocean  with  the 
rumble  and  roar  of  sullen  storm.  A  Thief  iii  the  Night  is  a  dramatic  story 
of  sowing  and  reaping  in  the  fields  of  sin.  She  wrote  also,  New  England 
Legeiids,   The  Marquis  of  Ca^abas,  and  Hester  Stanley  at  St.  Mark' s. 

In  1865  Miss  Prescott  was  married  to  Richard  S.  Spofford,  a  Newbury- 
port lawyer.  They  had  loved  each  other  since  the  days  of  early  youth, 
and  had  for  many  years  been  engaged. 

Mrs.  Spofford  gave  careful  attention  to  domestic  affairs  and  was  a  home- 
maker  as  well  as  a  literary  light. 

She  wrote  on  domestic  subjects  as  well  as  fiction.  Among  her  produc- 
tions are  Art  Decoration  Applied  to  Furniture  and  The  Servant  Question, 



A.  D.  isao- 


MRS.  LOCKWOOD  is  one  of  America's  most  remarkable  women,  and 
has  achieved  marked  success  in  her  chosen  profession,  that  of  law. 
In  this  she  is  the  pioneer  of  our  country.     Her  career  is  the  story 
of  struggle  and  well  earned  victories. 

Her  maiden  name  was  Burnett  and  her  birthplace  Royalton,  N.  Y. 
She  began  teaching  school  when  but  fourteen  years  old  and  with  the  money 
thus  earned  attended  the  academy  in  her  native  town.  She  was  married  to 
Mr.  McNall,  a  farmer  in  the  town.  One  daughter  was  born  to  them.  Her 
husband  died  four  years  after  their  marriage,  and  the  following  year  she 
entered  Genesee  College  and  graduated  in  the  regular  course.  She  was  at 
once  called  to  become  principal  of  the  Lockport  Union  School,  where  she 
continued  for  four  years.  Subsequently  she  taught  at  Gainsville  Seminary, 
and  later  was  proprietor  of  the  McNall  Seminary  at  Oswego,  N.  Y. 

In  1868  she  removed  to  W^ashington,  D.  C,  and  opened  a  school. 
Soon  after  this  she  married  Rev.  Ezekiel  Lockwood.  About  the  same  time 
she  began  the  study  of  law  and  sought  admission  to  the  law  school  of  Co- 
lumbia College,  but  was  refused  on  the  ground  that  her  presence  in  the 
classes  "  would  distract  the  attention  of  the  young  men." 

Two  years  later  she  received  the  degree  of  A.  M.  from  Syracuse  Univer- 
sity, anci  the  following  year  was  admitted  to  the  National  University  Law 
School,  from  which  she  graduated,  receiving  the  degree  of  B.L. 

After  a  long  and  spirited  controversy  she  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  the 
Supreme  Court  of  the  District  of  Columbia,  where  she  has  practiced  with 
marked  success.  In  1875  she  sought  admission  to  the  Court  of  Claims. 
She  was  rejected  on  the  ground,  first,  that  she  was  a  woman,  and,  second, 
that  she  was  a  married  woman.  A  year  later  she  sought,  but  was  refused, 
admission  to  the  T.  S.  Supreme  Court.  She  then  drafted  a  bill  admitting 
women  to  the  bar  of  the  V.  S.  Supreme  Court,  and  after  three  years  of 
work  secured  its  passage  through  lK)th  branches  of  Congress.  She  was 
then  admitted  and  stands  as  the  first  w(jman  to  be  granted  that  honor. 



A.  D.  1835- 


^^\  ISS  CHANDLER  was  born  in  Pomfret,  Connecticut,  and  for  years 
aTj^  after  winning  literar>'  fame  made  the  place  of  her  birth  her  place  of 
residence  for  a  part  of  the  year.  She  is  a  charming  woman  in 
the  noblest  sense  of  the  word  and  warmly  admired  by  her  hundreds  of 
friends  and  thousands  of  readers. 

When  she  was  but  eighteen  a  Boston  firm  published  a  collection  of  her 
stories  and  poems  under  the  title  of  T/iiSy  That  and  the  Other,  It  was  a 
pronounced  success  and  quickly  reached  a  sale  of  fifteen  thousand  copies. 
Louise  attended  school  for  a  year  at  Mrs.  Willard's  Seminary  at  Troy,  and 
in  the  year  following  was  married  to  William  Moulton,  a  Boston  editor  and 
publisher  who  knew  her  through  her  writings. 

After  the  publication  of  Jinio  Clifford,  a  novel,  she  wTote  for  Harper' s^ 
Atlantic,  Scribner'  s,   Yoiiyig  Folks,  and    Youtli  s  Companion, 

In  1870  she  began  her  work  of  Boston  correspondent  of  the  New  York 
Tribune,  and  continued  her  letters,  sometimes  four  per  week,  for  six  years. 

In  1876  she  visited  Europe,  where  she  did  considerable  literary  work 
amid  the  delights  of  travel.  One  of  her  books  was  published  while  she 
visited  in  London  and  was  highly  praised. 

Her  Bedtime  Stories  were  dedicated  to  her  own  little  daughter,  who 
seemed  to  have  been  their  inspiration.  Other  works  are  :  Little  A/other^ 
Some  lVo?nen  s  Hearts,  Fleeing  from  Tah,  and  SwalloiC  Flights  (a  collec- 
tion of  poems). 

We  quote  two  verses  from  her  poem,  House  of  Death, 

**  There  is  rust  upon  locks  and  hinges, 
And  mold  and  blight  on  the  walls, 
And  silence  faints  in  the  chambers, 
-And  darkness  waits  in  the  halls  — 

"  Waits  as  all  things  have  waited 

Since  she  went,  that  day  of  spring, 
lk)me  in  her  pallid   splendor 

To  dwell  in  the  court  of  the  King.** 





/  I  iHIS  remarkable  and  much  loved  lady  is  the  daughter  of  the  third 
JL  Earl  of  Somers,  who  was  in  every  way  a  nobleman.  For  some  years 
he  was  Lord-in-waiting  to  the  Queen,  spending  the  time  at  Windsor, 
Osborne,  and  Balmoral.  Being  a  man  of  artistic  and  literary  tastes,  he 
resigned  his  position  to  devote  himself  to  his  studies.  His  intimate 
acquaintance  with  the  Queen  gave  his  daughter  many  advantages.  He 
was  for  thirty  years  in  the  House  of  Lords. 

Lady  Henry  Somerset  has  a  vast  estate  at  Eastnor,  fifteen  miles  in 
length  and  containing  twenty-five  thousand  acres.  The  castle  is  three  miles 
from  the  lodge  gate  in  Eastnor  Park.  In  London  she  owns  a  tract  of  land 
on  which  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  thousand  persons  live. 

To  the  welfare  of  the  people  on  her  country  and  city  estates  she  has 
devoted  much  of  her  time  and  income.  She  began  by  studying  the  causes 
of  poverty  and  crime,  and  found  the  liquor  traffic  at  the  bottom  of  all. 
Being  a  woman  of  deeds  as  well  as  words,  she  took  the  total  abstinence 
pledge,  induced  some  of  her  tenants  to  do  the  same,  and  so  started  a  tem- 
perance society.  She  visited  the  homes  of  her  tenants,  gave  Bible  readings 
in  the  kitchens,  and  gathereci  the  mothers  at  the  castle  to  confer  with  them 
as  to  the  training  of  thi-ir  children. 

Her  philanthropic  work  soon  spread  beyond  her  own  estates,  and  calls 
came  for  her  to  speak  and  work  in  behalf  of  temperance  far  and  near. 
She  went  among  the  miners  of  South  Wales  and  held  meetings  for  days  in 
succession  in  tents,  halls,  and  in  the  pits  during  the  dinner  hours.  Hers 
seemed  to  the  poor  miners  as  the  form  and  voice  of  an  angel. 

In  1890  she  became  president  of  the  British  Woman*s  Temperance 

She  visited  AnK-rita  to  attend  the  World's  Woman's  Christian  Temper- 
ance Tnion.  At  that  time  was  formed  and  from  that  time  ripened  the 
friendship  of  Lady  Henry  Somerset  and  Frances  F.  Willard. 

This  visit  gave  the  American  people  a  new  idea  of  the  possibilities  of 






ISS  MURFREE  is  a  Southerner,  and,  as  portrayer  of  Southern  life 
and  scenery,  she  occupies  a  unique  place. 

Her  early  sketches  were  published  in  the  Atlantic  Monthly  and 
met  with  immediate  success.  She  had  opened  up  a  new  field  and  people 
read  her  stories,  In  the  Tennessee  J\fountains,  with  great  relish. 

* '  The  everlasting  hills,  calmly  observant  of  human  vicissitudes,  form  a 
harmonious  background  for  her  wild,  pathetic,  and  tragic  scenes.  The 
mountaineers  whom  she  portrays  are  a  taciturn,  serious,  secret  race,  with 
few  ideas,  but  tenacious  of  those  they  have.  Her  men  are  stern  and  rude  ; 
her  women  are  reserved,  undemonstrative,  lacking  in  feminine  grace  and 
charm,  but  unalterable,  both  in  their  loves  and  their  hates.  This  straqge 
people,  with  their  uncompromising  speech,  their  peculiar  dialect,  their 
rugged,  natural  environment,  form  an  unfamiliar  and  powerful  picture." 

The  following  are  the. names  of  some  of  her  works  :  Mliere  the  Baiiie 
was  Fought,  In  the  Clouds,  The  Story  of  Keedon  Bluffs,  The  Despot  oj 
Broomsedge  Cove,  The  Stranger  People's  Comitry,  The  Prophet  of  the  Great 
Smoky  Mountain, 

Even  Miss  Murfrce's  publishers  supposed  that  they  were  dealing  with  a 
man  and  were  greatly  surprised  when  she  visited  Boston  and  called  upon 
them.  Her  writings  have  all  the  vigor  of  a  masculine  mind  and  at  the  same 
time  show  the  keen  insight  of  a  woman. 

Lf£Ldl>r  Henry  Somerset  continued, 

English  nobility.      Lady  Henry  took  Miss  Willard  back  to  England  with 
her  for  much  needed  rest. 

She  is  one  of  the  busiest  of  women.  She  is  obliged  to  give  attention  to 
nearly  one  hundred  letters  per  day.  The  calls  for  her  time  or  means  in 
behalf  of  humanity  are  multitudinous  and  exacting.  Hers  might  be  a  life 
of  refined  ease  and  selfish  indolence,  but  she  chooses  to  give  herself  untir- 
ingly to  the  betterment  of  her  fellow  beings. 



A.  D.  1810- 

MERE  list  of  the  great  events  and  progressive  movements  of  Vic- 

toria's reign  would  fill  many  pages.  In  the  summer  of  1887  was 
celebrated  the  fiftieth  year  of  her  reign  and  ten  years  later,  1897, 
the  nation  and  the  world  did  honor  to  the  queen  by  celebrating  her  *  *  dia- 
mond jubilee.**  And  well  might  the  occasion  be  celebrated,  for  no  similar 
period  in  the  history  of  Europe  has  been  so  **  crowded  with  benefit  to 
humanity.  * ' 

This  book,  dealing  with  the  progress  of  woman,  may  find  its  culmina- 
tion in  the  person  and  reign  of  Victoria. 

Her  coming  to  the  throne  is  of  romantic  interest.  Her  father,  Edward, 
Duke  of  Kent,  was  the  youngest  son  of  George  HL  He  was  sent  to 
Hanover  to  be  educated  as  a  soldier.  A  thousand  pounds  a  year  was  ap- 
pointed for  his  education,  but  this  did  not  seem  sufficient.  He  contracted 
debts  and  without  permission  of  his  father  returned  to  England.  He  was 
sent  to  Gibraltar  and  then  to  Canada,  where  he  commanded  the  military 
forci's  of  British  America.  Later  he  was  made  governor  of  Gibraltar  and 
ruled  well. 

When  he  was  fifty  years  of  age  he  married  Princess  Louisa  Victoria  of 
Saxe-Cohurg,  who  became  the  noble  mother  of  Victoria.  The  father  desired 
that  his  child  should  be  Ixjrn  in  England  and  sought  financial  aid  from  his 
brother  for  the  journey,  but  this  was  refused.  Edward  believed  that  he 
would  some  day  be  king  as  his  brothers  had  lived  dissipated  lives  and  were 
older  than  he  ;  moreover,  he  expected  that  his  child  would  rule  England. 
Funds  were  at  last  secured,  though  the  duke  lived  and  died  heavily  in  debt. 

The  couple  returned  to  England  and  took  up  their  residence  at  Ken- 
sington Palace,  where  the  future  (jueen  was  born.  Her  father  lived  but  eight 
months  after  her  i)irth  and  the  training  of  Victoria  devolved  entirely  upon 
the  mother,  one  of  the  noblest  of  the  world's  noble  women.  The  character 
of  England's  (jueen  was  formed  by  her  mother. 

Her  education  was  most  thorough  and  liberal  and  in  all  her  studies  and 



amusements  the  mother  was  her  constant  companion.  From  her  cradle  she 
was  taught  to  speak  three  languages,  English,  German,  and  French,  and 
early  became  familiar  with  Latin,  also  Italian  and  Greek,  as  well  as  being 
proficient  in  mathematics  and  the  sciences. 

As  a  child  she  was  told  of  her  father's  debts  and  early  began  to  lay  aside 
money  which  might  have  been  spent  for  toys,  to  help  in  canceling  the  debts. 
Almost  her  first  act  on  coming  to  the  throne  was  to  pay  these  debts  in  full. 

After  she  had  been  proclaimed  sovereign  she  retired  to  her  mother's 
apartments  and  then  followed  this  notable  conversation  :  — 

*'I  can  scarcely  believe,  mamma,  that  I  am  really  Queen  of  England. 
Can  it  indeed  be  so  ? '  * 

'*You  are  really  queen,  my  child,"  replied  the  Duchess  of  Kent, 
*' listen  how  your  subjects  still  cheer  your  name  in  the  streets  and  cry  to 
God  to  bless  you.'* 

"In  time  I  shall  perhaps  become  accustomed  to  this  too  great  and 
splendid  state.  But,  since  I  am  sovereign,  let  me,  as  your  queen,  have  to- 
day my  first  wish.     Let  me  be  quite  alone,  dear  mother,  for  a  long  time." 

And  Victoria  spent  the  first  hours  of  her  reign  alone  on  her  knees  pray- 
ing for  herself  and  her  people,  with  supplications  simple  and  noble,  which 
have  been  graciously  answered  in  these  decades. 

From  the  hour  that  \'ictoria  became  queen  her  mother,  the  duchess, 
gave  her  no  further  advice  or  suggestion,  but  treated  her  with  the  respect 
due  her  rank.  The  duchess  was  confident  of  the  character  which  had 
been  formed  and  wisely  and  graciously  left  all  resj)onsibility  upon  the  one 
who  had  been  so  carefully  trained  to  bear  it.  Although  but  eighteen  years 
of  age,  Victoria  was  a  woman  in  wisdom. 

Two  years  after  •her  coronation  she  married  Prince  Albert  of  Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha  and  until  his  death,  twenty  years  later,  they  lived  lives  of 
ideal  domestic  happiness  and  gave  to  England  a  model  of  home  love  and 
fidelity.      Nine  children  were  born  to  them. 

Victoria  died  at  Osborne  House  on  the  Isle  of  Wight,  January  22, 
1 90 1.  The  expressions  of  universal  sorrow  which  her  death  called  forth 
from  all  the  civilized  nations  of  the  world  show  how  widely  she  was  loved 
and  honored  both  as  a  woman  and  as  a  queen. 



A.  D.  1842- 

.»    <»    o. — 

^^  ER  father  was  a  Philadelphia  merchant  and  a  devout  Quaker.  Her 
K^/  mother  was  of  aristocratic  family  and  of  much  refinement  and 
nobility  of  character.  The  father  lost  his  property  and  soon  after- 
wards died.  The  family  was  reduced  to  poverty.  Anna  was  a  restless, 
willful,  and  imaginative  child,  who  caused  all  about  her  much  anxiety. 

Ambition  and  will  power  carried  her  over  many  hard  places.  Her  more 
wealthy  schoolmates  made  sport  of  her  poor  clothes.  This  stung  her  to 
more  intense  action.  She  read  everything  within  her  reach.  For  months 
she  slept  not  more  than  five  hours  in  the  twenty-four.  She  had  a  passion 
for  oratory,  and  on  one  occasion  scrubbed  a  sidewalk  for  twenty-five  cents 
that  she  might  hear  Wendell  Phillips  lecture  on  *'The  Lost  Arts.*' 

Her  fiery  character  is  seen  in  the  following  incident  :  As  she  was  about 
to  accept  the  position  as  teacher  of  a  district  school,  the  committeeman 
remarked  in  an  insulting  tone,  *  *  A  man  taught  this  school  and  we  gave 
him  twenty-eight  dollars  a  month  ;  but  we  should  not  give  a  girl  more  than 
sixteen  dollars."  In  her  wrathful  pride  she  answered,  "Sir,  are  you  a  fool, 
or  do  you  take  me  for  one?  I  am  too  poor  to-day  to  buy  a  pair  of  cotton 
gloves,  but  I  would  rather  go  in  rags  than  degrade  my  womanhood  by 
accepting  anything  at  your  hands."  She  was  penniless  and  at  last  accepted 
a  place  as  saleswoman  in  a  store,  but  soon  gave  that  up  because  she  was 
expected  to  niisrtpresent  the  goods. 

In  iS6o  she  made  her  first  speech  on  ** Woman's  Rights  and  Wrongs" 
before  the  Association  of  Progressive  Friends. 

She  obtained  a  position  in  the  new  T.  S.  Mint,  but  after  the  battle  of 
Ball's  Bluft  she  declared.  This  battle  was  not  lost  through  ignorance  or 
incompetence,  but  through  the  treason  of  the  commanding  general.  For 
this  she  was  dismissed. 

From  this  time  she  turned  to  the  lecture  field  and  made  lecturing  her 
profession.  She  was  afterwards  thankful  for  her  discharge  from  the  mint, 
though  the  way  seemed  dark  at  the  time.      In  fact  there  were  many  other 



dark   days.     Few   women   have  known  greater  trials  or  more  splendid 
triumphs.  * 

Early  in  1863  she  went  to  G.mcord,  New  Hampshire,  to  lecture.  It 
was  her  last  appointment  for  the  season.  She  had  no  money  and  the  only 
prospective  income  was  the  ten  dollars  promised  her  for  the  lecture.  She 
had  sought  to  find  employment  without  success  and  was  weary  and  dis- 

But  her  lecture  on  ' '  Hospital  Life  * '  was  such  a  success  that  the 
Republican  leaders  said,  "If  we  can  get  that  girl  to  make  that  speech  all 
through  New  Hampshire,  we  can  carry  the  state  ticket  in  the  coming  elec- 
tion.'* On  March  ist  she  began  her  tour  of  triumph,  which  ended  in  a 
Republican  victory.  The  governor-elect  made  a  personal  acknowledgment 
that  her  magnetic,  eloquent  speeches  had  secured  his  election. 

The  tide  had  turned.  Connecticut  sought  her.  The  cause  of  the  party 
there  seemed  lost,  but  through  her  efforts  victory  was  achieved.  She  was 
given  one  hundred  dollars  per  night,  and  for  her  speech  the  night  before 
election  received  four  hundred  dollars. 

Everywhere  there  was  a  perfect  furore  to  hear  this  gifted  girl.  She 
was  called  *  *  The  New  Joan  of  Arc.  * ' 

She  was  next  invited  to  Pennsylvania  and  sent  into  the  mining  region, 
because,  as  some  one  said,  "  no  man  dared  go  there  to  speak."  She  was 
often  assaulted  with  stones  and  rotten  eggs,  and  received  not  one  dollar  for 
her  ser\'ices. 

One  of  the  greatest  honors  of  her  life  was  the  invitation  to  speak  in  the 
Hall  of  Representatives.  Here  assembled  to  hear  her  one  of  the  most 
notable  audiences  that  ever  met  in  Washington.  It  was  composed  of  sen- 
ators, representatives,  foreign  diplomats,  the  chief  justice,  the  president, 
and  Washington  society  generally.  The  proceeds  of  the  lecture  were  over 
one  thousand  dollars  and  were  devoted  to  the  National  Freedmen's  Relief 

One  of  her  notable  lectures,  many  times  delivered  after  the  close  of  the 
war,  was  '*  Woman's  Work  and  Wages."  On  this  she  could  speak  with 
the  burning  eloquence  of  experience. 



A.  D.  1898- 


HE  has  written  over  twenty-five  hundred  hymns  besides  many  secular 
songs,  cantatas,  and  lyrical  productions  of  various  kinds.  *  *  Rescue 
the  Perishing,"  **  Jesus,  Keep  Me  Near  the  Cross,'*  and  **Keep 
Thou  My  Way,  O  Lord,"  are  among  her  well  known  productions.  In  con- 
nection with  Plymouth  Church,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  for  many  years  was  car- 
ried on  the  Mayflower  Mission  and  the  last  named  hymn  was  long  used  as 
the  Mission  prayer  song. 

**  Qose  to  Thee,"  **  Come  to  the  Saviour,"  **  Saviour,  More  than  Life 
to  Me,"  **  I  am  Thine,  O  Lord."  **  So  Near  to  the  Kingdom,"  have  been 
sung  round  the  world  in  English  and  have  also  been  translated  into  many 
other  languages. 

She  does  not  rank  with  the  great  poets  but  her  songs  have  reached 
many  hearts  where  more  stately  productions  would  not  have  gained  admit- 
tance.    Her  mission  has  been  a  noble  one  and  well  performed.    To, 

Rescue  the  perishing. 

Care  for  the  dying, 
Snatch  them  in  pity  from  sin  and  the  grave  ; 

Weep  o'er  the  erring  one, 

Lift  up  the  fallen, 
Tell  them  of  Jesus,  the  mighty  to  save. 

Her  productions  might  wi-11  be  called  *' Songs  of  a  Half-Century,"  for 
she  has  hern  writing  for  more  than  that  period  of  time. 

Her  talent  for  writing  verses  showed  itself  when  she  was  not  more  than 
eight  years  old  and  e\  ery  year  since  has  seen  something  from  her  pen.  All 
these  have  been  writttn  in  her  blindness  and  many  of  them,  so  full  of  joy 
and  hope  and  light,  gain  new  beauty  and  a  meiLsure  of  pathos,  when  we 
remember  that  they  were  written  in  darkness. 

She  is  married,  lu-r  husband's  name  In'ing  Van  Alstyne,  but  the  world 
continues  to  know  and  love  her  as  Kanny  J.  Crosby. 

Although  she  has  written  so  much  her  productions  have  never  been 
collected  into  a  single  book. 


]V[ARY  H.  HUNT. 



/  I  \  HE  woman  who  has  appeared  before  more  legislative  bodies  than  any 
JL      other  living  person,  has  traveled  untold  thousands  of  miles,  and  has 
delivered   addresses   innumerable   on   temperance,    education,   and 
kindred  themes. 

Her  father,  Ephraim  Hanchett,  was  a  courageous  and  enthusiastic 
worker  in  the  anti-slavery  movement,  and  his  daughter  inherited  his  best 

After  a  most  thorough  course  of  studies  she  became  professor  of  natural 
science  in  one  of  the  leading  institutions  of  Baltimore.  In  this  she  was 
unconsciously  training  for  her  life  work  in  behalf  of  scientific  temj>erance 

When  she  was  married  and  became  a  mother  she  found  a  further  educa- 
tion and  preparation  for  her  great  work.  She  saw  in  the  liquor  traffic  and 
the  drink  habit  the  great  foe  of  humanity  and  the  sorrow  of  mothers  and 

Her  mind  took  a  wide  sweep.  She  saw  that  rescue  work  was  but  a 
part  of  what  the  world  needed.  The  real  nature  and  effects  of  alcoholic 
drinks  upon  mind  and  body  should  be  known  by  the  children.  Instruction 
should  not  be  optional  but  compulsory. 

She  became  the  superintendent  of  the  newly  constituted  educational 
department  of  the  National  Woman's  Christian  Temperance  Union.  A 
new  school  literature  on  hygiene  was  needed  and  was  created,  largely  under 
her  direction. 

Thoroughly  abreast  of  the  times  on  all  scientific  and  legislative  matters, 
she  has,  though  opposed  and  misrepresented,  won  a  host  of  brilliant  vic- 
tories for  humanity  and  temperance. 

As  a  result  of  her  work  legislation  for  compulsory  temperance  educa- 
tion has  been  secured  in  most  of  the  states  of  the  Union  and  in  all  the  terri- 
tories, also  in  national  military  and  naval  academies  and  in  all  schools  for 
the  Indian  and  colored  races  under  national  control. 



A.  D.  18S8- 


HE  is  one  of  the  most  prolific  authors  of  this  age.     For  forty  years 
she  produced  a  book  each  year  and  has  written  in  all  over  seventy 
books.      She   is   especially  happy    in   the   delineation   of   Scottish 
and  English  life  and  character.      Her  birthplace  was  in  Midlothian,  Scot- 
land, and  this,  in  part,  accounts  for  her  skill  in  depicting  life  in  Scotland. 

Among  her  works  are  Katie  Stewart,  The  Laird  of  Norlan,  The 
Chronicles  oj  Carlinjiford  (in  nine  volumes),  The  Ladies  Undores,  and 
Mrs.  Blencarroivs'   Troubles. 

Of  her  works  on  history  and  biography  we  mention,  The  Literary  His- 
tory of  England,  The  Makers  of  Florence,  Makers  of  Venice,  ferusalem, 
the  Holy  City,  and  St.  Francis  of  Assisi. 

She  edited  for  the  Messrs.  Blackwood  the  series  of  Foreign  Classics  for 
English  Readers  and  prepared  the  volume  on  Dante  and  Cervantes. 

Mrs.  Oliphant  as  a  writer  is  not  only  prolific  but  versatile,  more  so,  per- 
haps, than  any  other  female  novelist.  From  pure  fiction  she  could  turn  to 
psychological  subjects  and  from  these  to  historical  themes  and  thence  to 
sketches  of  travel.  Two  volumes  of  Historical  Sketches  of  the  Reign  of 
George  //.  are  of  grtat  interest  and  permanent  value.  The  volumes 
consist  of  short  biographies,  political,  literary,  and  fashionable.  Queen 
Caroline  and  Walpolr  come  first,  then  follow  *'The  Man  of  the 
World"  (Lord  Che^terhcld;,  ''The  Woman  of  Fashion"  (Lady  Mont- 
tagu),  ''Thf  Toft"  (Tope),  **The  Reformer"  (John  Wesley),  **The 
Sailor"  (Ansnn),  "The  PhilosopluT "  (Berkeley),  **The  Novelist*' 
(Richardson),  ''The  Skeptic"  (David  Hume),  and  **The  Painter'' 
(Hogarth  ). 

This  is  a  hapj)y  idea  of  showing  the  times,  through  the  portraiture  of  a 
group  of  hading  individuals  in  the  various  walks  of  life.  One  of  the 
easiest  ways  of  studying  history  is  through  the  biographies  of  leaders. 

We  wouhl  e^peeially  mention  in  this  connection  her  vivid  description 
of  Gi^rge  Whiiefield  and  the  Bristol  colliers. 



A.  D.  IMl- 


J^vittior  of  "Rol^ert  Slamere.*' 

MRS.    WARD   is   of  the  illustrious  family  of  Arnolds,  Dr.  Thomas 
Arnold  of  Rugby  being  her  grandfather.     He  had  two  sons,  Mat- 
thew and  Thomas.     Mrs.   Ward  is  daughter  of   the    last  named. 
After  his  studies  were  completed  at  Oxford,  he  became  inspector  of  schools 
for  Tasmania  (the  island  south  of  Australia).     There  he  married  Miss  Julia 
Lovell,  and  Mary  Augusta  was  born  to  them. 

Mr.  Arnold  became  a  Catholic,  and  returning  to  Great  Britain  was 
appointed  professor  in  the  University  at  Dublin. 

Miss  Arnold  married  Mr.  Humphry  Ward. 

Her  earliest  work  was  Milly  and  Oily,  or  a  Holiday  Among  the  Maun- 
tains.  Next  came  Miss  Drethertoji,  the  heroine  of  which  is  said  to  repre- 
sent Mary  Anderson,  "a  study  of  the  extent  to  which  ignorance  may 
smother  even  true  dramatic  genius,  and  of  the  power  of  that  genius,  when 
aroused,  to  break  through  the  enveloping  and  suffocating  medium." 

Other  productions  are,  Robert  Rlsmcre,  The  History  of  David  Grieve, 
Marcella,  Sir  George  Tressady,  Helbeek  of  Baiinisdale,  and  Eleanor, 

Robert  Elsmere  produced  a  great  stir  in  the  reading  world.  Within  a 
few  months  it  passed  through  seven  editions  in  England,  and  half  a  million 
copies  were  sold  in  America  in  less  than  three  years.  It  was  also  translated 
into  German,  Dutch,  and  Danish.  The  burning  questions  as  between  the 
old  faith  and  the  new  faith  or  no  faith  at  all,  are  handled  without  hesitation. 
Mrs.  Ward  is  a  keen  critic.  She  has  a  wealth  of  diction  and  of  thought. 
The  book  took  hold  of  not  mere  novel  readers  but  of  deep  thinkers  of  the 
time.  One  English  writer  said  of  the  book,  "  It  is  hard  reading  and  requires 
toil  and  effort.     Yet  if  it  be  difficult  to  persist,  it  is  impossible  to  stop." 

Mrs.  Ward,  in  1890,  became  identified  with  a  scheme  known  as  **  Uni- 
versity Hall,"  London.  Here  are  given  lectures  in  the  interest  of  modern 
theism  and  the  liberal  views  of  the  Bible.  Coupled  with  this  there  is 
carried  on  a  work  for  the  poor. 


tftcHwoo^,  CJaf^TB^fon, 


A.  ]>.  1830- 


WHEN  one  contemplates  the  many  and  varied  philanthropic  under- 
takings and  achievements  of  Clara  Barton  he  feels  to  bow  in  rev- 
erent silence  to  womanhood.      Her  work  is  beyond  praise. 

In  the  hospital  ser\'ice  during  the  civil  war,  in  the  Franco-German 
war,  as  superintendent  of  the  reformatory  prison  for  women  at  Sherborn, 
Mass.,  as  president  of  the  American  Red  Cross  Society,  as  a  worker  for  the 
famine  sufferers  in  Russia,  for  fire  sufferers  in  Michigan,  for  sufferers  from 
floods  in  Louisiana,  Mississippi,  and  Johnstown,  Pa.,  for  sufferers  from  the 
great  cyclone  on  the  South  Atlantic  coast,  for  the  Armenian  sufferers 
under  Turkish  atrocities,  and  for  the  soldiers  during  the  Spanish-Amefican 
war  as  well  as  for  the  non-combatant  Cubans,  Clara  Barton  has  given  her- 
self, without  reserve  or  cessation,  until  relief  has  been  afforded. 

She  was  born  in  North  Oxford,  Mass.  During  her  earlier  years  she 
taught  school  until  her  health  failed.  For  rest  and  restoration  she  went  to 
Washington,  D.  C. ,  and  after  a  time  was  appointed  to  a  position'  in  the 
Patent  Office.  She  resigned  her  position  in  the  Patent  Office  and  went  to 
the  front  to  minister  to  the  sick  and  wounded  soldiers,  without  pay.  She 
well  earned  the  title  of  ''  Angel  of  the  Battlefield."  The  hospitals  of  the 
army  of  the  James  were  placed  in  her  charge. 

Another  invaluable  siT\  ice  was  rendered  by  her  in  establishing  a  Bureau 
of  Records  of  missing  men  of  the  Union  army,  compiled  from  prison  and 
hospital  rolls  and  lists.  To  this  work  she  gave  four  years  of  her  time 
and  expended  her  small  fortune  of  ;Sio,ooo.  Congress  voted  to  reimburse 
her,  but  she  declined  remuneration  for  her  services. 

She  was  in  Furope  for  nuu  h  needed  rest  when  the  Franco-German  war 
broke  out  and  was  inuurdiately  asked  to  go  to  the  front  to  assist  in  caring 
for  the  wounded.  In  recognition  of  her  services  she  received  numerous 
badges  of  licinor  from  nobility  .md  royalty. 

Broken  in  health  she  returned  to  America,  and  became  the  first  presi- 
dent of  the  American  Association  of  the  Red  Cross. 



A.  D.  1820- 


'Cy*ER  father  was  William  Edward  Shore,  a  Sheffield  banker.  He  fell 
Jyr      heir  to  the  estates  of  Peter  Nightingale,  and  by  the  requirements  of 

^     the  will  took  the  name  of  Nightingale. 

Florence  was  a  thorough  student  from  childhood  and  became  well 
versed  in  modern  languages,  but  she  seemed  endowed  with  a  taste  and 
talent  for  hospital  work.  When  very  young  she  often  visited  the  hospitals 
and  ministered  to  the  sick. 

As  a  young  woman  she  went  to  Germany  and  took  a  course  of  training 
in  a  school  of  deaconesses  at  Kaiserswerth  which  was  conducted  by  Pastor 
Fleidner.  Her  first  work  upon  returning  to  England  was  to  superintend  a 
home  for  sick  and  infirm  governesses. 

The  sufferings  of  the  soldiers  in  the  Crimea  was  a  call  to  larger  duties, 
and  she  went  as  superintendent  of  a  corps  of  volunteer  female  nurses.  A 
hospital  was  established  at  Scutari  and  in  two  days  six  hundred  soldiers 
were  under  her  care.  In  three  weeks  the  number  had  reached  three  thou- 

There  had  been  horrible  neglect  and  mismanagement  in  caring  for  the 
men  previous  to  this,  but  Miss  Nightingale  was  a  born  general  as  well  as 
nurse.  By  her  calm  but  firm  direction,  order  was  brought  out  of  chaos. 
Her  endurance  seemed  superhuman.  The  correspondent  and  commissioner 
of  the  London  Times  wrote,  ' '  When  all  the  medical  officers  have  retired 
for  the  night,  and  silence  and  darkness  have  settled  down  upon  those  miles 
of  prostrate  sick,  she  may  be  observed  alone,  with  a  little  lamp  in  her  hand, 
making  her  solitary  rounds." 

She  was  a  ministering  angel  to  the  poor  soldiers,  and  many  would  kiss 
her  shadow  as  it  fell  across  their  poor  forms.  One  soldier  said,  **  Before 
she  came  there  was  much  cussin'  and  swearin'  ;  but  after  that  it  was  holy 
as  a  church."  She  was  not  welcomed  by  either  the  military  or  medical 
officers  and  was  obliged  to  almost  fight  her  way.  Too  many  of  them  cared 
more  for  their  positions  and  red  tape  than  for  dying  soldiers.     But  healthy 



A.  D.  1891- 


QlHE  was  born  to  the  stage,  for  her  parents  were  members  of  a  strolling 
/^  theatrical  company  and  when  but  four  years  of  age  Adelaide  took 
juvenile  parts  in  plays.  When  twenty-five  years  of  age  she  became 
the  wife  of  the  Marquis  del  Grillo  and  retired  from  the  stage.  But  quiet 
domestic  life  was  not  congenial  and  in  a  few  years  she  returned  to  her  pro- 
fession. Before  her  marriage  she  played  comedy.  She  now  took  up 
tragedy.  Rachel  was  the  queen  of  tragedy  at  Paris  but  Ristori  went  to 
that  city  and  won  the  enthusiastic  applause  of  the  French. 

She  traveled  through  Europe,  continually  adding  to  her  fame.  She 
then  visited  the  United  States  and  South  America. 

As  a  tragic  actress  she  was  by  many  counted  as  the  greatest  in  the  world. 

Florence  MlKl^tlriKale  continued* 

English  sentiment  was  so  strong  that  soon  all  the  hospitals  were  placed 
under  her  superintendence. 

Miss  Nightingale  contracted  hospital  fever,  and  after  two  years  of  toil 
was  obliged  to  return  to  England.  Queen  Victoria  sent  her  a  jewel  and  a 
letter  of  thanks.  The  soldiers  of  the  Crimea  desired  to  erect  a  statue  in 
her  honor,  but  this  she  declined. 

The  grateful  people  of  England  subscribed  ;^50,ooo  as  a  testimonial, 
and  this  was  devoted  to  the  erection  of  "Nightingale  Home,'*  which  is 
the  great  institution  of  England  for  the  training  of  nurses. 

The  pionter  work  of  Florence  Nightingale  as  an  army  nurse  was  the 
inspiration  and  model  for  American  women  in  the  civil  war. 

The  Ouetn's  gift  to  Miss  Nightingale  was  a  cross  blazing  with  diamonds 
and  bearing  this  inscription  :  — 





From  Victoria  R.,  1855. •* 



A.  1>.  1821- 


MISS  BLACKWELL  was  of  English  birth  ;  her  parents,  however, 
removed  to  this  country  when  she  was  ten  years  of  age.  Her 
father  failed  in  business  in  New  York  and  a  few  years  afterwards 
died,  leaving  a  wife  and  nine  children  in  very  straitened  circumstances. 
Elizabeth  was  then  seventeen  years  of  age.  For  seven  years,  she,  with  two 
sisters,  taught  a  young  ladies'  seminary  and  nearly  supported  the  family. 

When  about  twenty-two  years  of  age  she  determined  to  study  medicine 
and  set  resolutely  to  work  along  with  her  teaching.  After  a  few  years  of 
study  by  herself,  she  removed  to  Charleston,  S.  C,  where  she  taught 
music  and  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Samuel  H.  Dickson.  Later  she 
removed  to  Philadelphia  and  studied  under  Dr.  J.  M.  Allen. 

She  made  application  to  the  medical  schools  of  Philadelphia,  New 
York,  and  Boston,  but  in  each  case  was  refused  admission  on  the  ground 
that  there  was  no  precedent  and  that  it  was  improper  to  break  away  from 
established  custom.  She  was,  however,  admitted  to  the  college  at  Geneva, 
N.  Y. ,  pursued  her  studies  with  marked  success  and  took  her  degree  in 
1849.  *'  There  is  some  place  in  the  world  for  me  and  I'll  find  it,"  was  her 
repeated  declaration. 

She  pursued  clinical  studies  in  Blockley  hospital,  Philadelphia,  and  then 
went  to  Paris  to  study  in  the  Matcrnite  hospital.  Her  next  experience  was 
in  the  hospital  of  St.  Bartholomew  in  London,  where  she  spent  a  year. 
She  then  returned  to  New  York  and  began  the  practice  of  medicine. 

It  was  found  almost  im{)ossible  to  secure  a  respectable  boarding  house 
upon  which  to  display  her  sign.  These  things  were  unspeakably  hard  to 
bear,  but  she  could  work  and  wait  and  win  her  way.  Difficulties  made  her 
more  determined.  The  victory  was  at  hist  won  for  herself  and  the  way 
prepared  for  others  to  win  success  and  lionor. 

Emily  Blackwell  began  the  study  of  niedicir.e  about  the  time  that  her 
sister  Elizabeth  became  established  in  New  York.  She  graduated  at  the 
Cleveland  College  in  1854  having  also  studied  in  the  Rush  Medical  College, 


charlotte:  m.  yonoe. 

A.  D.  1893- 



MISS  YONGE  has  been  a  most  prolific  writer,  having  published 
about  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  volumes  of  fiction  and  a  large 
number  of  national  histories  for  younger  readers.  She  is  an  ardent 
supporter  of  high  church  views  and  this  appears  in  nearly  all  her  works. 

She  gained  a  large  circle  of  readers  by  The  Heir  of  Redclyffe,  which 
appeared  in  1853.  A  large  part  of  the  early  profits  from  this  book  were 
used  to  fit  out  the  missionary  schooner,  *' Southern  Cross,**  for  Bishop 

From  the  profits  of  her  book  Daisy  Chain  she  gave  ;^2,ooo  to  build 
a  missionary  college  in  New  Zealand. 

Her  historical  works  include  Greece,  Rome,  France,  Germany,  Eng- 
land, and  the  United  States. 

She  has  also  written  History  of  Christian  Names  and  their  DeritHdion  and 
Story  of  English  Missionary  Workers,  Several  of  her  histories  for  young 
people  were  rewritten  so  that  they  could  be  read  and  enjoyed  by  the  small 
children,  as,  for  example,  Aiuit  Charlotte  s  Rofnan  History  for  the  Little 

Among  her  many  works  of  fiction  are  the  following:  Lances  of  Lyn- 
7cood,  Scenes  from  the  Life  of  a  Spinster,  Clever  Woman  of  the  Family, 
Prince  and  Page,  .  /  Story  of  the  Last  Crusade,  The  Dove  in  the  Pagle's  Nest. 

In  (luantity  her  productions  are  a  marvel  ;  the  quality  is  well  sustained. 

lCll>:fil>otU  DlfioUwoll  continued, 

Chicago.  She  spent  a  year  each  in  Edinburgh,  Paris,  and  London.  Upon 
Ikt  return  to  America  she  became  closely  identified  with  her  sister 
Klizaheth  in  New  York.  *'The  New  York  Infirmary  for  Women  and 
Children"  was  established  through  their  edorts.  The  object  was  first,  a 
charity  for  the  poor  ;  second,  a  resort  for  respectable  patients  desiring 
special  treatment  ;  and,  third,  a  place  to  which  female  students  might  come 
for  practical  clinical  study. 



A.  D.  1826- 


-»>    3K    €♦ 

RAPOLEON  III.  was  a  nephew  of  Napoleon  Bonaparte,  and  was  bom 
in  1808.  He  lived  in  exile  from  181 5  to  1830,  joined  in  a  revolt 
against  the  pope,  attempted  to  organize  a  revolution  among  the 
French  soldiers  at  Strasburg,  invaded  Prance  and  made  an  attack,  was 
captured  and  held  as  a  prisoner  for  six  years,  when  he  escaped,  was  made 
a  member  of  the  National  Assembly  of  France,  became  president  of  the 
republic,  was  chosen  president  for  ten  years,  was  elected  emperor,  married 
Eug6nie,  took  part  in  Crimean  war,  fought  against  Austria,  interfered  in 
affairs  of  Mexico,  declared  war  with  Germany  and  was  taken  prisoner  at 
Sedan.     The  following  year  he  removed  to  England,  where  he  died  in  1873. 

Eug6nie  was  the  daughter  of  a  Spanish  officer  ;  her  mother  was  de- 
scended from  Scotch  Roman  Catholic  parentage. 

She  visited  Paris  the  year  before  Louis  Napoleon  became  emperor  and 
was  married  to  him  the  year  after  he  gained  the  throne.  The  municipality 
of  Paris  bestowed  upon  the  bride  a  wedding  gift  of  six  hundred  thousand 
francs,  but  at  her  request  it  was  expended  in  founding  a  female  college. 
With  her  husband  she  visited  Queen  Victoria  and  from  that  time  Queen 
and  Empress  were  close  friends. 

She  served  as  regent  three  times, —  first,  when  Napoleon  was  absent  in 
Italy,  again  when  he  was  making  his  Algerian  tour,  and  lastly,  upon  his 
departure  for  the  seat  of  war,  when  his  arms  were  directed  against  Germany. 

After  the  battle  of  Sedan,  in  which  her  husband  was  captured,  she  was 
urged  to  flee  from  Paris,  as  the  streets  were  full  of  excited  people  and  the 
palace  was  beset  by  an  infuriated  mob. 

By  the  aid  of  friends  she  managed  to  get  through  the  German  lines 
which  guarded  Paris  and  so  escaped  to  England,  where  the  Emperor  joined 
her  upon  his  release.  They  had  one  son  to  whom  the  mother  was  de- 
votedly attached.  He  joined  the  English  troops  and  was  slain  by  the  sav- 
ages in  South  Africa.  This  great  grief,  coupled  with  other  reverses  and 
losses,  for  a  time  threatened  the  life  of  Eugenie. 



A.  D.  1814- 


VJ'TER  father  was  Sir  Francis   Burdett,   Baronet,  but  her  great  wealth 
-L-L     came  from  her  grandfather,  Thomas  Coutts,  the  noted  banker.     She 
thus  joins  the  name  of  her  grandfather,  to  that  of  her  father  and  is 
known  as  Burdett-Coutts. 

In  1 88 1  she  was  married  to  William  Lehman  Ashmead  Bartlett,  who  by 
royal  license  took  the  name  of  Burdett-Coutts. 

In  1 87 1  the  prime  minister  surprised  her  with  the  offer  of  a  peerage 
from  her  majesty,  Queen  Victoria,  and  the  honor  was  accepted. 

The  baroness  has  always  been  remarkable  for  her  executive  ability. 
She  p>ossessed  discernment  and  upon  finding  out  needs  of  individuals  or 
classes  took  the  initiative  in  ameliorating  conditions.  One  of  her  first  great 
works  was  to  establish  a  home  for  young  women  who  had  turned  aside 
from  the  path  of  virtue.  Nearly  one  half  of  those  who  came  to  the  home 
were  permanendy  reclaimed. 

Spitalfields  in  London  was  a  mass  of  destitution  ;  the  baroness  estab- 
lished a  sewing  school  for  women  where  they  could  be  taught,  fed,  and 
provided  with  work.  From  this  place  nurses  were  sent  out  to  the  sick  of 
that  section. 

In  1859  several  hundred  destitute  boys  were  fitted  out  for  the  Royal 
Navy  or  placed  in  industrial  homes. 

Nova  Scotia  Gardens  was  one  of  the  moral  plague  spots  of  London. 
Miss  Coutts  i)urchased  this  section  and  upon  what  was  figuratively  and 
literally  the  dumping  ground  of  the  city  she  erected  model  dwellings  for 
abi^ut  two  hundred  familit-s,  to  be  let  at  a  moderate  price.  The  place  was 
named  Columbia  Square. 

When  the  cry  came  from  suffering  humanity  in  Ireland,  Scotland, 
Turkey,  and  different  parts  of  England,  Baroness  Coutts  was  among  the 
first  to  respond.  For  destitute  fishermen  she  afforded  both  temporary  and 
permanent  relief  by  means  of  food,  clothing,  tackle,  and  boats. 

We  are  justified  in  calling  her  a  princess  of  philanthropy  and  charity. 



A.  I>.  1821- 


SER  father  was  Timothy  Rice,  of  Welsh  descent,  who  possessed  many 
of  the  sturdy  Welsh  qualities,  even  to  not  sparing  the  rod  in  the 
training  of  his  daughter. 

She  graduated  from  the  Boston  public  schools  at  fourteen  and  then 
attended  the  Female  Seminary  in  Charlestown,  Mass.  The  four  years 
work  she  accomplished  in  half  that  time  and  then  became  a  njember  of  the 
faculty,  teaching  Latin  and  French. 

Removing  to  southern  Virginia,  she  saw  slavery  as  it  was  and,  when  she 
returned  to  the  North,  was  a  confirmed  and  outspoken  Abolitionist 

In  1845  she  became  the  wife  of  Rev.  D.  P.  Livermore,  a  Universalist 
clergyman.  Her  husband  was  called  to  Chicago  to  become  manager  and 
editor  of  The  New  Covenatit.  Mrs.  Livermore  became  his  associate  on  the 
paper  and  rendered  most  valuable  service. 

When  the  civil  war  broke  out  she  went  to  the  front  as  a  nurse,  and 
was  often  under  the  fire  of  the  enemy's  guns.  There  was  strong  prejudice 
against  women   as  army  nurses,    and  much  opposition  was   experienced. 

The  Sanitar\'  Conunission  was  largely  indebted  to  her  for  its  organized 
efforts.  When  money  came  slowly,  she  inaugurated  the  great  Chicago 
Soldiers'  Fair,  which  netted  $100,000.  She  was,  in  fact,  the  mother  of  this 

Her  book,  My  Story  of  the  War,  has  reached  a  sale  of  more  than  fifty 
thousand  volumes.  At  the  close  of  the  war  she  turned  her  energies  in 
the  direction  of  the  advancement  of  women.  She  established  in  Boston 
The  Agitator,  for  the  advocacy  of  temperance  reform  and  woman  suffrage. 
In  1870  The  ][  oma?i' s  Journal  w^'s  started  and  she  became  the  editor,  her 
own  paper  becoming  absorbed  in  the  new  journal. 

For  thirteen  years  she  delivered  on  an  average  one  hundred  and  fifty 
lectures  per  year.  She  has  spoken  on  a  wide  range  of  themes, —  biography, 
history,  politics,  religion,  temperance,  and  other  reforms,  and  various  de- 
partments of  sociology  in  their  special  bearing  upon  woman. 



A.  D.  1828- 


§ER  pen  name,"  Greenwood,"  fits  her  tastes  and  talents.     As  a  child 
the  fields  and  forests  were  her  delight.     In  daring  deeds  she  outdid 
the  boys  of  the  little  village  of   Ponipey,  N.  Y.,  where  she  was 
born.     One  of  her  delights  was  to  ride  young  horses  bareback. 

At  school  in  Rochester  she  cared  nothing  for  and  learned  little  about 
mathematics  and  science,  but  she  could  write  verses  and  sketches  with  so 
much  skill  that  publishers  sought  her  productions  before  she  was  fourteen 
years  old.  Her  writings  were  as  fresh  and  racy  as  a  mountain  brook.  In 
later  years  as  well,  her  productions  were  full  of  joyous  health.  No  one 
could  be  like  her,  nor  could  she  be  like  anyone  else.  She  was  simply  and 
intensely  herself.     The  following  are  some  of  her  writings  :  — 

Circcmcood  Leaves,  History  of  My  Pets^  Poems,  RceoUedions  of  My 
Childhood,  Haps  and  Mishaps  of,  a  Tour  in  liurope,  Forest  Tragedy  and 
Other  Tales,  Stories  of  Many  Lands,  History  for  Children,  and  Victoria^ 
Queen  of  Eni>;land.  The  latter  was  brought  out  simultaneously  in  London 
md  New  York.  .Slie  wrote  for  many  periodicals  either  as  editor  or  con- 
tributor and  delivered  several  notable   lectures  and  addresses. 

In  1S53  Miss  Clarke  married  I-eander  K.  Lippincott  of  Philadelphia. 
A  sinj^le  \  (Tse  from  one  of  her  poems  gives  a  glimpse  of  her  both  as  a 
horsewoman  and  poetess. 

"  As  I  spring  to  his  back,  as  I  seize  the  strong  rein, 
The  strength  to  my  spirit  returneth  again, 
The  Ixinds  are  all  broken  that  fettered  my  mind, 
And  my  cares  lx)rne  away  on  the  wings  of  the  wind; 
My  pridf  lifts  its  head,  for  a  season  Ixjwed  down, 
An<l  the  (jueen  in  my  nature  now  puts  on  her  crown." 

Durinj^  the  war  she  nndcnd  excellent  service  to  the  cause  of  the  sick 
soldiers  by  lerluring  tor  thr  fairs  of  the  .Sanitary  Commission.  .She  also 
read  ami  kclurcd  to  the  soldiers  in  camp,  and  President  Lincoln  called  her 
**Cirace  (ireenwood,  the  patriot." 



A.  D.  1842- 


_     .se;H-{-wrBc« 

HE  first  American  singer  to  win  recognition  in  Europe.     Her  father, 
George  Kellogg,  was  an  inventor  of  considerable  note.     Her  mother 
T       was   an   excellent  musician.     Her  birthplace  was  at  Sumpterville, 
S.  C. ,  but  her  childhood  was  spent  in  the  North. 

Clara  was  evidentiy  a  born  singer,  for  at  nine  months  old  she  could  hum 
a  tune  correctly. 

When  she  was  fourteen  years  old  she  began  a  thorough  course  of  mus- 
ical studies,  and  the  family  removed  to  New  York  for  that  purpose.  A 
professional  career  was  in  the  minds  of  the  parents  from  the  start,  and  all 
her  training  was  with  that  end  in  view. 

She  studied  both  the  French  and  Italian  methods  of  singing.  She 
made  a  special  study  of  Marguerite  in  Gounod's  "  Faust,"  and  in  that  no 
one  has  ever  equaled  her.  Berlioz  was  in  the  United  States  at  the  time 
and  heard  her  with  astonishment  at  the  skill  with  which  she  interpreted  the 
subtier  shadings  of  the  poet,  which  he  believed  were  beyond  the  reach  of 
lyric  art. 

Upon  appearing  in  Her  Majesty's  Theatre,  London,  as  Marguerite,  she 
won  a  brilliant  triumph.  She  also  sang  in  the  Handel  Festival  held  in 
the  great  Crystal  Palace,  a  great  honor  for  an  American 

When  she  returned  to  America  the  public  was  ready  to  receive  her, 
and  everywhere  she  was  met  by  crowded  houses.  In  one  winter  she  sang 
one  hundred  and  twenty-five  nights. 

After  some  years  she  accepted  an  engagement  in  Austria,  where  she 
sang  in  Italian  with  a  German  opera  company.  She  even  journeyed  into 
Russia  and  sang  in  St.  Petersburg. 

She  has  always  been  a  helpful  friend  to  struggling  artists.  She  accu- 
mulated a  considerable  fortune  and  is  generous  in  distributing  to  philan- 
thropic and  charitable  enterprises. 

Her  voice  in  youth  was  a  high  soprano  with  a  range  from  C  to  E  flat 
With  age  it  lost  some  of  the  highest  notes  but  gained  in  power  and  richness. 



Clara  Louis^^^^^<^S9>  Afrs.Jan^  ^^^ 


A.  D.  1849- 


MISS  HODGSON  was  bom  in  England.     In  1865  her  father  died  and 
the  family  removed  to  America,  settling  in  Newmarket,  Tennessee. 
The  mother  with  two  sons  and  three  daughters  sought  to  earn  a 
living  on  the   little   farm.     There  were  many  dark  days  but  all  worked 

Frances  felt  that  she  had  abilities  in  other  lines  and  that  she  could  earn 
money  with  the  pen  as  well,  or  better,  than  with  farm  tools. 

She  began  with  short  stories  which  were  published  in  PetersarC s 
Magazine  and  Godey  s  Lady  s  Book,  But  she  did  not  win  marked  suc- 
cess or  recognition  until  1872,  when  she  contributed  to  Scribner^s  Magazine 
a  dialect  story.  Surly  Tim' s  Trouble,  Her  girlhood  days  in  Manchester 
had  made  her  familiar  with  the  Lancashire  dialect  and  she  now  turned  it  to 
account  in  the  above  story.  Her  writings  were  now  accepted  and  sought 
by  publishers. 

In  1875  she  became  the  wife  of  Dr.  Swan  M.  Burnett.  They  traveled 
extensively  in  Kurope  and  then  took  up  their  residence  in  Washington. 

That  Lass  W  Loicrie' s  was  published  in  Scribner^s  and  afterwards  had 
a  large  sale  in  book  form.  -  Through  One  Administration,  Louisiana,  A 
Fair  Barbarian,  and  Hditha  s  Burglar  are  among  her  works.  She  is 
probably  most  wicUly  and  popularly  known  through  her  Little  Lord  Faunt- 
leroy.  This,  like  many  of  her  stories,  has  been  dramatized,  thereby  adding 
to  her  fame. 

The  dramatization  of  novels  without  any  compensation  to  the  author 
had  lonj^  been  a  sore  trial  to  English  writers.  Reade  and  Dickens  among 
others  had  attempted  to  stop  it  hut  in  vain.  Mrs.  Burnett  undertook  to 
defend  herself  against  the  unauthorized  use  of  Little  Lord  Fauntleroy,  and 
the  court,  for  the  first  time,  gave  to  authors  the  control  of  the  dramatic 
right  in  their  stories. 

When  the  triumph  was  won  the  authors  of  England  showed  their  grati- 
tude by  pi'esenting  to  Mrs.  Burnett  a  costly  diamond  bracelet. 



A.  D.  1851- 


TRUTH   is  stranger   than    fiction.'*     Mrs.    Leslie's    life    contains 
abundant  material  for  a  most  fascinating  novel.     Miriam  Flor- 
ence Folline  is  a  native  of  New  Orleans,  La. ,  and  is  a  French 
Creole  by  birth.     Her  girlhood  home  was  one  of  luxury  and  her  educa- 
tional advantages  and  attainments  were  of  the  highest  order. 

Mr.  "  Frank  Leslie,'*  to  whom  she  was  married,  was  by  birth  an 
Englishman  and  his  real  name  was  Henry  Carter.  He  had  gained  some 
reputation  as  an  author  using  the  pen  name  '*  Frank  Leslie.**  Coming  to 
this  country  he  took  his  pen  name  as  his  legal  name  by  legislative  permis- 
sion, and  became  a  publisher  in  New  York  city. 

Miss  Folline  chanced  to  be  in  New  York.  One  of  the  editors  of  **  Les- 
lie's Lady*  s  Magazine'*  was  ill  and  without  money.  Miss  Folline  offered 
to  take  the  place  and  give  the  sick  woman  the  salary,  which  was  done. 
The  invalid  died  and  the  benefactress  was  asked  to  retain  the  editorial 
position.  Mr.  Leslie  came  to  admire  and  love  this  talented  woman  and 
they  were  married. 

She  was  of  great  assistance  to  him  in  his  business  and  they  were  greatly 
prospered  for  some  years.  But  reverses  came  in  the  panic  of  1877  and  Mr. 
Leslie  was  obliged  to  make  an  assignment.  He  was  about  this  time  afflicted 
with  a  tumor,  which  he  knew  would  terminate  fatally.  To  his  beautiful 
and  brave  wife  he  said,  "  Go  to  my  office,  sit  in  my  place  and  do  my  work, 
until  my  debts  are  paid."  When  he  died,  there  were  debts  amounting  to 

By  act  of  legislature  she  took  the  name  of  Frank  Leslie  and  carried  on 
the  business  with  pronounced  success.  That  a  woman  of  such  business 
ability,  and  with  heavy  responsibilities,  should  be  at  the  same  time  a 
society  leader,  is  a  marvel  of  versatility.  She  has  shone  in  European 
society,  where  she  was  most  cordially  received.  Her  command  of  the 
French,  Spanish,  and  Italian  languages  opened  the  way,  and  her  personal 
beauty  and  culture  made  her  a  center  of  attraction. 



A.  D.  1831- 


§ER  pen  name  is  a  household  word  in  our  land.     Intimate  friends  tell 
us  how  charmingly  she  has  combined  "home  making**  with  literary 
work.      She  possesses  a  masterful  way  of   making  duties  fit  each 
other  without  fuss  or  jostle. 

Who  can  say  bow  many  hundred  homes  have  been  brightened  and 
sweetened  and  made  more  wholesome  in  everything  from  food  to  atmo- 
sphere by  her  wise  and  happy  writings? 

Miss  Mary  V^irginia  Hawes  was  born  in  Virginia,  though  her  parents 
were  natives  of  New  England. 

Her  education  was  of  the  best ;  and  while  pursuing  her  studies  she 
showed  marked  literary  ability.  At  fourteen  years  of  age  she  began  to  con- 
tribute to  a  weekly  paper  in  Richmond.  At  sixteen  she  wrote  Marrying 
Through  Prudential  Motives,  which  was  so  popular  as  to  be  published  in 
England  and  translated  into  F"rench  and  finally  retranslated  into  English 
and  again  published.  F*inally,  it  reappeared  in  the  United  States  in  its 
altered  form. 

She  became  the  wife  of  Rev.  Edward  Payson  Terhune,  who  has  for 
many  years  been  pastor  of  the  Puritan  Congregational  Church  of  Brook- 
lyn, N.  V. 

Mrs.  Terhune' s  writing  has  not  all  been  along  home  lines,  but  she  has 
written  several  novels  ;  among  them,  Alone,  a  taie  of  Southern  life  and 
manners,    7 he  Hidden  Path,   True  as  Steel. 

Husbands  a  fid  Homes ;    Common    Se?ise  in  the  Household ;   Breakfast^ 
Luncheon,  and  Tea;     'The  Dinner  Year  Book ;    Eve's  Daughters,  or  Com-' 
mon  Sense  for  Maid,    ITi/e,  and  Mother,  are  books  whose  titles  speak  for 

.Slie  is  widely  known  as  a  lecturer  before  Woman*s  Councils  on  **The 
Kitchen  as  a  .Moral  Agtiicy,"  "Our  Sons  and  Our  Daughters,"  and  "How 
to  Grow  Ok!  Cracefully.'* 



A.   D.  1846- 


/  I  \HIS  woman  enjoys  the  distinction  of  being  the  first  woman  to  receive 
JL      an  order  from  the  United  States  government  for  a  statue. 

Her  birthplace  was  in  Wisconsin  but  the  greater  part  of  her  life  has 
been  spent  in  Washington,  D.  C.  Her  father  for  some  years  held  an  im- 
portant  government  ix)sition  at  the  capital  city  and  Miss  Ream  was  in  the 
employ  of  the  post  office  department  for  some  time.  She  at  length  dis- 
covered her  own  taste  and  talent  for  art  and  devoted  her  energies  to  that 
end  with  special  reference  to  sculpture. 

Her  skill  was  such  that  she  made  busts  of  several  prominent  men, 
among  them  General  Grant,  John  Sherman,  and  Thaddeus  Stevens.  She 
produced  also  "The  Indian  Girl,'*  a  full  length  figure  cast  in  bronze. 
**  Miriam  '*  in  marble  was  one  of  her  noted  productions. 

But  the  statue  of  Abraham  Lincoln  which  she  executed  in  bronze  to  be 
placed  in  the  Capitol  was  one  of  the  crowning  honors  of  her  life.  After 
having  finished  the  model  she  took  it  to  Italy  to  be  transferred  to  marble. 
Her  parents  accompanied  her  and  together  they  lived  in  Rome  for  three 
years.      For  this  statue  of  Lincoln  she  received  fifteen  thousand  dollars. 

While  in  Europe  Gustave  Dor6  gave  Miss  Ream  a  painting  by  his  own 
hand  with  the  inscription,  "  Offered  to  \'innie  Ream  on  the  part  of  her  af- 
fectionate colleague,  Gustave  Dor6."  Spurgeon,  Kaulbach,  the  painter, 
and  Cardinal  Antonelli  sat  to  her  for  likenesses. 

The  statue  of  Admiral  Farragut  on  the  square  in  Washington,  named 
for  the  naval  hero,  is  her  work.  When  Miss  Ream  received  the  order  for 
the  statue  she  worked  on  the  model  in  the  ordnance  building  of  the  navy 
yard  and  the  statue  was  cast  from  the  metal  of  tlie  propeller  of  Admiral 
Farragut's  flagship,  the  "Hartford."  While  at  work  on  the  model  she 
married  Lieutenant  Hoxie. 

Facing  Farragut  square  is  the  residence  which  Ciptain  Hoxie  built  for 
himself  and  wife.  After  her  marriage  she  continued  to  model  but  for  love 
rather  than  money. 



A.  D.  1838- 


MRS.  Sangster  has  been  connected  editorially  with  five  different  publi- 

Her  early  educational  advantages,  so  far  as  school  life  was  con- 
cerned, are  few.  She  was  chiefly  educated  at  home.  No  doubt  she  had 
inborn  talent  for  literary  work,  but  whatever  she  possessed  she  also  carefully 
cultivated.  Very  early  in  life  she  became  a  contributor  to  the  leading 
periodicals,  and  her  first  work  was  produced  when  she  was  but  seventeen. 

Her  first  editorial  engagement  was  with  the  Hearth^  and  Home,  which 
continued  for  two  years.  Then  came  six  years  of  service  with  the  Christian 
at  Work,  The  next  nine  years  was  spent  as  assistant  editor  of  the  Chris- 
tian Intclliirenccr.  For  a  part  of  this  time  she  was  also  editor  of  Harper' s 
Y'ounj^  People,  which  was  new  in  the  field  of  periodical  literature. 

In  1890  she  was  called  to  the  editorship  of  Harper' s  Bazar,  with  which 
she  is  still  connected. 

Mrs.  Sangster  has  found  time  for  considerable  miscellaneous  work,  and 
for  many  years  has  been  ranked  as  one  of  our  popular  American  poets. 

She  has  published  a  Manual  of  Missions  of  the  Reformed  Church  in 
America,  Home  Fairies  and  Heart  IHourrs,  and  a  series  of  Sunday  school 

Mrs.  SangstcT  is  a  prominent  member  of  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church 
and  devotes  nuich  time  to  the  work  of  that  body.  She  is  especi.illy  f(md 
of  children.  Years  ago  two  of  her  j)roductions,  Elizabeth ,  A  a;  ed  Nine,  and 
Are  the  Children  at  Home.*  were  household  words,  and  were  in  many  of 
the  school  readers.  .Slie  has  written  in  all  some  half  dozen  popular  books 
for  children. 

She  has  Inlped  a  great  host  <»f  friends  who  have  never  met  her 
but  throngli  her  writings  have  learned  to  love  her.  And,  further,  another 
widely  scattered  company  have  been  given  better  views  of  life,  and  new 
courage  for  di^c  barging  life's  duti(*s,  though  they  scarcely  know  the  name 
of  Mrs.  Sangster. 



A.  D.  IMS- 


SER  father  and  mother  were  both  operatic  singers.  At  the  birth  of 
Adelina  the  mother  lost  her  voice  and  the  family  in  distress  re- 
moved to  America.  At  four  years  of  age  the  child  showed  remark- 
able musical  talent  and  received  piano  instruction  from  her  sister  Carlotta 
and  vocal  lessons  from  her  stepbrother  Barili,  and  her  brother-in-law 
Strakosch,  who  possessed  splendid  talents  as  a  singer  and  had  won  a  con- 
siderable reputation. 

Thus  having  the  advantage  of  musical  taste  and  ability  inherited  from 
both  parents,  she  grew  up  amid  musical  influences  from  birth  and  then  re- 
ceived most  careful  and  long  continued  training. 

When  nine  years  old  she  appeared  in  a  concert  with  Strakosch  and  won 
splendid  success.  A  series  of  concerts  followed  and  Adelina  received  as 
her  share  of  the  profits  $10,000.  In  this  series  Strakosch  and  Ole  Bull  were 
the  instrumentalists.     She  was  the  infantile  prima  donna. 

After  several  years  of  success  in  America  she  went  to  Europe  with  her 
brother-in-law,  but  the  London  manager  would  not  even  give  her  an  op- 
portunity to  sing.  When  about  to  return  to  the  L'nited  States  the  manager 
of  the  Covent  Ciarden  Theater  gave  her  permission  to  sing  three  times,  but 
without  pay.  She  made  her  first  appearance  in  Bellini's  Sonnambula, 
Her  triumj^h  was  immediate,  her  career  was  to  the  people  of  London  like 
the  blazing  of  a  meteor.  The  way  was  then  opened  for  her  in  France,  Ger- 
many, Italy,  Spain,  and  Russia. 

In  1868  she  was  married  to  the  Marquis  de  Caux  in  London  and  ten 
years  later  was  divorced.  In  1886  she  was  married  to  Signor  Nicolini,  an 
opera  singer. 

Besides  a  voice  of* exceptional  beauty,  range,  and  flexibility,  she  pos- 
sessed rare  powers  as  an  actress.  Though  too  small  of  stature  to  person- 
ate the  great  characters  of  the  highest  style  of  tragic  opera,  she  did  excel 
in  parts  requiring  archness  or  coquetry,  also  in  pathos  and  sentiment,  notably 
in  Donizetti's  Lucia  or  Gounod's  Marguerite. 



A.  D.  1835- 



MRS.   MEAD  is  the  daughter  of  Col.   Chas.   E.   Billings  of   Conway, 
Mass.     Her  mother  was  sister  of  Rev.   Richard  S.  Storrs,   D.D. 
She  is  thus  of  the  best  New  England  stock.     After  receiving  her 
education,  chiefly  at  Ipswich,  Mass. ,  she  entered  upon  the  work  of  teaching. 

For  six  years  she  was  engaged  with  her  sister  in  conducting  a  private 
school  for  young  ladies  at  Andover,  Mass. 

In  1858  she  became  the  wife  of  Rev.  Hiram  Mead,  D.D.,  and  removed 
to  South  Hadley,  the  seat  9I  Mount  Holyoke  Seminary. 

Dr.  Mead  was  subsequently  called  to  Oberlin  College,  where  he  died 
after  some  years  of  service.  Mrs.  Mead  turned  again  to  teaching,  spending 
two  years  at  Oberlin  and  six  at  Abbot  Academy,  Andover,  Mass.  She 
became  widely  known  as  an  instructor  of  marked  ability. 

While  spending  some  time  in  Europe  she  was  called  to  the  presidency 
of  Mount  Holyoke  Seminary  and  College. 

Mrs.  Mead  entered  upon  her  duties  as  president  in  1890.  The  recent 
remarkable  growth  of  the  college  is  largely  due  to  her  noble  personality 
and  wise  leadership. 

One  of  tlie  college  trustees  had  this  to  say  of  Mrs.  Mead  before  she 
entered  up«>n  her  duties:  "The  friends  of  Holyoke  are  to  be  congratulated 
on  the  prospect  of  soon  seeing  at  the  head  a  president  who  unites  so  much 
of  modern  learning  antl  culture  with  so  much  of  the  spirit  of  Mary  Lyon  ; 
and  whoM-  anil)ition  it  will  be  to  realize  the  ideal  of  a  Christian  college, 
which  shall  give  the  broadest  and  best  education  in  literature,  science,  and 
art,  and  all  consecrated  to  tlie  highest  and  best  ends.'*  Mrs.  Mead  has 
more  th.ui  m<t  the  highest  expectations. 

Tlie  institution  lias  had  an  honorable  history,  filling  a  unicjue  place  in 
our  American  educational  life.  A  j)ioneer  in  an  almost  untried  field,  it  has 
had  many  followers.  It  has  a  present  strength  which  gladdens  the  hearts 
of  alumn;e  and  friends,  and  a  future  most  promising. 



A.  D.  1844- 


'  HE  was  first  of  all  fortunate  in  her  parentage.     Her  father  was  Pro- 
fessor of  Sacred  Rhetoric  in  Andover  Theological  Seminary.     Many 
who  never  knew  him  otherwise,  have  been  helped  by  his  little  book, 
The  Still  Hour,     Her  mother  was  also  an  author  of  note. 

Elizabeth  was  given  another  name  at  birth,  but  upon  the  death  of  Mrs. 
Phelps,  the  daughter  took  her  mother's  name  in  full  and  by  her  writings 
has  perpetuated  the  work  and  name  of  her  noble  mother. 

When  the  child  was  four  years  of  age  the  family  moved  from  Boston  to 
Andover.  Here  she  grew  up  in  the  midst  of  strong  intellectual  and  spiritual 
influences.  She  received  a  thorough  and  liberal  education  which  admirably 
fitted  her  for  the  life  of  an  author. 

But  hers  was  not  a  cold  and  formal  intellectuality.  Her  imagination 
was  vivid  and  her  heart  warm.  She  kept  in  close  touch  with  the  great 
movements  of  the  times  and  engaged  in  them.  Her  activity  in  lines  of 
charity,  temperance,  and  reform  kept  her  heart  warmly  in  sympathy  with 
struggling  humanity.  The  life  of  factory  girls  attracted  her  attention. 
She  studied  the  conditions  at  first  hand  and  sought  to  be  of  help  in 
improving  their  lot.  Her  book  A  Silenl  Partner  was  written  as  a  result 
of  her  observation  and  efforts. 

After  slavery  was  abolished  she  saw  that  the  next  great  national  and 
world-wide  movement  was  to  be  for  the  betterment  of  woman's  condition. 
She  believed  in  a  larger,  sweeter,  purer  womanhood  and  so  wrote  with  a 

Of  her  many  books  we  mention  a  few :  Up  Hill,  Avis,  Gates  Ajar 
(this  book  passed  through  twenty  editions  in  one  year),  Hedged  In,  The 
Trotty  Book,  Old  Maid' s  Paradise,  Beyond  the  Gates,  Jack  the  Fisherman^ 
Songs  of  the  Silent  World,  A  Singular  Life. 

Possessing  thus  a  happy  and  well-balanced  combination  of  thinking  and 
working,  her  productions  have  had  a  healthy  tone. 

In  1888  Miss  Phelps  became  the  wife  of  Rev.  Herbert  D.  Ward 






MISS  BERTHA  HONORE  was  born  and  educated  in  Louisville, 
Kentucky.  She  also  studied  in  the  convent  school  at  George- 
town, D.  C. 

She  became  the  wife  of  Potter  Palmer,  the  Chicago  millionaire,  in  1871, 
and  soon  became,  and  has  since  continued  to  be,  the  recognized  social  leader 
of  fashionable  society  in  Chicago. 

But  Mrs.  Palmer  has  marked  intellectual  as  well  as  social  qualities.  She 
is  a  skilled  musician,  a  proficient  linguist,  a  brilliant  writer,  a  skilled  parlia- 
mentarian, and  a  woman  of  marked  executive  ability.  She  was  chosen 
president  of  the  Board  of  Lady  Managers  of  the  Columbian  Exposition  at 
Chicago,  and  in  the  interests  of  the  exposition  visited  Europe  in  1891  and 
enlisted  the  interest  and  co-operation  of  many  leading  women  of  Europe. 

Mrs.  Palmer  is  noted  not  only  as  a  social  leader  but  her  gifts  for  state 
and  local  charities  as  well  as  private  gifts  are  in  generous  proportion  to  her 

The  Board  of  Lady  Managers  of  the  Columbian  Exposition  ordered  a 
portrait  of  Mrs.  Palmer  to  have  a  place  in  the  Assembly  Hall  of  the  Wo- 
man's Building.      Mr.  Anders  L.  Zorn  was  chosen  as  the  artist. 

At  the  unveiling  of  the  portrait  addresses  were  made  by  several  of  the 
prominent  women.  Among  other  things  this  was  said  :  '*  In  after  times, 
when  our  names  have  been  forgotten,  those  who  come  after  us  will  look  upon 
this  j)ortrait  and  see  not  only  the  likeness  of  our  president  but  the  attributes 
which  surrounded  her,  that  helped  us  to  help  the  women  of  this  centur)'. 
Her  genius  has  for  three  years  led  us  over  mountains  of  difficulty,  through 
valleys  of  humiliation,  to  the  crowning  peaks  of  victory,  never  listening  to 
such  word  as  '  fail.' 

"  We  court  not  the  titles  of  rank  in  this  land  of  ours,  where  every  wo- 
man may  he  a  (jueen,  and  when  the  women  of  America  choose  a  leader  and 
representative  she  is  not  only  a  queen  but  queenly.  If  we  cannot  crown 
our  Queen  we  will  present  you  our  Queen  already  crowned." 




R  AM  ABA  I  was  fortunate  in  having  a  father  who,  contrary  to  all  Hindu 
customs,  believed  in  the  education  of  woman.  Ramabai's  mother 
was  educated  by  her  father  and  so  she  inherited  from  both  parents 
a  love  for  learning.  But  so  unpopular  were  the  views  of  Ramabai's  father 
that,  though  himself  a  pundit,  he  was  obliged  to.  withdraw  to  the  jungles 
and  take  up  his  abode  there.  Here  Ramabai  was  instructed  by  her  father. 
She  showed  great  aptitude  and  could  repeat  from  memory  23,000  verses  of 
the  Hindu  Shastras. 

When  she  was  sixteen  years  old  famine  came  and  for  eleven  days  they 
lived  on  water  and  leaves.  They  left  their  jungle  home  and  for  some  years 
the  father  was  a  wandering  teacher.  Father  and  mother  died  and  she  had 
only  a  brother  to  care  for  her.  Ramabai  became  herself  a  lecturer,  advo- 
cating the  education  of  women  and  the  abandonment  of  the  custom  of  child 
marriages.  Her  learning  attracted  great  attention.  At  Calcutta  the  pun- 
diti,  or  learned  men,  summoned  her  to  appear  before  them.  A  long  and 
searching  examination  followed.  She  passed  with  high  honors  and  received 
the  title  of  Sarasvati. 

When  she  seemed  to  have  attained  great  success  her  brother  died.  To 
be  left  without  a  male  relative  in  India  is  more  than  a  personal  bereavement. 
Some  six  months  after  this,  however,  she  was  happily  married  to  an  edu- 
cated Bengali  gentleman,  though  ef  lower  caste  than  herself.  But  they  had 
both  thrown  off  the  old  Hindu  beliefs. 

After  nineteen  months  of  married  life  the  husband  died,  and  Ramabai 
was  again  alone  with  her  little  baby  girl.  She  was  now  a  widow,  and 
worst  of  all  in  India,  a  sonless  widow,  and  despised  and  shunned  by  all 
relatives  because  she  had  broken  caste  by  her  marriage.  She  faced  the 
world  and  again  began  lecturing. 

After  a  time  she  turned  her  eyes  toward  England,  and  embarked  for 
that  far-off  land.  She  had  for  some  time  contemplated  accepting  Chris- 
tianity. While  living  in  Calcutta  she  received  from  the  leader  of  the  sect 
of  the  Brahmo-somaj  a  copy  of  one  of  his  books,  which  consisted  of  moral 



precepts  drawn  from  the  sacred  books  of  many  religions.  The  larger  num- 
ber of  these  extracts  were  from  the  New  Testament,  and  their  lofty  moral 
tone  attracted  Ramabai's  attention.  She  studied  the  Bible  for  herself,  first 
in  Sanskrit  and  then  in  English,  and  by  degrees  became  convinced  of  the 
truth  of  the  Gospel,  and  after  four  years  of  anxious  thought  was  baptized. 

In  England  she  worked  diligently  to  perfect  herself  in  English,  and  after 
a  time  became  professor  of  Sanskrit  in  the  Ladies'  College  at  Cheltenham. 
But  all  this  time  her  heart  was  with  the  poor  little  child-widows  of  India. 
She  was  invited  to  come  to  America  to  attend  the  graduation  of  her  cousin 
Joshee  from  a  medical  college  in  Philadelphia.  Here  Ramabai  began  a 
careful  study  of  our  public  school  system  and  especially  of  the  kindergar- 
tens. She  was  a  most  devoted  admirer  of  Froebel  and  his  child  studies, 
believing  that  the  principles  could  be  applied  in  India. 

Her  training  and  plans  were  at  last  completed.  She  determined  to  de- 
vote herself  to  the  task  of  educating  and  enlightening  the  high-caste  Hindu 
widows.  She  traveled  westward  to  the  Pacific  coast,  arousing  public  inter- 
est in  her  beloved  cause.  A  society  with  Edward  E.  Hale  and  Phillips 
Brooks  at  its  head  was  formed.  Christians  of  all  names,  and  even  Jeu^s, 
responded  to  the  appeals.  Six  years  after  leaving  home  Ramabai  was 
again  in  I^ombay,  and  within  six  weeks  had  opened  her  school.  In  1898 
350  child-widows  had  passed  through  the  school.  Fourteen  had  been 
trained  as  teachers,  eight  as  nurses,  seven  as  missionary  assistants  ;  ten  had 
homes  c)f  their  own. 

In  times  of  famine,  when  these  child-widows  are  turned  out  to  die  or  be 
picked  lip  l)y  iuiiiian  (1<  vils  that  they  may  rear  them  for  lives  of  shame, 
Ramabai  has  gone  far  inland  and  rescued  great  numbers  of  these  poor  little 
creatures  from  dtiUh  or  a  worse  fate.  In  her  school-home  they  have 
hccomt'  healthy,  happy  children  living  in  a  new  world  of  Christian  sym- 
pathy, and  have  grown  into  noble  womanhood. 




SER  full  name  is  Tszehi  Toanyu  Kangi  Chaoyu  Chuangcheng  Shokung 
Chinhein  Chungsih.  She  is  the  shrewdest  woman  in  Asia,  **The 
only  man  in  China,*'  and  probably  exercises  the  most  power  of  any 
woman  in  the  world,  to-day.  Victoria  has  influence  ;  Tsze  Hsi  An  has 
power  and  it  is  of  her  own  getting. 

To  begin  with  she  is  not  a  Chinese,  but  a  Manchu,  though  born  in 

It  may  be  noted  in  passing  that  the  Manchu  Tartars  seized  the  throne 
of  the  Chinese  Empire  in  1644  ^^^  have  kept  it  to  the  present  time. 

We  must  not  overlook  another  woman,  Tsze  Hi,  who  became  the  princi- 
pal wife  of  Prince  Chun,  the  emperor's  brother,  and  Tsze  An  became  the 
secondary  wife  of  Emperor  Hienfung.  The  emperor  had  no  child  but  his 
brother's  wife  gave  birth  to  a  son  and  she  was  raised  to  the  rank  of  empress 
though  still  obliged  to  yield  precedence  to  Tsze  An. 

Troublous  times  came  and  the  royal  family  was  obliged  to  flee  into  Tar- 
tary.  Here  in  exile  the  emperor  died  leaving  his  tottering  throne  to  the 
son  of  Tsze  Hi. 

Tsze  An,  the  liubject  of  our  sketch,  now  made  herself  felt  in  the  game 
of  royalty.  By  an  unwritten  law  of  China  she  should  have  terminated  her 
life  as  a  mark  of  respect,  being  childless.  But  she  conveniently  followed 
another  law  which  requires  the  children  of  inferior  wives  to  regard  the  chief 
wife  as  their  mother.  Tsze  An  thus  concluded  not  to  die  and  the  young 
prince  came  under  the  joint  control  of  the  two  dowagers. 

In  due  time  he  was  proclaimed  emperor  and  the  two  mothers  as  regents. 
When  he  arrived  at  the  proper  age  he  assumed  the  reins  of  government  and 
the  ladies  retired  to  the  background.  Soon  after  he  died  of  smallpox, 
1874,  and  the  two  dowagers  again  came  forward. 

Being  women  they  could  not  reign  in  their  own  right,  but  reign  they 
would  somehow,  so  they  looked  about  for  a  child  to  adopt. 

They  found  a  nephew  of  Tsze  Hi,  three  years  of  age.  That  child  is 
now  Emperor  Kuangsii,  about  thirty  years  of  age,  and  childless.      When 



Kuangsii  was  about  eight  years  of  age  his  aunt  died  and  Tsze  An  was  left  ■ 
sole  dowager,  master  of  the  child  and  of  the  empire. 

The  young  prince  became  of  age  in  1889  and  was  crowned  emperor, 
but  he  was  little  more  than  a  puppet  in  the  hands  of  the  dowager. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  war  with  Japan  the  dowager  stepped  in  and  sent 
her  old  favorite  Li  Hung  Chang  to  Japan  to  make  peace. 

More  recently  again,  when  the  emperor  was  starting  out  on  a  series  of 
reforms  by  the  adoption  of  Western  ideas,  she  assumed  control  of  afifairs. 
All  the  sweeping  decrees  of  the  emperor  were  annulled,  six  of  the  leaders 
of  the  reform  party  were  executed.  Among  them  was  Chang  Yin  Yuan, 
president  of  the  Board  of  Revenue  and  former  minister  to  the  United 

It  was  announced  that  the  young  emperor  had  committed  suicide  — 
which  is  a  Chinese  form  of  execution.  This  proved  to  be  untrue.  For 
some  reason  best  known  to  herself  the  despotic  dowager  proposed  to  keep 
the  puppet  alive. 

The  true  inwardness  of  the  recent  war  with  China  cannot  yet  be  written. 
The  astute  and  masterful  dowager  has  been-  put  to  a  severe  test,  but  her 
iron  hand  does  not  seem  to  have  lost  its  hold  on  the  scepter. 



A.D.  1868- 



HE  gives  not  only  her  money  but  herself  to  the  work  of  relieving  dis- 
tress and  making  the  world  better. 
Helen  Gould  earns  the  friendship  of  those  she  helps  by  giving  her 
personal  sympathy  and  intelligent  interest  with  her  benefactions. 

She  is  the  daughter  of  Jay  Gould,  the  famous  financier.  Her  education 
was  obtained  under  carefully  chosen  private  instructors.  This  was  supple- 
mented by  a  course  in  the  New  York  Law  University,  that  she  might  have 
a  knowledge  of  business  for  the  management  of  her  own  affairs. 

We  mention  some  of  her  noble  gifts  :  For  the  Library  of  the  University 
of  the  City  of  New  York,  $250,000,  with  $60,000  added  later  ;  for  the  St. 
Louis  cyclone  sufferers  in  1896,  $100,000  ;  to  the  United  States  Govern- 
ment at  the  outbreak  of  the  war  with  Spain,  $100,000,  for  relief  of  the 
soldiers  at  Camp  Wycoff,  Long  Island.  Rutgers,  Vassar,  and  Mount  Hol- 
yoke  Colleges  have  received  generous  gifts  ;  also  the  Engineering  School  of 
the  University  of  the  City  of  New  York  ;  the  Naval  Branch  of  the  Young 
Men's  Christian  Associatio